A cockatoo is any of the 20 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. The Umbrella Cockatoo, Cacatua alba (also known as the White Cockatoo) is a medium-sized up to 46 cm long Cockatoo endemic to the islands of Halmahera Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions The Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus, also known as the Goliath Cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the Cockatoo family and Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. In Biological classification, family ( Latin Along with the Psittacidae family (the true parrots), they make up the order Psittaciformes. The true parrots are about 330 species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae family, one of the two "traditional" families in the biological order The true parrots are about 330 species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae family, one of the two "traditional" families in the biological order This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions The name cockatoo originated from the Malay name for these birds, kaka(k)tua (either from kaka "parrot" + tuwah, or "older sister" from kakak "sister" + tua, "old"). The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a Parrot endemic to the forests of New Zealand.
Cockatoos share many features with other parrots including the characteristic curved beak shape and a zygodactyl foot, with two forward toes and two backwards toes. In Biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits ( Fingers and Toes on the Hands feet, or sometimes Wings of a They differ, however in a number of characteristics, including the often spectacular movable headcrest, the presence of a gall bladder and some other anatomical details, and their lack of the Dyck texture feather composition which causes the bright blues and greens seen in true parrots. The crest is a prominent feature exhibited by several Bird and Dinosaur species on their heads The gallbladder (or cholecyst sometimes gall bladder is a small organ whose function in the body is to store Bile and aid in the digestive process Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering or Plumage, on Birds They are considered the most complex integumentary structures Also Cockatoo species are, on average, larger than the average size of true parrots; however, the cockatiel, the smallest Cockatoo, is a small bird, and some of the largest parrots including the Hyacinth Macaw (the longest parrot) and the flightless Kakapo (the heaviest parrot), are true parrots. The Cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus) also known as the Quarrion and the Weiro, is the smallest and genuinely miniature Cockatoo endemic Native to central and eastern South America, the Hyacinth Macaw ( Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) or Hyacinthine Macaw, is the largest Macaw The Kakapo ( Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot) Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive Placement of the cockatoos as a separate family is fairly undisputed, but it is not resolved whether or not other living lineages of parrots (such as the lories and lorikeets) are as distinct as they are.
Cockatoos have a much more restricted range than the true parrots, occurring naturally only in Australia and nearby islands. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Eleven of the 21 species exist in the wild only in Australia, while seven species occur in Indonesia, New Guinea, and other south Pacific islands. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. Three species occur in both New Guinea and Australia.
All species of cockatoo are protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (also known as CITES), which makes the import, export and trade in all wild-caught parrots and cockatoos illegal. The Almond ( Prunus dulcis, syn Prunus amygdalus Batsch Amygdalus communis L CITES (the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments drafted
The following cockatoo species are protected on the CITES appendix 1 list of endangered species.
All of the other cockatoo species are protected on the CITES appendix 2 list of vulnerable species. The Goffin's Cockatoo, Cacatua goffiniana, also known as Tanimbar Cockatoo, is a species of Cockatoo endemic to forests of the Banda The Red-vented Cockatoo, Cacatua haematuropygia, sometimes called the Philippine Cockatoo, is a Cockatoo roughly the size and shape of the Goffin's The Moluccan Cockatoo, Cacatua moluccensis also known as Salmon-crested Cockatoo is a Cockatoo endemic to south Moluccas in eastern The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea, aka Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, is a medium-sized (up to 35cm long Cockatoo with all-white Feathers The Citron-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata is a medium-sized Cockatoo with an orange crest, dark grey Beak, pale orange The Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus, also known as the Goliath Cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the Cockatoo family and However, some species of Australian cockatoos including corellas and galahs, have large populations and are sometimes killed as crop pests.
Brown & Toft (1999) reviewed the existing evidence and additional mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence data to arrive at a well-supported phylogeny of the cockatoos. Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria. Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. A DNA sequence or genetic sequence is a succession of letters representing the Primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA Molecule They could distinguish 3 subfamilies:
The genera Calyptorhynchus and Cacatua can be further resolved into two subgenera each, and in the latter case as a distinct third lineage the white-and-pink Major Mitchell's Cockatoo, which is intermediate in coloration between the grey-and-pink Galah and the white Cacatua. The Major Mitchell's Cockatoo, Lophocroa leadbeateri also known as Leadbeater's Cockatoo or Pink Cockatoo is a medium-sized Cockatoo restricted The Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla, (gəˈlaː is also known as the Rose-breasted Cockatoo or Galah Cockatoo. It is best recognized as a monotypic genus Lophocroa. Monotypic is an adjective that refers to a taxonomic group with only one type: In Botany, "monotypic" means that a Taxon has only Indeed, pending further research, all subgenera could conceivably be raised to genus rank.
Intron 7 of nuclear β-fibrinogen sequence data suggests that the Microglossinae may have diverged later, and that the cockatiel might be distinct enough to warrant recognition of the Nymphicinae (Astuti, 2004?), but in other aspects agrees with the rRNA and newly-interpreted morphological data. Introns, derived from the term "intragenic regions" and also called intervening sequence (IVS are DNA regions in a Gene that are not translated into Nuclear DNA, nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA is DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a Protein involved in the clotting of blood
The fossil record of cockatoos is even more limited than that of parrots in general, with only one truly ancient cockatoo fossil known: A species of Cacatua, most probably subgenus Licmetis, was found in Early Miocene (16-23 mya) deposits of Riversleigh, Australia (Boles, 1993). FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene period and extends from about 23 In Astronomy, Geology, and Paleontology, mya or " mya " is an abbreviation for "million years ago". Riversleigh, in North West Queensland, is one of Australia 's most renowned Fossil sites In Melanesia, subfossil bones of Cacatua species which apparently did not survive early human settlement were found on New Caledonia and New Ireland. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" Subfossil refers to remains whose Fossilization process is not complete either for lack of time or because the condition in which they were buried were not optimal for fossilization For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. New Ireland ( Tok Pisin: Niu Ailan) is a large Island in Papua New Guinea, approximately 8650 km² in area The bearing of these fossils on cockatoo evolution and phylogeny is fairly limited, except that the Riversleigh fossil allows some tentative dating of the divergence of subfamilies.
Cockatoos are very popular as pets in part to their striking beauty but also for their intelligence and usually affectionate, outgoing, cuddly, and gentle personalities. The Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus, also known as the Goliath Cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the Cockatoo family and The Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus, also known as the Goliath Cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the Cockatoo family and The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine Bushland The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine Bushland The Cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus) also known as the Quarrion and the Weiro, is the smallest and genuinely miniature Cockatoo endemic The Cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus) also known as the Quarrion and the Weiro, is the smallest and genuinely miniature Cockatoo endemic Described by French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1826 the genus Calyptorhynchus has five species and is the largest genus of the "dark cockatoo" The Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii, also known as Banksian- or Bank's Black Cockatoo, is a large Cockatoo native to The Glossy Black Cockatoo ( Calyptorhynchus lathami) also known as the Casuarina Black Cockatoo after one of their preferred food items is the smallest member Described by French naturalist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1826 the genus Calyptorhynchus has five species and is the largest genus of the "dark cockatoo" The Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo, Calyptorhynchus funereus, is native to the south-east of Australia and is the largest of the cockatoos and of Australian parrots The Short-billed or Carnaby's Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris is a cockatoo endemic to south-western Australia. The Long-billed, White-tailed or Baudin's Black Cockatoo ( Calyptorhynchus baudinii) is a cockatoo endemic to south-western Australia. The Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla, (gəˈlaː is also known as the Rose-breasted Cockatoo or Galah Cockatoo. The Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla, (gəˈlaː is also known as the Rose-breasted Cockatoo or Galah Cockatoo. A cockatoo is any of the 20 Bird Species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. The Major Mitchell's Cockatoo, Lophocroa leadbeateri also known as Leadbeater's Cockatoo or Pink Cockatoo is a medium-sized Cockatoo restricted The Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua galerita, is one of the larger and more widespread of Australia 's Cockatoos Frequently sought as a cage bird The Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea, aka Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, is a medium-sized (up to 35cm long Cockatoo with all-white Feathers The Citron-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata is a medium-sized Cockatoo with an orange crest, dark grey Beak, pale orange The Blue-eyed Cockatoo, Cacatua ophthalmica, is a large approximately 50 cm (20 in long white Cockatoo with an erectile yellow white crest, grey The Moluccan Cockatoo, Cacatua moluccensis also known as Salmon-crested Cockatoo is a Cockatoo endemic to south Moluccas in eastern The Umbrella Cockatoo, Cacatua alba (also known as the White Cockatoo) is a medium-sized up to 46 cm long Cockatoo endemic to the islands of Halmahera Licmetis is a Subgenus of the white cockatoos (genus Cacatua) The Long-billed Corella, Cacatua tenuirostris, is a Cockatoo native to Australia. The Western Corella, Cacatua pastinator, is a Cockatoo endemic to Western Australia. The Little Corella, Cacatua sanguinea, also known as the Bare-eyed Cockatoo, is a white Cockatoo native to Australia. The Red-vented Cockatoo, Cacatua haematuropygia, sometimes called the Philippine Cockatoo, is a Cockatoo roughly the size and shape of the Goffin's The Goffin's Cockatoo, Cacatua goffiniana, also known as Tanimbar Cockatoo, is a species of Cockatoo endemic to forests of the Banda The Ducorps' Cockatoo ( Cacatua ducorpsii) also known as the Solomon Corella or Broad-crested Corella, is a species of Cockatoo endemic Despite their high cost which typically ranges from $500-$2000, cockatoos can make a great pet for the right owners. A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals Actual cost of the bird is not the only cost to consider. Remember when buying a bird you must purchase a large birdcage, which must be big enough for your cockatoo to be active as well as an out of cage stand or playgym. For the film see The Birdcage; for the Maserati race car see Maserati Tipo 61. Feeding your Cockatoo is also a consideration as they require a balanced diet of good quality pellet food in addition to fresh fruits and vegetables. Complementing the diet with seeds and nuts can also be great for your Cockatoo. Cockatoos can be quite destructive and require a regular supply of branches and toys for chewing.
Cockatoos are also not without their problems. In fact there are some who believe that no one should keep one of these birds as a house pet because of the challenges ownership can present. Cockatoos have been called the 'velcro' bird because they typically love to cuddle and spend time with their owner. However, cockatoos are extremely loud birds and some owners may inadvertently teach them to scream for attention. A cockatoo should be rewarded when it is quiet and ignored when it screams excessively to avoid this problem. Cockatoos should also be provided with a variety of interesting toys and encouraged to play by themselves from a young age to avoid them becoming overdependant on constant attention from the owners, which can be the cause of behavioral problems later on. Feather plucking is a problem some cockatoo owners may experience. It may be caused by several different factors, including boredom, lack of appropriate chewable toys, health problems, or allergies, and it's not always easy to determine what they are or how to fix them. Some otherwise sweet adolescent male (and occasionally female) cockatoos may show aggression during the breeding season; cockatoos are capable of very damaging bites. Cockatoos are also very intelligent and mischief prone, and many become adept at escaping locked cages and may chew on furniture and woodwork in the house. Some owners recommend building an outdoor aviary into which a pet cockatoo may be put for a few hours a day in good weather; an aviary provides an excellent outlet for a cockatoo's energy that might otherwise be spent on undesirable behaviors. An aviary is a large enclosure for confining Birds. Unlike cages ' aviaries allow birds a larger living space where they can fly hence aviaries are also A cockatoo can make a challenging pet and has a long lifespan of up to 40-70 years depending upon species, so they require an owner committed to their care.
In general, the smaller cockatoo species are considered to be easier to keep as pets than large cockatoos such as Moluccans.
Cockatiels In contrast to the other cockatoos, the cockatiel is relatively quiet, non-destructive, less demanding, inexpensive, and gentle natured, though a pet cockatiel still requires daily attention and handling from its owners and veterinary care. The Cockatiel ( Nymphicus hollandicus) also known as the Quarrion and the Weiro, is the smallest and genuinely miniature Cockatoo endemic Cockatiels are popular as pets, and among the species most often recommended to new bird owners. Cockatiels have a typical maximom lifespan of 20 years but some have lived to over 30.
Cockatoos are popular for use in trained bird shows. Many owners find they can be taught many tricks and husbandry behaviors, though cockatoos are generally less food motivated than other birds; some birds may be more motivated by a reward of petting or praise than of food. Cockatoos can often be trained to accept a parrot harness, enabling their owners to take them outdoors. A parrot harness or bird flight harness may enable a tame pet or Companion parrot to be taken out of doors but some Parrots may dislike wearing a harness Cockatoos have been used in animal-assisted therapy, generally in nursing homes. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT is a type of therapy that involves an Animal with specific characteristics becoming a fundamental part of a person's treatment
Cockatoos often have pronounced responses to musical sounds, and numerous videos exist showing the birds "dancing" to popular music, although it is not known if their musical perception is any different from that of other birds. A search with the terms "dancing cockatoo" yields over 200 results on YouTube, mostly by private owners.
An apparent Sulphur-crested Cockatoo in a painting by Andrea Mantegna, 1496 - over a hundred years before the first recorded European sighting of the Australian continent. Andrea Mantegna (c 1431 &ndash September 13, 1506) was an Italian Renaissance artist a student of Roman Archeology, and son in law of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
Two Sulphur-crested Cockatoos in a painting by Melchior de Hondecoeter, second half of 17th Century
In Australian slang or vernacular speech a person who is deputed to keep a look-out whilst colleagues undertake clandestine or illegal activities particularly such as organising illegal gambling may be referred to as a "cockatoo". Melchior d'Hondecoeter (c 1636 – April 3, 1695) Dutch painter, was born at Utrecht, and died in Amsterdam. Proprietors of small agricultural undertakings are frequently jocularly or slightly disparagingly referred to as a "cocky".