Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (born 2 July 1714 Erasbach, Upper Palatinate; died 15 November 1787 in Vienna) was a composer of the 18th century, most noted for his operatic works. Joseph-Siffred Duplessis ( Carpentras, near Avignon, 22 September 1725 &ndash Versailles, 1 April 1802) was The Kunsthistorisches Museum ( English: "Museum of Art History" in Vienna, housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, crowned Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1714 ( MDCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Berching is a town in the district of Neumarkt in Bavaria, Germany. The Upper Palatinate (German Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto After many years at the Habsburg court at Vienna, Gluck brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices that many intellectuals had been campaigning for over the years. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. With a series of radical new works in the 1760s, among them Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste, he broke the stranglehold that Metastasian opera seria had enjoyed for much of the century. Orfeo ed Euridice (French version Orphée et Eurydice; English translation Orpheus and Eurydice) is an Opera composed by Christoph Willibald Alceste is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. The Libretto was written by Ranieri de Calzabigi (in Italian and based on the play Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his Pseudonym of Metastasio, ( January 3, 1698 &ndash April 12, 1782 Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious"
The strong influence of French opera in these works encouraged Gluck to move to Paris, which he did in November 1773. French opera is one of Europe's most important operatic traditions containing works by composers of the stature of Lully, Rameau, Berlioz, Bizet Fusing the traditions of Italian opera and the French national genre into a new synthesis, Gluck wrote eight operas for the Parisian stages. Italian opera is both the art of Opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language. One of the last of these, Iphigénie en Tauride, was a great success and is generally acknowledged to be his finest work. Iphigénie en Tauride ( Iphigeneia in Tauris) is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck in four acts Though extremely popular and widely credited with bringing about a revolution in French opera, Gluck's mastery of the Parisian operatic scene was never absolute, and after the poor reception of his Echo et Narcisse, he left Paris in disgust and returned to Vienna to live out the remainder of his life. Echo et Narcisse ( Echo and Narcissus) was the last original opera written by Christoph Willibald Glück, his sixth for the French stage
Gluck was born in Erasbach (now a district of Berching, Bavaria) the first of 6 surviving children. Berching is a town in the district of Neumarkt in Bavaria, Germany. Berching is a town in the district of Neumarkt in Bavaria, Germany. His father, Alexander Johannes, came from a long line of foresters, and married Gluck's mother, Maria Walburga, in about 1711. During 1717 the family moved to Bohemia, where the father became head forester in the service of Prince Philipp Hyazinth von Lobkowitz in 1727. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the According to J. C. von Mannlich, who shared rooms with Gluck in Paris, it was as a Bohemian schoolboy that Gluck received his first musical training, both as a singer in the church choir and by learning. Gluck later wrote:
|“||My father was a head forester in [Eisenberg] in Bohemia and he had brought me up to follow in his footsteps. At that time music was all the rage. Unfortunately, inflamed with a passion for this art, I soon made astounding progress and was able to play several instruments. My whole being became obsessed with music and I left all thoughts of a forester's life behind. "||”|
A childhood flight from home to Vienna is included in several contemporary accounts of Gluck's life, including Mannlich's, but recent scholarship has cast doubt on Gluck's picturesque tales of earning food and shelter by his singing as he travelled. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Most now claim that, if this incident happened at all, it occurred later, and the object of Gluck's journeying was not Vienna but Prague, and connected to his studies at the University of Prague, where according to early biographies he began studying logic and mathematics in 1731. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. At this time the University boasted a flourishing musical scene that included performances of both Italian opera and oratorio. An oratorio is a large Musical composition including an Orchestra, a Choir, and soloists The oratorio was somewhat modeled after the Opera Gluck eventually left Prague without taking a degree, and vanishes from the historical record until 1737, a possible year (likely to have been 1736) in Vienna apart.
In 1737 Gluck arrived in Milan, where he studied under G.B. Sammartini, who, according to Carpani, taught Gluck "practical knowledge of all the instruments". Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1700 or 1701 &ndash January 15, 1775 Apparently this relationship lasted for several years. Sammartini was not, primarily, a composer of opera, his main output being of sacred music and symphonies, but Milan boasted a vibrant opera scene, and Gluck soon formed an association with one of the city's up-and-coming opera houses, the Regio Ducal Teatro, where his first opera, Artaserse, was performed on 26 December 1741. An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes Set to a libretto by Metastasio, the opera opened the Milanese Carnival of 1742. According to one anecdote, the public would not accept Gluck's style until he inserted an aria in the lighter Milanese manner for contrast. This article is about the musical term "aria" For other meanings or uses of the word see Aria (disambiguation.
Nevertheless, Gluck composed an opera for each of the next four Carnivals at Milan, with renowned castrato Giovanni Carestini appearing in many of the performances, so the reaction to Artaserse is unlikely to have been completely unfavourable. A castrato is a man with a singing voice equivalent to that of a Soprano, Mezzo-soprano, or Contralto voice produced either by Castration Giovanni Carestini (born Filottrano, near Ancona, circa 1704 — died Filottrano (? circa 1760) was an Italian Castrato He also wrote operas for other cities of Northern Italy in between Carnival seasons, including Turin and Venice, where his Ipermestra was given during November 1744 at the S Giovanni Grisostomo. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo, now known as the Teatro Malibran, is an Opera house in Venice. Nearly all of his operas in this period were, like Artaserse, set to Metastasio's texts, despite the poet's dislike for his style of composition.
In 1745 Gluck accepted an invitation to become house composer at London's King's Theatre, probably travelling to England via Frankfurt. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The timing was poor, as the Jacobite Rebellion had caused much panic in London, and for most of the year the King's Theatre was shut. The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings rebellions and wars in the kingdoms of England, Kingdom of Scotland (later the United Kingdom of Great Britain Gluck's two London operas, (La caduta de'giganti and Artamene) eventually performed in 1746, contained much borrowing from his earlier works, a method that was re-occur throughout his career. Six trio sonatas were the other immediate fruits of his time in London. A more long-term benefit was exposure to the music of Handel, whom he later accounted a great influence on his style, and the naturalistic acting style of David Garrick. David Garrick (born 19 February 1717 in Hereford &ndash 20 January 1779) was an English Actor, Playwright, Handel's own experience of Gluck pleased that composer less - Charles Burney reports Handel as saying that "he [Gluck] knows no more of contrapunto, as mein cook, Waltz". Charles Burney ( 7 April 1726 &ndash 12 April 1814) was an English music historian and father of author Frances
1747 and 1748 brought Gluck two highly prestigious engagements. First came a commission to produce an opera for Dresden, performed by Pietro Mingotti's troupe, to celebrate a royal double wedding that would unite the ruling families of Bavaria and Saxony. Pietro Mingotti (b Venice, c1702 d Copenhagen, 28 April 1759 was an Italian Impresario active across continental Europe Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe, a festa teatrale, borrowed heavily from earlier works, and even from Gluck's teacher Sammartini. The term festa teatrale refers to a genre of Drama, and of Opera in particular The success of this work brought Gluck to the attention of the Viennese court, and, ahead of such a figure as Johann Adolf Hasse, he was selected to set Metastasio's Semiramide riconosciuta to celebrate Maria Theresa's birthday. Johann Adolph Hasse (baptised in Bergedorf, near Hamburg, on 25 March 1699 &ndash died in Venice on 16 December Maria Theresa (Maria Theresia see also names in other languages; May 13, 1717 November 29 1780) was the Archduchess regnant Vittoria Tesi took the title role. Vittoria Tesi ("La Fiorentina" (b Florence, 13 Feb 1700 d Vienna, 9 May 1775 was an Italian Opera singer and music teacher of the 18th century On this occasion Gluck's music was completely original, but the displeasure of Metastasio, the court poet, who called the opera "archvandalian music", probably explains why Gluck did not remain long in Vienna despite the work's enormous popular success (it was performed 27 times to great acclaim). For the remainder of 1748 and 1749 Gluck travelled with Mingotti's troupe, contracting a venereal disease from the prima donna and composing the opera La contesa de' numi for the court at Copenhagen. Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city
In 1750 he abandoned Mingotti's group for another company established by a former member of the Mingotti troupe, Giovanni Battista Locatelli. Giovanni Battista Locatelli ( 1713 -c 1770) was an Italian Opera director and owner of a private opera company The main effect of this was that Gluck returned to Prague on a more consistent basis. For the Prague Carnival of 1750 Gluck composed a new opera, Ezio (again set to one of Metastasio's works), and his Ipermestra was also performed in the same year. The other major event of Gluck's stay in Prague, on 15 September 1750, was his marriage to Maria Anna Bergin, aged 18 years old, the daughter of a long-dead rich Viennese merchant. The marriage brought Gluck financial security, and he seems to have spent most of 1751 commuting between Prague and Vienna.
1752 brought another major commission to Gluck, when he asked to set Metastasio's La clemenza di Tito (the specific libretto was the composer's choice) for the nameday celebrations of King Charles III of Spain, held at Naples. Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the The opera was performed on 4th November at the Teatro San Carlo, and the world-famous mezzo-soprano castrato Caffarelli (Gaetano Majorano) took the role of Sextus. The Teatro di San Carlo is an Opera house in Naples, Italy. It is the oldest continuously active such venue in Europe and it is recognized as a This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. A castrato is a man with a singing voice equivalent to that of a Soprano, Mezzo-soprano, or Contralto voice produced either by Castration Gaetano Majorano (b Bitonto, 12 April 1710 d Naples, 31 Jan 1783 was an Italian Castrato and Opera singer who took his stage For Caffarelli Gluck composed the famous, but notoriously dissident, aria "Se mai senti spirarti sul volto", that provoked widespread admiration and equally widespread vituperation in equal measure. Gluck later reworked this aria for his Iphigénie en Tauride, which, according to one account, the Neapolitan composer Francesco Durante claimed that his fellow composers "should have been proud to have conceived and written". Iphigénie en Tauride ( Iphigeneia in Tauris) is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck in four acts Durante simultaneously declined to comment concerning whether the aria was within the boundaries of the accepted compositional rules of the time.
Gluck finally settled in Vienna where he became Kapellmeister. Kapellmeister (kəˈpɛlˌmaɪstər is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making He wrote Le Cinesi for a festival in 1754 and La Danza for the birthday of the future Emperor Leopold II the following year. Leopold II (May 5 1747 March 1 1792 born Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke After his opera Antigono was performed in Rome in February, 1756, Gluck was made a Knight of the Golden Spur by Pope Benedict XIV. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Order of the Golden Spur, formerly known as the Order of the Golden Militia, is a papal Order of chivalry conferred upon those who have rendered Pope Benedict XIV ( March 31, 1675 &ndash May 3, 1758) born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was Pope from August 17 From that time on, Gluck used the title "Ritter von Gluck" or "Chevalier de Gluck".
Gluck turned his back on Italian opera seria and began to write opéra comiques. Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" Opéra comique (plural opéras comiques is a French genre of Opera that contains spoken dialogue In 1761, Gluck produced the groundbreaking ballet Don Juan in collaboration with the choreographer Gasparo Angiolini. Gasparo Angiolini (real name Domenico Maria Angiolo Gasparini; 9 February 1731 &ndash 6 February 1803) was an Italian The climax of Gluck's opéra comique writing was La rencontre imprévue of 1764. Opéra comique (plural opéras comiques is a French genre of Opera that contains spoken dialogue La rencontre imprévue ( The Unexpected Encounter) also known as Les pèlerins de la Mecque ( The Pilgrims to Mecca) is a By that time, Gluck was already engaged in his operatic reforms.
Gluck had long pondered the fundamental problem of form and content in opera. He thought both of the main Italian operatic genres — opera buffa and opera seria — had strayed too far from what opera should really be. The term Opera buffa (plural Opere buffe) was at first used as an informal description of Italian Comic operas variously classified by their authors as Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" They seemed unnatural, the singing in opera seria was devoted to superficial effects, the content was uninteresting and fossilised. Opera buffa had long lost its original freshness, its jokes were threadbare, the repetition of the same characters made them seem no more than stereotypes. In opera seria too, the singers were effectively absolute masters of the stage and the music, decorating the vocal lines so floridly that audiences could no longer recognise the original melody. Gluck wanted to return opera to its origins, focusing on human drama and passions, and making words and music of equal importance.
In Vienna, Gluck met likeminded figures in the operatic world: Count Giacomo Durazzo, the head of the court theatre, who was a passionate admirer of French stage music; the librettist Ranieri de' Calzabigi, who wanted to attack the dominance of Metastasian opera seria; the innovative choreographer Gasparo Angiolini; and the London-trained castrato Gaetano Guadagni. Count Giacomo Durazzo (1717-1794 was an Italian Diplomat and man of the theatre Ranieri de' Calzabigi ( December 23 1714 - July 1795 was an Italian poet and Librettist, most famous for his collaboration with the composer Christoph Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi, better known by his Pseudonym of Metastasio, ( January 3, 1698 &ndash April 12, 1782 Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" Gasparo Angiolini (real name Domenico Maria Angiolo Gasparini; 9 February 1731 &ndash 6 February 1803) was an Italian A castrato is a man with a singing voice equivalent to that of a Soprano, Mezzo-soprano, or Contralto voice produced either by Castration Gaetano Guadagni (16 February 1728 - 11 October 1792 was an Italian Mezzo-soprano Castrato singer most famous for singing the role of Orpheus at the premiere of The first result of the new thinking was Gluck's reformist ballet Don Juan, but a more important work was soon to follow. On 5 October 1762, Orfeo ed Euridice was given its first performance, with music by Gluck to words by Calzabigi. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1762 ( MDCCLXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Orfeo ed Euridice (French version Orphée et Eurydice; English translation Orpheus and Eurydice) is an Opera composed by Christoph Willibald The dances were arranged by Angiolini and the title role was taken by Guadagni. Orfeo showed the beginnings of Gluck's reforms and the opera has never left the standard repertory. Gluck's idea was to make the drama of the work more important than the star singers who performed it, and to do away with dry recitative which broke up the action. Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios The more flowing and dramatic style which resulted has been seen as a precursor to the music dramas of Richard Wagner. Gluck and Calzabigi followed Orfeo with Alceste (1767) and Paride ed Elena (1770), pushing their innovations even further. Alceste is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. The Libretto was written by Ranieri de Calzabigi (in Italian and based on the play Paride ed Elena ( Paris and Helen) is an opera by Gluck, the third and final of his Italian reformist works following Orfeo ed Euridice Calzabigi wrote a preface to Alceste, which Gluck signed, setting out the principles of their reforms.
Gluck now began to spread his ideas to France. Under the patronage of his former music pupil, Marie Antoinette, who had married the future French king Louis XVI in 1770, Gluck signed a contract for six stage works with the management of the Paris Opéra. Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2 1755 &ndash October 16 1793 known to history as Marie Antoinette ( pronounced /maʀi ɑ̃ntwanɛt/ Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre He began with Iphigénie en Aulide (19 April 1774). Iphigénie en Aulide ( Iphigeneia in Aulis) is an opera by Gluck, the first work he wrote for the Paris stage Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1774 ( MDCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The premiere sparked a huge controversy, almost a war, such as had not been seen in the city since the Querelle des Bouffons. The Querelle des Bouffons (English War of the Comic Actors) was the name given to a battle of musical philosophies in France which took place between 1752 and 1754 Gluck's opponents brought the leading Italian composer, Niccolò Piccinni, to Paris to demonstrate the superiority of Neapolitan opera and the "whole town" engaged in an argument between "Gluckists" and "Piccinnists". Niccolò Piccinni ( January 16, 1728 - May 7, 1800) was an Italian Composer of symphonies sacred music chamber music Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the The composers themselves took no part in the polemics, but when Piccinni was asked to set the libretto to Roland, on which Gluck was also known to be working, Gluck destroyed everything he had written for that opera up to that point. Roland is an Opera with music by Jean-Baptiste Lully and a Libretto by Philippe Quinault first performed at Versailles
On 2 August 1774 the French version of Orfeo ed Euridice was performed, with the title role transposed from the castrato to the tenor voice. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 1774 ( MDCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Orfeo ed Euridice (French version Orphée et Eurydice; English translation Orpheus and Eurydice) is an Opera composed by Christoph Willibald This time Gluck's work was better received by the Parisian public. In the same year Gluck returned to Vienna where he was appointed composer to the imperial court. Over the next few years the now internationally famous composer would travel back and forth between Paris and Vienna. On 23 April 1776, the French version of Alceste was given. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Alceste is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. The Libretto was written by Ranieri de Calzabigi (in Italian and based on the play
Gluck also wrote Armide (1777), Iphigénie en Tauride (1779) and Echo et Narcisse for Paris. Armide is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck, his fourth for the Parisian stage and the composer's own favourite among his works Iphigénie en Tauride ( Iphigeneia in Tauris) is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck in four acts Echo et Narcisse ( Echo and Narcissus) was the last original opera written by Christoph Willibald Glück, his sixth for the French stage During the rehearsals for Echo et Narcisse , Gluck suffered his first stroke. Echo et Narcisse ( Echo and Narcissus) was the last original opera written by Christoph Willibald Glück, his sixth for the French stage Since the opera itself was a complete failure, Gluck decided to return to Vienna.
His musical heir in Paris was the Italian-Austrian composer Antonio Salieri, who had made friends with Gluck when he arrived in Vienna in 1767. Antonio Salieri ( 18 August 1750 &ndash 7 May 1825) was an Italian Composer and conductor. Gluck brought Salieri to Paris with him and bequeathed him the libretto for Les Danaïdes. Les Danaïdes is an Opera by Antonio Salieri, in 5 acts more specifically it is a Tragédie lyrique. The opera was announced as a collaboration between the two composers; however, after the overwhelming success of its premiere on 26 April 1784, Gluck revealed to the prestigious Journal de Paris that the work was wholly Salieri's. Year 1784 ( MDCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
In Vienna Gluck wrote a few more minor works but he generally lived in retirement. In 1781 he brought out a German version of Iphigénie en Tauride and other operas of his enjoyed great popularity in Vienna. Iphigénie en Tauride ( Iphigeneia in Tauris) is an Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck in four acts
On 15 November 1787, in Vienna, Gluck suffered another stroke and died a few days later. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common At a formal commemoration on 8 April 1788 his friend and pupil Salieri conducted Gluck's De profundis and a requiem by the Italian composer Jommelli was given. Events 217 - Roman Emperor Caracalla is Assassinated (and succeeded by his Praetorian Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap Antonio Salieri ( 18 August 1750 &ndash 7 May 1825) was an Italian Composer and conductor. Psalm 130 ( Greek numbering Psalm 129 traditionally referred to as De profundis, after its Latin incipit is one of the penitential psalms. The Requiem (from Latin requiem, accusative case of requies, rest or Requiem Mass (informally a funeral Mass also known formally (in Latin as the Niccolò Jommelli ( September 10, 1714 &ndash August 25, 1774) was an Italian Composer. Like many other prominent musicians and painters, Gluck was buried in the Matzleinsdorfer Friedhof. When this cemetery was turned into a park in 1923, Gluck's remains were transferred to a tomb in the Vienna Zentralfriedhof. The Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery is situated in the district of Simmering, Simmeringer Hauptstraße 230–244 Vienna 1110 Austria, and is the
Gluck's musical legacy was around 35 complete operas, together with numerous ballets and instrumental works. His reforms influenced Mozart, particularly his opera Idomeneo (1781). Idomeneo re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante ( Italian: Idomeneo King of Crete or Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo Gluck left behind a flourishing school of disciples in Paris, who would dominate the French stage throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic period. As well as Salieri, they included Sacchini, Cherubini, Méhul and Spontini. Antonio Sacchini (14 June 1730&ndash6 October 1786 was an Italian Opera Composer. Luigi Cherubini ( September 8 or September 14, 1760 &ndash March 15, 1842) was an Italian born composer who spent most of his Etienne Henri (or Nicolas) Méhul ( June 22, 1763 - October 18, 1817) was a French Composer, "the Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini ( 14 November, 1774 &ndash 24 January, 1851) was an Italian Opera Composer Gluck's greatest French admirer would be Hector Berlioz, whose epic Les Troyens may be seen as the culmination of the Gluckian tradition. Les Troyens (in English The Trojans) is a French Opera in five acts by Hector Berlioz. Though Gluck wrote no operas in German, his example influenced the German school of opera, particularly Weber and Wagner, whose concept of music drama was not so far removed from Gluck's own. Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber ( 18 December 1786 in Eutin, Holstein, Germany - 5 June 1826 in London