- "Ramet" redirects here. For the commune in Alba County, Romania see Râmeţ. Alba ('alba Hungarian: Fehér) is a county ( Judeţ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Alba Iulia Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Râmeţ is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. It has a population of 970
A clonal colony or genet is a group of genetically identical individuals (e. In Biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual Organisms of the same Species living closely together usually g. , plants, fungi, or bacteria) that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively (not sexually) from a single ancestor. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Vegetative reproduction is a type of Asexual reproduction found in plants and is also called vegetative propagation or vegetative multiplication. In plants, an individual in such a population is referred to as a ramet. In fungi, "individuals" typically refers to the visible fruiting bodies or mushrooms that develop from a common mycelium which, although spread over a large area, is otherwise hidden in the soil. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ A mushroom is the fleshy Spore -bearing Fruiting body of a Fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source Mycelium (plural mycelia) is the vegetative part of a Fungus, consisting of a mass of branching thread-like Hyphae The mass of hyphae is sometimes called Clonal colonies are common in many plant species. Although many plants reproduce sexually through the production of seed, some plants reproduce by underground stolons or rhizomes. In Botany, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a Plant that is usually found underground often sending out Roots and Shoots Above ground these plants appear to be distinct individuals, but underground they remain interconnected and are all clones of the same plant. However, it is not always easy to recognize a clonal colony especially if it spreads underground and is also sexually reproducing.
Methods of establishment
- With most woody plants, clonal colonies arise by wide-ranging roots that at intervals send up new shoots, termed suckers. A basal shoot, root sprout, adventitious shoot, water sprout or sucker is a shoot or cane which grows from a Bud at the base of a
- Trees and shrubs with branches that touch the ground can form colonies via layering, e. Layering is a means of Plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem grow Roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an g. willow and blackberry. Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager
- Some vines naturally form adventitious roots on their stems that take root in the soil when the stems contact the ground, e. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a Vascular plant. g. ivy and trumpet vine. Hedera (English name ivy, plural ivies) is a genus of 15 species of climbing or ground-creeping Evergreen woody plants in the family The Trumpet vine or Trumpet creeper ( Campsis radicans) also known as "Cow itch vine" is a large and vigorous woody Vine of the family
- With other vines, rooting of the stem where nodes come into contact with soil may establish a clonal colony, e. g. Wisteria. Wisteria is a Genus of about ten species of woody climbing Vines native to the eastern United States and the East Asian states of China
- Ferns and many herbaceous flowering plants often form clonal colonies via horizontal underground stems termed rhizomes, e. In Botany, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a Plant that is usually found underground often sending out Roots and Shoots g. ostrich fern Matteuccia struthiopteris and goldenrod. The Ostrich fern or Shuttlecock fern ( Matteuccia struthiopteris) is a crown-forming colony-forming Fern, occurring in temperate regions of the The goldenrod is a yellow Flowering plant in the Family Asteraceae.
- A number of herbaceous flowering plants form clonal colonies via horizontal surface stems termed stolons, or runners; e. g. strawberry and many grasses. Garden strawberries are a common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include
- Nonwoody plants with underground storage organs such as bulbs and corms can also form colonies, e. A storage organ is a part of a Plant specifically modified for storage of Energy (generally in the form of Carbohydrates or Water. A bulb is an underground vertical Shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases that are used as Food Storage organs by A corm is a short vertical swollen underground Plant stem that serves as a Storage organ used by some plants to survive winter or other adverse conditions g. Narcissus and Crocus. CROCUS is a Research reactor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, sometimes described as zero power but in fact limited
- A few plant species can form colonies via adventitious plantlets that form on leaves, e. g. Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Tolmiea menziesii. Kalanchoe daigremontiana syn Bryophyllum daigremontianum also called Devil's Backbone, Alligator Plant, Mexican Hat Plant The plant Tolmiea menziesii is the only member of the monotypic genus Tolmiea.
- A few plant species can form colonies via asexual seeds, termed apomixis, e. g. dandelion.
A group of 47,000 Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones (nicknamed "Pando") in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA, is sometimes considered the world's largest organism by mass, covering 43 hectares (110 acres). Populus tremuloides, also known as American Aspen, Quaking Aspen, Trembling Aspen, Quakies, Quakers, Popple Pando (or The Trembling Giant) is a Clonal colony of a single male Quaking Aspen ( Populus tremuloides) tree located in the U The Wasatch Range is a Mountain range that stretches about from the Utah- Idaho border south through central Utah in the western United States The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The largest organism found on earth can be measured using a variety of methods It is possible that other unknown clonal colonies of trees rival or exceed its size.
The only known plant of King's Lomatia (Lomatia tasmanica) in Tasmania is a clonal colony estimated to be 43,600 years old. King's Lomatia ( Lomatia tasmanica) is a Tasmanian shrub from the family Proteaceae. Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass  Another possible candidate is a stand of the marine plant Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea, which could be up to 100,000 years of age. Posidonia oceanica is a species of Seagrass that is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. 
When woody plants form clonal colonies, they often remain connected through the root system, sharing roots, water and mineral nutrients. Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth A few non-vining woody plants that form clonal colonies are:
- Aspens, Populus species
- Bayberry, "Myrica pensylvanica"
- Black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia
- Bladdernut, Staphylea species
- Blueberry, Vaccinium species
- Forsythia, Forsythia species
- Hazelnut, Corylus species
- Honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos
- Kentucky coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus
- Kerria, Kerria japonica
- Pawpaw, Asimina triloba
- Sassafras, Sassafras albidum
- Sumac, Rhus species
- Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua
- Sweetshrub, Calycanthus floridus
- Cook, R. Aspens are Trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the Poplar genus Populus sect Myrica is a genus of about 35-50 species of small Trees and Shrubs in the family Myricaceae order Fagales Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia) is a Tree in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. Staphylea ( Bladdernut) is a small genus of 10 or 11 species of Flowering plants in the family Staphyleaceae, native to temperate regions Blueberries are Flowering plants in the genus Vaccinium, sect Forsythia is of Flowering plants in the family Oleaceae (olive family The Common Hazel ( Corylus avellana) is a species of Hazel native to Europe and western Asia, from the British Isles The Honey locust ( Gleditsia triacanthos) is a Deciduous Tree native to eastern North America and can also be found in central and southern The Kentucky Coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus, is a Tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the pea family Fabaceae, native to the Kerria japonica, the sole species in the genus Kerria, is a Deciduous Shrub in the Rose family Rosaceae native to This page refers to the US pawpaw in the genus Asimina. In some other parts of the world the name pawpaw is applied to the unrelated tropical fruit Papaya Sassafras is a genus of three Sassafras trees grow from 15–35 m (50–120 feet tall and 70–150 cm (2 Sumac (ˈʃuːmæk or /ˈs(juːmæk/ also spelled sumach) is any one of approximately 250 species of Flowering plants in the Genus Rhus Sweetgum ( Liquidambar) is a genus of four species of Flowering plants in the family Altingiaceae, though formerly often treated in the Hamamelidaceae Calycanthus ( sweetshrub, spicebush or strawberry-bush) is a genus of Flowering plants in the family Calycanthaceae, E. (1983). Clonal plant populations. American Scientist 71: 244–253.
- Kricher, J. C. , & Morrison, G. (1988). A Field Guide to Eastern Forests, pp. 19-20. Peterson Field Guide Series. ISBN 0-395-35346-7.
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