The common frog
The Common Frog, Rana temporaria also known as the European Common Frog or European Common Brown Frog is found throughout much of Europe as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The furthest west it can be found is Ireland, where it is an introduced species. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Adult Common Frogs have a body length of between six and nine centimetres and their backs and flanks vary in colour, with olive green grey-brown, brown, olive-brown, grey, yellowish or rufous possible.  However, Common Frogs are known to be able to lighten and darken their skin in order to match their surroundings.  It is also not unknown for more unusual colouration- both black and red individuals have been found in Scotland, and Common Frogs have been known to turn blue in the mating season. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  Additionally, albino Common Frogs have been found with yellow skin and red eyes. Albinism (from Latin albus, "white" see extended etymology) is a form of hypopigmentary Congenital disorder, 
Common Frogs' flanks, limbs and backs are covered with irregular dark blotches and they usually sport a chevron-shaped spot on the back of their neck.  Unlike other amphibians, Common Frogs generally lack a middorsal band, and when they have one, it is comparatively faint.  The frogs' underbellies are white or yellow (occasionally more orange in females) and can be speckled with brown or orange. 
Common Frogs have relatively short hind legs and possess webbed feet.  Their eyes are brown with transparent horizontal pupils, and they have transparent inner eyelids to protect their eyes while underwater, as well as a 'mask' which covers their eyes and eardrums. 
Males are distinguishable from females due to hard swellings (called nuptial pads) on their first finger. These are used for gripping females during mating.  Also, during the mating season, males' throats often turn bluish.  Males also possess paired vocal sacs, which the females lack.  A final differentiation can be the colour- during the mating season, males are generally light and greyish in colour, where as the female is browner, or even red. 
Although sometimes confused with the Common Toad, with which it often shares its habitat, the Common Frog is distinct in that it is larger, as well as hopping, as opposed to the toad's habit of walking. The Common Toad ( Bufo bufo) or European Toad is widespread throughout Europe, with the exception of Ireland and some Mediterranean  Additionally, Common Frogs have a sharper snout, and smooth skin, compared to the toad's more warty skin. Finally, toads lack dark patches behind the eye often seen on Common Frogs. 
The Common Frog is found throughout much of Europe as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A full list of the countries in which the Common Frog can be found is Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by The Republic of Macedonia (Република The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains. The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Државна заједница Србија и Црна Гора / Državna zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, abbreviated Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  The Common Frog can also be found in Ireland; and is the only frog found there. This article is about the block cipher algorithm For the ultrafast laser pulse measurement technique see Frequency-resolved optical gating.  However it is not a native species, and was introduced to the country, a date or reason for which is not known.  Other areas which the Common Frog has been introduced to include the Isle of Lewis, the Shetland Islands and the Orkney Islands. Lewis ( Leòdhas ʎɔːɣəs̪ ( Norse: Ljoðhús "home Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north 
Although not feeding throughout the breeding season, adult Common Frogs will feed on any invertebrate of a suitable size. An invertebrate is an Animal lacking a Vertebral column. The group includes 98% of all animal Species — all animals except those in the Chordate  Favourites include insects, (especially flies) snails, slugs and worms. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described True flies are Insects of the Order Diptera ( Greek: di = two and pteron = wing possessing a single pair of The word snail is a Common name that can be used for almost all members of the Molluscan class Gastropoda which have coiled shells in the Slug is a common non-scientific word which is often applied to any Gastropod mollusk whatsoever that has a very reduced shell a small internal shell Worms (voɐms is a City in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine River  The frogs hunt/catch these animals by catching them on their long, sticky tongues.  The diets of Common Frogs change significantly throughout their lives; whereas the oldest frogs will feed only on land, younger frogs will also feed in the water.  Tadpoles are mostly herbivores, feeding on algae, detritus and some plants, although will also eat other animals in small amounts. Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms In Biology, detritus is non-living particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material 
Common frogs are active almost all of the year, only hibernating when it gets very cold and the water and earth are consistently frozen. In the British Isles, common frogs typically hibernate from late October to January. They will re-emerge as early as February if conditions are favourable, and migrate to bodies of water such as garden ponds.  Where conditions are harsher, such as in the Alps, they emerge as late as early June. Common frogs hibernate in running waters, muddy burrows and can hibernate in layers of decaying leaves and mud at the bottom of ponds. The fact that they can breathe through their skins allows them to stay underwater for much longer periods of time when they are hibernating. 
Common frogs breed in shallow, still, fresh water such as ponds, with breeding commencing in March. The adults congregate in the ponds, where the males compete for females. The courtship ritual involves croaking, and a successful male grasps the female under the forelegs. During the mating season the males can be recognised by a darkened swelling, the nuptial pad on their 'thumbs'. The females, which are generally larger than the males, lay up to 4000 eggs which float in large clusters. In most Birds and Reptiles an egg ( Latin ovum) is the Zygote, resulting from Fertilization of the Ovum.
frogs are cool
Dorsal view. This article is about the block cipher algorithm For the ultrafast laser pulse measurement technique see Frequency-resolved optical gating. Hasma (or Harsmar is a Chinese Dessert ingredient made from the dried Fallopian tubes of the Asiatic Grass Frog ('Oviductus Ranae'