The word classical has several meanings:
- Classical antiquity and the study of "the classics", refers to the culture of Ancient Greece or Rome
- "High classical" refers to Greek art associated mainly with Athens and the works atop the Acropolis
- "Classical Chinese" or "classical Indian" culture refers to a perceived apex in the development of a society or of its arts and sciences
- "Classical French" culture refers specifically to the 18th century, rather than Ancient Greece or Rome. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Acropolis (Gr akros akron edge extremity + polis city pl acropoleis China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This causes confusions in translation.
- Classicism can be understood as defining and long-lasting civilizational patterns shaped by belief systems. For the works or study of works from classical antiquity see Classics Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to
- Classical language
Pertaining to the arts (painting, music, literature, etc. A classical language, is a language with a Literature that is "classical"&mdashie "it should be ancient it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter ), the word classical often refers to a specific time period or artistic style:
- Classical architecture originated from Roman and Greek construction methods, which were later used as a model for "neo–" and "revival" architectural styles
- Classical music
- Classical music era
- Classical dance, or ballet
- Classical education movement refers to the educational tradition based upon the trivium and quadrivium. The term Classical architecture has a specific Archaeological meaning relating to the architecture of Classical Greece Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 Ballet is a formalized form of Dance with its origins in the French court further developed in France and Russia as a Concert dance For the works or study of works from classical antiquity see Classics Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric. The quadrivium comprised the four subjects or arts taught in Medieval universities after the trivium.
- Classical philosophy
- Indian classical music
- Classical Indian dance
- Classical liberalism
- Non-Western classical music
The word 'classical' is applied to any mode of scientific thought prevalent up to the time of some radical new innovation, or any scientific area of study that has well established roots, typically pre-nineteenth century. This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Western philosophy, the spread of Christianity through the Roman Empire marked the end of Hellenistic The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas. Indian classical dance is a relatively new umbrella term for various codified art forms rooted in Natya, the sacred Hindu Musical theatre styles whose theory Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Classical music in its widest sense refers to music composed in a classical tradition and intended as serious art especially as distinguished from popular or Folk music The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations
- Classical mechanics, in physics, as founded by e. Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. g. Galilei, Newton and formalized by Hamilton and Lagrange (developed before the advent of modern quantum mechanics) (see also the page about classical physics)
- The theory of relativity is usually considered as a "classical" theory, reconciling general relativity (the "last word " in classical physics) with quantum mechanics
- Semiclassical physics, an approximate solution to a problem generated by assuming that for parts of the system, the results of classical physics does not differ too much from that of the quantum mechanics method
- Classical electrodynamics, as formalized by Maxwell
- Classical logic, in mathematical logic includes the family of bivalent logics where every proposition is either true or false. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Sir William Rowan Hamilton (4 August 1805 &ndash 2 September 1865 was an Irish Mathematician, Physicist, and Astronomer who Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons This page is about the scientific concept of relativity for philosophical or sociological theories about relativity see Relativism. General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of Gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 In Physics, the adjective semiclassical has different precise meanings depending on the context Classical electromagnetism (or classical electrodynamics) is a theory of Electromagnetism that was developed over the course of the 19th century most prominently James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 &ndash 5 November 1879 was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. Classical logic identifies a class of Formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used Mathematical logic is a subfield of Logic and Mathematics with close connections to Computer science and Philosophical logic. In Logic, the semantic principle of bivalence states that every proposition takes exactly one of two truth values (e Many non-classical logics exist, the most notable of which is intuitionistic logic
- "Classical control theory" applies control theory to analog systems. Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the Symbolic logic system originally developed by Arend Heyting to provide a formal basis for Brouwer Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch of Engineering and Mathematics, that deals with the behavior of Dynamical systems The desired output Based on classical math methods such as Laplace transforms and calculus, as opposed to the more recent digital control systems theory - based on more modern methods such as the z transforms. In Mathematics, the Laplace transform is one of the best known and most widely used Integral transforms It is commonly used to produce an easily soluble algebraic Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Digital control is a branch of Control theory that uses Digital Computers to act as a system In Mathematics and Signal processing, the Z-transform converts a discrete Time-domain signal which is a Sequence of real
- Classical economics is the school of the first economists starting with Adam Smith. Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. Its modern successor is neoclassical economics
See also Neoclassical economics is a term variously used for approaches to Economics focusing on the determination of prices outputs and income distributions in markets
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- Of or relating to the first class or rank, especially in literature or art.
- Of or pertaining to the ancient Greeks and Romans, esp. to Greek or Roman authors of the highest rank, or of the period when their best literature was produced; of or pertaining to places inhabited by the ancient Greeks and Romans, or rendered famous by their deeds.
- Conforming to the best authority in literature and art; chaste; pure; refined; as, a classical style.
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