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Theory and practice
Colin Ward (born 14 August 1924 in Wanstead Essex) was an editor of the British anarchist newspaper Freedom from 1947 to 1960, and the founder and editor of the monthly libertarian journal Anarchy from 1961 to 1970. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Anarchism is a Political philosophy with many heterogeneous and diverse schools of thought, united by a common opposition to compulsory Some observers believe certain Buddhist teachings form a philosophical ground for Anarchism. Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine Anarchism with Christianity. Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is an umbrella term embracing two Anarchist schools of thought the first school is Socialist Crypto-anarchism is an Ideology that expounds the use of strong Public-key cryptography to enforce Privacy and individual freedom. Anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism) combines Anarchism with Feminism. Green anarchism is a school of thought within Anarchism which puts an emphasis on Environmental issues. Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective Infoanarchism is an Umbrella term for various groups of people who are opposed to forms of Intellectual property, such as Copyright and Patents Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory practice and tendency within the Anarchist movement which opposes formal anarchist organizations such as labor unions and Left anarchism or left-wing anarchism refers to forms of anarchism that are seen by some on the ' left of politics ' Anarcho-pacifism (also pacifist anarchism or anarchist pacifism) is a form of Anarchism which completely rejects the use of Violence in Philosophical anarchism is an Anarchist school of thought which contends that the State lacks moral legitimacy but does not advocate revolution to eliminate Platformism is a tendency within the wider Anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Dielo Truda's Organizational Platform Post-anarchism or postanarchism is the term used to represent anarchist philosophies developed since the 1980s using post-structuralist and Post-left anarchy is a recent current in Anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchism's relationship to traditional leftism. Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of Civilization. Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Anarchism without adjectives (from the Spanish " anarquismo sin adjetivos " in the words of historian George Richard Esenwein "referred to an An Anarch is a Conservative Revolutionary ideal of a sovereign individual, conceived by Ernst Jünger. Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness A black bloc is made up largely of anarchists or autonomists, anti-capitalist individuals or groups that gather for protests demonstrations or other event Traditionally the revolutionary left sees the commune as a populist replacement for the elitist parliament Consensus democracy is the application of Consensus decision making to the process of legislation in a Democracy. __FORCETOC__ Decentralization or Decentralisation (see Spelling differences) is the process of dispersing Decision-making governance closer to the people Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological Philosophy ( Ecosophy) that considers Humankind an integral part of its environment. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public Dual power is a concept first articulated in an article by Lenin, "The Dual Power" ( dvoevlastie) which described a situation in the wake of the February Especifismo (English specifism is one of the two main forms of anarchist activism championed by FARJ (Federação Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro and other South American anarchist organizations Horizontalidad ( Eng: horizontality or horizontalism) is a theory or system that advocates the creation development and maintenance of social structures Not to be confused with the concept of "popular illegalisms" created by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish. Individual reclamation ( Fr: reprise individuelle) is a form of the Direct action, characterized by the individual theft of resources from the rich by the Anarchist law refers to a series of ongoing debates within the various branches of Anarchist theory regarding if and how norms of individual and/or collective behavior Participatory Politics or Parpolity is a theoretical political system proposed by Stephen R A Permanent autonomous zone (or a PAZ) is a Community that is autonomous from the generally recognized Government or authority structure in which The term prefigurative politics is widespread within various activist movements and in short it describes modes of organization and tactics undertaken that accurately reflect the future Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a Concept that promotes physical violence against Refusal of work is a concept that has been advocated at various times by many social activist groups mostly located on the Libertarian left. Pleistocene Rewilding Rewilding is the process of creating a lifestyle that is beyond Domestication. Social Ecology is a philosophy developed by French geographer and anarchist Élisée Reclus and revived by Murray Bookchin in the 1960s See also the closely related articles Emergence and Self-organization. Anarchism is a heterogeneous philosophy with many different tendencies and schools of thought; differences on questions of ideology values and tactics are common This article discusses similarities and differences between Anarcho-capitalism and other types of Anarchism. The anarchist philosophical and political movement has some connections to elements of the Animal liberation movement. Though some Anarchists advocate free-market, Laissez-faire Capitalism, other anarchists oppose capitalism to varying degrees Criticisms of anarchism originate from the interest groups it opposes as well as related theories such as Marxism. Although anarchists commonly reject Organized religion (see Anarchism and religion) there have been numerous traditions within Islam (often associated with Sufism Anarchism and Marxism are related political philosophies which emerged in the nineteenth century Anarchism and nationalism both emerged in Europe following the French Revolution and have a long and complicated While there is no organized Orthodox Jewish anarchist movement, various anarchistic ideas are common in the works of many Kabbalists and Hasidic teachers Anarchists have traditionally been skeptical of and opposed to Organized religion. Anarchism and violence have become closely connected in popular thought in part because of a concept of " Propaganda of the deed " Originating in the Greek language ( αρχή "arche" means "beginning origin outset prime principle start threshold" the term "anarchy" The Amakasu Incident occurred on September 16, 1923, in the chaos immediately following the Great Kantō earthquake. Anarchist Catalonia ( July 21, 1936 – February 10, 1939) was the self-proclaimed Stateless territory and Anarchist The Anarchist Exclusion Act refers to two different acts passed by the United States Congress intended to keep immigrants that subscribed to anarchist ideas Somalia, from 1991 to present is cited as a real-world example of a Stateless society and legal system The Australian Anarchist Centenary Celebrations occurred on the 1st to the 4th of May 1986 in Melbourne, Australia. Barcelona May Days is a term covering the events between May 3 and May 8 1937, when factions on the Republican side of the Spanish Civil The Global Carnival Against Capital took place on Friday June 18, 1999. La Escuela Moderna ( Spanish for "The Modern School" was a progressive school that existed briefly at the start of the 20th century in Catalonia ( The Hague Congress was the Fifth congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA held in (September 1872) in The Hague Holland which anarchists consider The, also known as the, was a Socialist - Anarchist plot to assassinate the Japanese Emperor Meiji in 1910 leading to a mass arrest of leftists and the execution The International Anarchist Congress of Amsterdam took place from 24 August to 31 August, 1907. The Kate Sharpley Library (or KSL) is a Library dedicated to anarchist texts and History. This article is about the historical event known as the Kronstadt rebellion The Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan is recognized as one of the world’s most complete collections of materials documenting the history of Anarchism LIP is a French clock company whose turmoil became emblematic of the conflicts between workers and management in France For other events in May 1968 see 1968. May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several Public holidays In many countries May Day is synonymous with International Workers' Day, or Labour The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris was a Government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May Provo was a Dutch Counterculture movement in the mid-1960s that focused on provoking violent responses from authorities using non-violent bait The Red inverted triangle was the badge that political prisoners in Nazi Concentration camps had to wear The Spanish Revolution of 1936 began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Third Russian Revolution (also know as the Left Wing Rebellions Against the Bolsheviks) was a series of Rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks Tragic Week (in Catalan la Setmana Tràgica, in Spanish la Semana Trágica) ( July 25 - August 2, 1909) is the Protest activity surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of Trade negotiations occurred Anarcho-punk is a faction of the Punk subculture that consists of bands groups and individuals promoting anarchist politics Anarchism has long had an association with the Arts, particularly in music and literature Black anarchism opposes the existence of the State and the subjugation and domination of people of color and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society Celtic anarchism is a new tendency within the larger Anarchist movement A precise definition of culture jamming is elusive It has been called a Resistance movement to Cultural hegemony, whereas some say the defining theme of culture jamming DIY (or Do It Yourself culture is a broad term that refers to a wide range of Grassroots political activism Freeganism is an anti-consumerist lifestyle whereby people employ alternative living strategies based on "limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption The Independent Media Center (aka Indymedia or IMC) is a global participatory network of journalists that reports on political and social issues An infoshop is a storefront or Social center that serves as a node for the distribution of Anarchist information typically in the form of books Zines, The Internationale ( L'Internationale in French) is a famous socialist, communist, and Social-democratic Jewish anarchism is a general term encompassing various expressions of Anarchism within the Jewish community Lifestyle anarchism is a term derived from Murray Bookchin 's polemical essay " Social Anarchism Or Lifestyle Anarchism An Unbridgeable Chasm. Popular education is at the crossroads between Politics and Pedagogy, and strongly relies on the democratic ideal of the Enlightenment, which considered Radical cheerleading is a form of Cheerleading that originated in Florida, but has now spread across the United States as well as Canada Radical environmentalism, is a grassroots branch of the larger Environmental movement that emerged out of an Ecocentrism -based frustration with the co-option of mainstream Squatting is the act of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or Building that the squatter does not own rent or otherwise have permission to use While anarchists have historically largely denied the importance of Symbols to political movement anarchists have embraced certain symbols for their cause " To The Barricades " ( A Las Barricadas) was one of the most popular songs of the Spanish anarchists during the Spanish Civil War. Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economic activity within the political philosophy of Anarchism. Agorism is an anarchist Political philosophy founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III that holds the ultimate goal as bringing about a society in which Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is an umbrella term embracing two Anarchist schools of thought the first school is Socialist Counter-economics is a term originally coined by Samuel Edward Konkin III, a radical Libertarian activist and theorist who defined it as " the study and/or Free-market anarchism (sometimes called market anarchism) refers to an Individualist anarchist Philosophy that harmonizes the abolition of the state with A free school, sometimes intentionally spelled free skool, is a decentralized network in which skills information and knowledge are shared without Hierarchy or the Give-away shops, freeshops, or free stores are second-hand stores where all goods are free "Georgist" redirects here For the Romanian political group see National Liberal Party-Brătianu. A gift economy is a Social theory in which goods and services are given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future Quid pro quo. Market abolitionism is a belief that the market, in the economic sense should be completely eliminated from society Mutual aid is a term in Political economy used to signify the economic concept of voluntary reciprocal exchange of resources and services for mutual benefit Mutualism, is an Anarchist school of thought, can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon that envisioned a society where each person might possess a Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed Economic system that uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism The Really Really Free Market ( RRFM) movement is a non- hierarchical collective of individuals who form a temporary Market based on an alternative Self-ownership (or sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the moral or natural right (aka Freedom of a person Social anarchism, socialist anarchism, anarcho-socialism, anarchist socialism or Communitarian anarchism,(sometimes used interchangeably with Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Wage slavery is a term first coined by the Lowell Mill Girls in 1836 though articulated as a concept at least as early as Cicero and elaborated by subsequent thinkers Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the workers themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care general production This is a list of anarchist movements by region, both geographical and/or political Anarchism in Africa refers both to purported anarchic political organization of some traditional African societies and to modern Anarchist movements in Africa The powerful Radical faction of Austria-Hungary 's Social Democratic Party was anarchist in all but name until 1884 and anarchist ideas penetrated deeply Anarchism was an influential contributor to the social politics of '''Brazil''''s Old Republic. Anarchism in Canada spans a range of anarchist philosophy including Anarcho-syndicalism, Individualist anarchism, green anarchy and Anarchist The origins of Chinese Anarchism are traceable to the early Chinese Nationalist movement Anarchism as a social movement in Cuba held great influence with the Working classes during the 19th and early 20th century Anarchism in France dates from the 18th century Many Anarchists such as the Egalitarians took part in the French Revolution. evolution of Anarchism in Greece has shown a series of historical paradoxes which have to do with both the insufficient historical coverage of such events as well as the distortion In India, Anarchism never took the form of formally named "anarchism" Irish Anarchism has little historical tradition before the 1970s and as a movement it only really developed from the late 1990s - although one organisation the Workers Anarchism has been an undercurrent in the politics of Palestine and Israel for over a century Italy, in particular at the turn of the 20th century had a strong Anarcho-syndicalist movement Anarchism was an influential movement in Japan in the 19th and 20th centuries Anarchism in Korea began in 1894 when Japan invaded Korea with the stated intention of protecting it from China. Pre-conquest some of the indigenous peoples of what is today Mexico had decisionmaking structures based on participation discussion and consensus hallmarks of modern anarchism The Anarchist movement in Poland developed at the end of the 19th century under the influence of anarchist ideas from Western Europe and Russia Russian anarchism is Anarchism in Russia or among Russians. Bakunin and the anarchists' exile See also Exile In 1848 Anarchism has historically gained more support and influence in Spain than anywhere else especially before Francisco Franco 's victory in the Spanish Civil War One of the first Swedish anarchists was the Swedish artist Ivan Aguéli who in 1884 was arrested and sentenced in the " Trial of the thirty " in Paris Anarchism came to the political scene in Turkey only after the publication of Kara, a monthly magazine Anarchism in Ukraine dates to the 20th century though it has roots in the peasant uprisings of Stenka Razin and Yemelyan Pugachev as well as the Zaporozhian Anarchism in the United States spans a wide range of Anarchist Philosophy, from Individualist anarchism to Anarchist communism and other less Anarchism as a Political movement in Vietnam started in the early twentieth century This is a list of Anarcho-punk bands The following is a list of notable or influential books on or relating to Anarchism, in alphabetical order by author This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present Throughout history anarchists have been involved in a wide variety of communities This is a list of Fictional anarchists; the source material in which they are found their creator(s the individual(s who interpreted them as anarchists during This is a list of Jewish Anarchists. A Yehuda Ashlag Paul Avrich B The following is a list of anarchist musicians, which details instruments such musicians utilize musical genres they perform and if applicable bands which they are members of This list uses the word Organization in its loosest sense Some of the following groups would be better categorized as networks. The following is a chronological list of noteworthy anarchist periodicals This is a list of anarchists poets, examples of their published work and the source material in which their poetry is found Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and Anti-consumerism refers to the socio-political movement against Consumerism. Anti-corporate activists (see Activism) believe that the rise of large business Corporations is posing a threat to the legitimate authority of the public good " Anti-globalization " is a term that encompasses a number of related ideas Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the Anarchist and more globally in the Socialist movement which may be both characterized as Internationalist Anti- Statism refers to opposition to state intervention into personal social or economic affairs The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. Autarchism (from Greek, "belief in self rule" is a Political philosophy that upholds the principle of Individual liberty, rejects compulsory Autonomism refers to a set of Left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the Communist Left, which opposes the political ideas of the Bolsheviks Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that describes itself as taking a less Authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent The Situationist International ( SI) was a small group of international political and artistic Agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Wanstead is a suburban area in the London Borough of Redbridge, East London. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Freedom (ISSN 0016-0504) is a London -based anarchist Newspaper published every two weeks by Freedom Press. Anarchy Magazine was an Anarchist magazine published in London from the 1960s
Ward became an anarchist while in the British army during World War II. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including As a subscriber to War Commentary, the war-time equivalent of Freedom, he was called in 1945 from Orkney, where he was serving, to give evidence at the London trial of the editors for publishing an article allegedly intended to seduce soldiers from their duty or allegiance. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands or incorrectly the Orkneys) is an Archipelago in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles (16 km north London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Ward robustly repudiated any seduction, but the three editors (Philip Sansom, Vernon Richards and John Hewetson) were convicted, and sentenced to nine months imprisonment. Vernon Richards ( 19 July 1915 - 10 December 2001) was an Anglo - Italian anarchist, editor, Author
From 1952 to 1961 Ward worked as an architect, and from 1971 as the Education Officer for the Town and Country Planning Association. The Town and Country Planning Association is England's oldest environmental charity He published widely on education, architecture and town planning. His most influential book was The Child In The City (1978), about children's street culture. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Children's street culture refers to the cumulative Culture created by young Children.
Most of Ward's works deal with the issue of rural housing and the problems of overpopulation and planning regulations in Britain to which he proposes anarchistic solutions. He is a keen admirer of architect Walter Segal who set up a ‘build it yourself’ system in Lewisham meaning that land that was too small or difficult to build on conventionally was given to people who with Segal’s help would build their own homes. Walter Segal (1907 – 1985 was an Architect who developed a system of Self-build housing Ward is very keen on the idea of ‘build it yourself’ having said in response to the proposition of removing all planning laws, ‘I don't believe in just letting it rip, the rich get away with murder when that happens. But I do want the planning system to be flexible enough to give homeless people a chance’. In his book Cotters and Squatters he includes a passage from one of his anarchist forebears, Peter Kropotkin, who said of the empty and overgrown landscape of Surrey and Sussex at the end of the 19th century, ‘in every direction I see abandoned cottages and orchards going to ruin, a whole population has disappeared. ’
Ward himself goes on to observe: ‘Precisely a century after this account was written, the fields were empty again. Fifty years of subsidies had made the owners of arable land millionaires through mechanised cultivation and, with a crisis of over-production; the European Community was rewarding them for growing no crops on part of their land. However, opportunities for the homeless poor were fewer than ever in history. The grown-up children of local families can’t get on the housing ladder’. Wards solution is that ‘there should be some place in every parish where it's possible for people to build their own homes, and they should be allowed to do it a bit at a time, starting in a simple way and improving the structure as they go along. The idea that a house should be completed in one go before you can get planning permission and a mortgage is ridiculous. Look at the houses in this village. Many of them have developed their character over centuries - a bit of medieval at the back, with Tudor and Georgian add-ons. ’
Ward’s anarchist philosophy is the idea of removing authoritarian forms of social organisation and replacing them with self-managed, non-hierarchical forms of organisation. This form of federalism was put forward in part by Kropotkin and Proudhon and is based upon the principle that as Ward puts it- ‘in small face-to-face groups, the bureaucratising and hierarchical tendencies inherent in organisations have least opportunity to develop’. He particularly admires the Swiss system of direct democracy and Cantons whereby each canton is run by its members who have control on the laws placed upon them.
‘I believe that the social ideas of anarchism: autonomous groups, spontaneous order, workers’ control, the federative principle, add up to a coherent theory of social organisation which is a valid and realistic alternative to the authoritarian, hierarchical and institutional social philosophy which we see in application all around us. Man will be compelled, Kropotkin declared, ‘to find new forms of organisation for the social functions which the State fulfils through the bureaucracy’ and he insisted that ‘as long as this is not done nothing will be done. I think we have discovered what these new forms of organisation should be. We have now to make the opportunities for putting them into practice’.
‘You may think in describing anarchism as a theory of organisation I am propounding a deliberate paradox: ‘anarchy’ you may consider to be, by definition, the opposite of organisation. In fact, however, ‘anarchy’ means the absence of government, the absence of authority. Can there be social organisation without authority, without government? The anarchists claim that there can be, and they also claim that it is desirable that there should be. They claim that, at the basis of our social problems is the principle of government. It is, after all, governments which prepare for war and wage war, even though you are obliged to fight in them and pay for them; the bombs you are worried about are not the bombs which cartoonists attribute to the anarchists, but the bombs which governments have perfected, at your expense. It is, after all, governments which make and enforce the laws which enable the 'haves' to retain control over social assets rather than share them with the 'have-nots'. It is, after all, the principle of authority which ensures that people will work for someone else for the greater part of their lives, not because they enjoy it or have any control over their work, but because they see it as their only means of livelihood.
‘I said that it is governments which make wars and prepare for wars, but obviously it is not governments alone - the power of a government, even the most absolute dictatorship, depends on the tacit assent of the governed. Why do people consent to be governed? It isn't only fear: what have millions of people to fear from a small group of politicians? It is because they subscribe to the same values as their governors. Rulers and ruled alike believe in the principle of authority, of hierarchy, of power. These are the characteristics of the political principle. The anarchists, who have always distinguished between the state and society, adhere to the social principle, which can be seen where-ever men link themselves in an association based on a common need or a common interest. ‘The State’ said the German anarchist Gustav Landauer, ‘is not something which can be destroyed by a revolution, but is a condition, a certain relationship between human beings, a mode of human behaviour; we destroy it by contracting other relationships, by behaving differently. ’ ‘In my experience there are two kinds of Green people. There are philanthropists (lovers of humankind), who see the revolution in communications and the collapse of the city economy as the opportunity for the greening of the dense Victorian city. And there are the misanthropists (haters of humanity), who want to pull up the drawbridge to exclude those urban hordes from ‘rural’ England, which they quaintly equate with a ‘natural’ environment. They want to keep those beastly city-dwellers in the urban ghetto. The rich, of course, know the advantages of both environments and have a country seat and a pad in town. ’