The Club of Madrid is an independent organization created for the purpose of promoting democracy and change in the global community. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Its exclusive members are of exceptional merit, usually former heads of state and government who have the ability to work as catalysts for change. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst The Club of Madrid works with various governments and other organizations in search of effective methods to provide technical advice and recommendations to transitional nations taking steps closer to a democratic way of life. The Club consists of full members, who are preceding government officials who have full voting rights: including such distinguished members as former Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev, former President of Brazil Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former President of the United States Bill Clinton, former President of Ireland Mary Robinson, and forty-four other former heads of government and state. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician The President of Brazil is both the Head of state and Head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. Fernando Henrique Cardoso, PC (born June 18, 1931) - also known by his initials FHC - was the President of the Federative Republic of The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (Máire Mhic Róibín born 21 May 1944 was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997 and the United Nations Institutional members, who are members from various private and public organizations who share similar democratic objectives: such supporters include the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), founded by Diego Hidalgo Schnur and the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GFNA), the original sponsors of the 2001 conference. Diego Hidalgo Schnur is a Spanish philanthropist intellectual and businessman Honorary members, who are notable members for their efforts and work with the Club; and fellows, who are experts in the area of democratic changeover.
The Club is based in Madrid, although meetings are held worldwide. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Currently Ricardo Lagos, the former President of Chile, is the organization's president having assumed the presidency of the Club of Madrid during the 12th meeting of the Executive Committee, which took place in Stockholm on March 27. Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer economist and social democrat politician who served as president of President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the Events 196 BC - Ptolemy V ascends to the throne of Egypt. 1309 - Pope Clement V excommunicates The previous president was Cardoso who had held the position as of 2004. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
The Club was created when an unprecedented event took place in October 2001 in Madrid; a four day Conference on Transition and Consolidation (CDTC). Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. This event brought together 35 world leaders, over 100 esteemed academics and policy specialists from Europe, The Americas, Asia, and Africa to discuss ideas and means of implementation from both objective and subjective perspectives. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America The conference discussed eight main topics:
- legislature and its dealings with the executive,
- the judiciary and its interaction with the executive,
- anti-corruption procedures, the function and responsibility of armed forces and security forces,
- reform of the state bureaucracy,
- strengthening of political and social pluralism and of political parties,
- economic and social conditions.
List of Members
Affiliated publication Valdas Adamkus, born Voldemaras Adamkavičius on November 3 1926 is the current President of the Republic of Lithuania. Esko Tapani Aho (born May 20, 1954) is a Statesman and former Prime Minister of Finland. Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari ( pronounced) (born on June 23 1937 is a former President of Finland (1994–2000 2008 Nobel Peace Prize winner and Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (born 13 March 1927 in Chascomús) is an Argentine politician who was the President of Argentina Sadiq al-Mahdi ( Arabic: الصادق المهدي (also known as Sadiq Al Siddiq, born 1936 is a Sudanese political and religious figure Álvaro Enrique Arzú Yrigoyen (Irigoyen? (born March 14 1946, in Guatemala City) was President of Guatemala from January 14 Patricio Aylwin Azócar (born November 26, 1918) was the first President of Chile after its return to democratic rule in 1990 following (born 25 February 1953 served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004 Belisario Betancur Cuartas ( February 4, 1923, Amagá, Department of Antioquia) is a Colombian statesman the President of Colombia KCMG (born 15 July 1949) is a Swedish Politician and Diplomat. Valdis Birkavs (born July 28 1942) is a Latvian politician He was born in Riga. çɛl mɑŋnə bunəvik (born 3 September 1947 is a Norwegian Lutheran minister and politician. (ɡru hɑɭɛm brʉntlɑn (born Gro Harlem 20 April 1939 Oslo) is a Norwegian politician diplomat and Physician, and an international leader Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo 1st Marquess of Ría de Ribadeo ( Don Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo 1 Avril Phaedra Douglas "Kim" Campbell, PC, CC, QC, (born March 10, 1947) was the nineteenth Prime Minister of Canada Fernando Henrique Cardoso, PC (born June 18, 1931) - also known by his initials FHC - was the President of the Federative Republic of Joaquim Alberto Chissano (born 22 October 1939) served as the second President of Mozambique for nineteen years from 6 November 1986 William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Jacques Lucien Jean Delors (born July 20 1925 in Paris) is a French Economist and politician the only person to have served two terms Philip Dimitrov Dimitrov (Филип Димитров (born 31 March 1955) is a Bulgarian politician Abdul Karim Ali Aleryani (عبد الكريم علي يحي محمدعبد ألله الإرياني (born 12 October 1934) was the Prime Minister Leonel Antonio Fernández Reyna (born 26 December 1953) is a Dominican politician and the current President of the Dominican Republic. José María Figueres Olsen ( San José Costa Rica, December 24, 1954) politician businessman and international expert on Sustainable Development Vigdís Finnbogadóttir ( (born 15 April 1930) was the fourth president of Iceland, serving from 1980 to 1996 Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) is a Chilean politician and civil engineer. César Augusto Gaviria Trujillo (born March 31, 1947 in Pereira, Risaralda) is a Colombian politician and a Latin American statesman Felipe González Márquez (born 5 March 1942 is a Spanish socialist politician Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician Inder Kumar Gujral (इन्द्र कुमार गुजराल (born 4 December 1919 was the 13th Prime Minister of the Republic of India. António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres, GCC (ɐ̃ˈtɔniu guˈtɛʁɨʃ born April 30, 1949) is a Portuguese politician a Václav Havel, GCB, CC, ( (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech Playwright Writer and Politician Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea (born June 26 1939) was President of Ecuador from 24 May 1981 to 10 August Lionel Jospin (born 12 July 1937 is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France, during the third " cohabitation " Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born 3 April 1930 is a German conservative politician and statesman Willem "Wim" Kok ( (born 29 September 1938 in Bergambacht) is a Dutch Politician. Alpha Oumar Konaré (born 2 February 1946) was the President of Mali for two five-year terms (1992 to 2002 and was Chairperson of the African Milan Kučan (born in Križevci, Slovenia, then a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on January 14, 1941) is a Slovene Luis Alberto Lacalle de Herrera (b July 13 1941, Montevideo Uruguay) is a Uruguayan lawyer and politician who served as President Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer economist and social democrat politician who served as president of Dr Zlatko Lagumdžija (born December 26, 1955 in Sarajevo) is a Bosnian politician and academic known for his leadership of the Social Democratic Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire, GCMG (born 23 July, 1925 in Kanye Botswana) was the second President of Botswana Tadeusz Mazowiecki (taˈdɛuʃ mazɔˈvʲɛʦkʲi born April 18 1927 in Płock) is a Polish author journalist social worker and politician formerly one of the (born on August 17, 1944, in Tirana, Albania) is an Albanian Politician. Benjamin William Mkapa (born November 12, 1938) is a former President of the United Republic of Tanzania (1995 - 2005 and former Chairman for Anand Panyarachun (born August 9, 1932) was Thailand 's Prime Minister twice between 1991-1992 and once again in 1992 Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002 following in the footsteps of his father Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920, in Lima) is a Peruvian Diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May Jorge Fernando "Tuto" Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928) was the 12th President of the Philippines. Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (⁽ˈ⁾pʰʌʊ̯l ny(ːɔb̥ ˈʁɑsmusn̩ informally nyːˀɔb̥ born June 15, 1943) was the Prime Minister of Denmark Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (Máire Mhic Róibín born 21 May 1944 was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997 and the United Nations The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human Petre Roman (b July 22, 1946 in Bucharest) is a Romanian politician former Prime Minister of Romania from 1989 to Background Sampaio was born in Lisbon on 18 September 1939 The Sampaio family lived abroad in the United States and England for some years Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930, La Paz) familiarly known as "Goni" is a Bolivian politician Julio María Sanguinetti Coirolo (b 6 January 1936, Montevideo Uruguay) is an Uruguayan politician and journalist as well as a former President Jennifer Mary Shipley, DCNZM, (born 4 February 1952, Gore New Zealand) was the Prime Minister of New Zealand from December Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE (ˈmaɾiu suˈaɾɨʃ born 7 December 1924 Portuguese politician Don Adolfo Suárez González 1st Duke of Suárez Grandee of Spain, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Don Adolfo Suárez González I Duque Hanna Suchocka ('xanna su'xɔʦka (born 3 April, 1946 in Pleszew, Poland) is a Polish Political figure. Cassam Uteem (born 22 March 1941) is a Mauritian Political figure. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician
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