|Text||Old and New Testament|
|Date||c. A Biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. A New Testament papyrus is a copy of a portion of the New Testament made on Papyrus. A New Testament uncial is a copy of a portion of the New Testament in Greek or Latin capital or Uncial letters written on Parchment or A New Testament minuscule is a copy a portion of the New Testament written in a small cursive Greek script (developed from Uncial) In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. 350|
|Now at||Vatican Library|
|Size||27 x 27 cm|
|Note||Page from Codex Vaticanus; ending of 2 Thes and beginning of Heb|
The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. The Alexandrian text-type (also called Neutral or Egyptian) is one of several text-types used in New Testament Textual criticism to describe New Testament manuscripts are categorized into five groups This categorization scheme was introduced in 1981 by Kurt and Barbara Aland in Der Text des Neuen Testaments The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. gr. 1209; Gregory-Aland no. B or 03) is one of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Bible. A Biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. Probably it is slightly older than Codex Sinaiticus, both of which were probably transcribed in the 4th century. Codex Sinaiticus (Shelfmarks and references London Brit Libr, Additional 43725 Gregory - Aland nº א (Aleph or 01, Soden As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century It is written in Greek, on vellum, with uncial letters. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Vellum (from the Old French Vélin for "calfskin" is mammal skin prepared for writing or printing on single pages scrolls codices or books Uncial is a Majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek Scribes From the 8th century to the
Vaticanus originally contained a complete copy of the Septuagint ("LXX") except for 1-4 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasseh. The Septuagint (ˈsɛptuədʒɪnt or simply " LXX " is the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, translated in stages between the The Maccabees ( Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim or Maqabim; Greek Μακκαβαῖοι, /makav'εï/ were The Prayer of Manasseh is a short work of 15 verses of the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh. Genesis 1:1 - 46:28a (31 leaves) and Psalm 105:27 — 137:6b (10 leaves) are lost and have been filled by a recent hand. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included 2 Kings 2:5-7, 10-13 are also lost due to a tear in one of the pages. The Books of Kings ( Sefer Melachim, ספר מלכים are a part of Judaism 's Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. The order of the Old Testament books is as follows: Genesis to 2 Chronicles as normal, 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras (which includes Nehemias), the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Esther, Judith, Tobit, the minor prophets from Hosea to Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, Lamentations and the Epistle of Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel. The Books of Chronicles ( Hebrew Divrei Hayyamim, דברי הימים Greek Paraleipomêna) are part of the Hebrew Bible (Jewish 1 Esdras (Εσδράς A′ is a book from the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament regarded as canonical in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, historically regarded as a continuation of the Book of Ezra, and is sometimes called the second book Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh, and thus also one of the books of the Old Testament. Ecclesiastes (often abbreviated Ecc) (קֹהֶלֶת Kohelet, variously transliterated as Qoheleth, Göhalath, Koheles, Koheleth The Book of Job ( איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. Book of Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon or simply Wisdom is one of the Deuterocanonical books of the Bible. Ben Sira was the author of the deuterocanonical book Sirach. His name The evidence seems to show that the author's name was Shimon (Simon son of Yeshua (Jesus/Joshua The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox Biblical canon Hosea ( Greek = Ōsēe) was the son of Beeri and a prophet in Israel in the 8th century BCE He is one of the Twelve Prophets Malachi or Mal'achi ( was a Prophet in the Bible, the Christian Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. Isaiah (; Greek:, Ēsaiās; Arabic: اشعیاء, Ash-ee-yaa; "Salvation of/is YHWH " is Jeremiah ( jirmɛ'jahu; Septuagint Greek: Ἰερεμίας was one of the 'greater prophets ' of the Hebrew Bible. The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremy is a Deuterocanonical (or apocryphal) book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have According to religious texts Ezekiel ((יְחֶזְקֵאל Yehezkel, jəx Daniel (; Persian: دانيال, Dâniyal or Danial, also Dani, داني; Arabic: دانيال
The extant New Testament of Vaticanus contains the Gospels, Acts, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles and the Epistle to the Hebrews (up to Heb 9:14, καθα[ριει); thus it lacks 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon and Revelation. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. General epistles (also called Catholic Epistles) are books in the New Testament in the form of letters The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος as the first The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr Heb for Citations is one of the books in the New Testament. The First Epistle to Timothy is one of three letters in New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles. The Second Epistle to Timothy is one of the three Pastoral Epistles, traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the canonical New Testament The Epistle to Titus is one of the Pastoral Epistles. The Epistle to Titus is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the The Epistle to Philemon is a prison letter from Paul of Tarsus to Philemon, a leader in the Colossian church. Revelation is the act of revealing or disclosing (see etymology or in the theological perception making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication These missing pages were replaced by a 15th century minuscule supplement (no. 1957).
The Greek is written continuously with small neat writing, later retraced by an 10th (or 11th) century scribe. Punctuation is rare (accents and breathings have been added by a later hand) except for some blank spaces, diaeresis on initial iotas and upsilons, abbreviations of the nomina sacra and markings of OT citations. In Linguistics, diaeresis, or dieresis, is the pronunciation of two adjacent Vowels in two separate Syllables rather than as a Diphthong Iota (uppercase &Iota, lowercase ι Ιώτα Yota is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. Upsilon (uppercase &Upsilon, lowercase υ Ύψιλον is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. Nomina sacra (singular nomen sacrum) means "sacred names" in Latin, and can be used to refer to traditions of abbreviated writing
The manuscript contains mysterious double dots (so called "umlauts") in the margin of the New Testament, which seem to mark places of textual uncertainty. Diaeresis or trema See also Diaeresis History Historically the diaeresis mark or trema is far older than the umlaut mark There are 795 of these in the text and around another 40 that are uncertain. The date of these markings are disputed among scholars and are discussed in a link below.
On page 1512, next to Hebrews 1:3, the text contains an interesting marginal note, "Fool and knave, can't you leave the old reading alone and not alter it!" which suggests that inaccurate copying, either intentional or unintentional, was a known problem in scriptoriums. 
Also note that the yellow page on this page is the exact same page where the textcritical remark is located! (In the middle of the page, between 1st and 2nd column)
Its place of origin and the history of the manuscript is uncertain, with Rome, southern Italy, Alexandria, and Caesarea (T. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 C. Skeat) all having been suggested. There has been speculation that it had previously been in the possession of Cardinal Bessarion because the minuscule supplement has a text similar to one of Bessarion's manuscripts. Basilios Bessarion or Basilius Bessarion (in Greek Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων ( January 2 1403 &ndash November 18 According to Paul Canart's introduction to the recent facsimile edition, p. 5, the decorative initials added to the manuscript in the middle ages are reminiscent of Constantinopolitan decoration of the 10th century, but poorly executed, giving the impression that they were added in the 11th or 12th century. T. C. Skeat, a paleographer at the British Museum, first argued that Codex Vaticanus was among the 50 Bibles that the Emperor Constantine I ordered Eusebius of Caesarea to produce. Palaeography, palæography ( British) or paleography ( American) (from the Greek grc παλαιός palaiós, The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The similarity of the text with the papyri and Coptic version (including some letter formation), parallels with Athanasius' canon of 367 suggest an Egyptian or Alexandrian origin. Events By Place Roman Empire Great Conspiracy: A general assault of Saxons, Irish, and Attacotti, combined The manuscript has been housed in the Vatican Library (founded by Pope Nicholas V in 1448) for as long as it has been known, appearing in its earliest catalog of 1475 and in the 1481 catalogue. The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March
Before the 19th century no scholar was allowed to study or edit it. In 1809 Napoleon brought it as a victory trophy to Paris, but in 1815 it was returned to the Vatican Library. Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Vatican Library ( Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the Library of the Holy See, currently located in Vatican City. In that time, in Paris, German scholar Johann Leonhard Hug (1765-1846) saw it. In 1843 Tischendorf was permitted to make a facsimile of a few verses, in 1844 — Edward de Muralt saw it, and in 1845 — S. Year 1843 ( MDCCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von Tischendorf ( January 18, 1815 &ndash December 7, 1874) was a noted German Biblical Year 1844 ( MDCCCXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Year 1845 ( MDCCCXLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common P. Tregelles was allowed to observe several points which Muralt had overlooked. In 1889 a complete photographic facsimile was published, and codex became commonly available. Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Codex Vaticanus is one of the most important manuscripts for Textual criticism and is a leading member of the Alexandrian text-type. Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of Literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of Transcription errors in The Alexandrian text-type (also called Neutral or Egyptian) is one of several text-types used in New Testament Textual criticism to describe It was heavily used by Westcott and Hort in their edition, The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Brooke Foss Westcott ( January 12, 1825 &ndash July 27, 1901) was an English Churchman and theologian Fenton John Anthony Hort ( April 23, 1828 &ndash November 30, 1892) was an Irish theologian and editor with Brooke The New Testament in the Original Greek is the name of a Greek language version of the New Testament published in 1881 In Gospels it is most important witness of the text, in Acts and Letters equal to Codex Sinaiticus. Unfortunatelly manuscript is not complete.