Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science, applied mathematics, and statistics to address problems inspired by biology. Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the Science of the theoretical foundations of Information and Computation and their Applied mathematics is a branch of Mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Major fields in biology that use computational techniques include:

• Bioinformatics, which applies algorithms and statistical techniques to biological datasets that typically consist of large numbers of DNA, RNA, or protein sequences. Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the field of molecular biology In Mathematics, Computing, Linguistics and related subjects an algorithm is a sequence of finite instructions often used for Calculation Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) is a Nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of Nucleotide units Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Examples of specific techniques include sequence alignment, which is used for both sequence database searching and for comparison of homologous sequences; gene finding; and prediction of gene expression. In Bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the Primary sequences of DNA, RNA, or Protein to identify regions of In Evolutionary biology, homology has come to mean any similarity between characters that is due to their shared ancestry. Gene finding typically refers to the area of Computational biology that is concerned with algorithmically identifying stretches of sequence usually genomic DNA Gene expression is the process by which inheritable information from a Gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made into a functional Gene product, such (The term computational biology is sometimes used as a synonym for bioinformatics. )
• Computational biomodeling, a field within biocybernetics concerned with building computational models of biological systems. For use of basic artimethics in Biology see relevant topic such as Serial dilution. Biocybernetics is the application of Cybernetics to the Biological science, comprised of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics
• Computational genomics, a field within genomics which studies the genomes of cells and organisms by high-throughput genome sequencing that requires extensive post-processing known as genome assembly, and which uses DNA microarray technologies to perform statistical analyses on the genes expressed in individual cell types. Computational genomics is the study of deciphering biology from Genome sequences using computational analysis Genomics is the study of an organism's entire Genome. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale Genetic In classical genetics the genome of a Diploid Organism including Eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a Gamete, thereby The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the Nucleotide bases Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine Genome projects are Scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete Genome sequence of an Organism (be it an Animal, a For terminology see glossary below A DNA microarray is a High-throughput technology used in Molecular biology and in
• Molecular modeling, a field dealing with theoretical methods and computational techniques to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules, ranging from descriptions of a molecule of few atoms, to small chemical systems, to large biological molecules and material assemblies. Molecular modelling is a collective term that refers to theoretical methods and computational techniques to model or mimic the behaviour of Molecules The techniques Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract, conceptual, Graphical and or mathematical models. In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by
• Systems biology, which aims to model large-scale biological interaction networks (also known as the interactome), often using differential equations. Systems biology is a biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective Interactome is defined as the whole set of molecular interactions in cells A differential equation is a mathematical Equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the
• Protein structure prediction and structural genomics, which attempt to systematically produce accurate structural models for three-dimensional protein structures that have not been solved experimentally. Protein structure prediction is one of the most important goals pursued by Bioinformatics and Theoretical chemistry. Structural genomics consists in the determination of the three dimensional structure of all Proteins of a given organism by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography Proteins are an important class of biological Macromolecules present in all biological organisms made up of such elements as Carbon, Hydrogen
• Computational biochemistry and biophysics, which make extensive use of structural modeling and simulation methods such as molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo method-inspired Boltzmann sampling methods in an attempt to elucidate the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein functions. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as Biophysics (also biological physics) is an Interdisciplinary Science that employs and develops theories and methods of the Physical sciences for Molecular dynamics ( MD) is a form of Computer simulation in which atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a period of time by approximations of Monte Carlo methods are a class of Computational Algorithms that rely on repeated Random sampling to compute their results WikipediaWikiProject Probability#Standards for a discussion of standards used for probability distribution articles such as this one In Physics, thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη therme meaning " Heat " and δυναμις dynamis meaning "