|Common wheat or bread wheat|
Ears of common wheat
Common wheat, Triticum aestivum, (also known as bread wheat) is a cultivated wheat species. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for
Bread wheat is an allohexaploid (an allopolyploid with six sets of chromosomes, two sets from each of three different species). Polyploidy occurs in cells and Organisms when there are more than two homologous sets of Chromosomes. Free-threshing wheat is closely related to spelt. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Spelt ( Triticum spelta) is a Hexaploid species of Wheat. Spelt was an important staple in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times As with spelt, genes contributed from goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii) give bread wheat greater cold hardiness than most wheats, and it is cultivated throughout the world's temperate regions. Aegilops cylindrica is a species of grass known by the common name jointed goatgrass.
Wheat first reached North America with Spanish missions in the 16th century, but North America's role as a major exporter of grain dates from the colonization of the prairies in the 1870s. As grain exports from Russia ceased in the First World War, grain production in Kansas doubled. Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe.
Modern wheat varieties have short stems, the result of RHt dwarfing genes that reduce the plant's sensitivity to gibberellic acid, a plant hormone that lengthens cells. Gibberellic acid (also called Gibberellin A3, GA, and ( GA3) is a hormone found in plants RHt genes were introduced to modern wheat varieties in the 1960s by Norman Borlaug from Norin 10 cultivars of wheat grown in Japan. Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25 1914 is an American Agronomist, Humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the Wheat Norin 10 is a semi-dwarf cultivar of Wheat, with very large ears which was bred in the experimental station of Iwate Prefecture Short stems are important because the application of high levels of chemical fertilizers would otherwise cause the stems to grow too high, resulting in lodging (collapse of the stems). Stem heights are also even, which is important for modern harvesting techniques.
Compact wheats (e. g. club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear. Their shorter rachis segments lead to spikelets packed closer together. Compact wheats are often regarded as subspecies rather than species in their own right (thus T. aestivum subsp. compactum).