The Christian right is a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of conservative social and political values. In Politics, right-wing, the political right, and the Right are positions that uphold traditional values and/or authorities A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined The politically active social movement of the Christian right includes individuals from a wide variety of theological beliefs, ranging from moderately traditional movements within Lutheranism and Catholicism to theologically more conservative movements such as Evangelicalism, Pentecostalism and Fundamentalist Christianity. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and
The terms Christian right and Religious right are often used interchangeably, although the terms are not synonymous. Religious right can refer to any religiously motivated conservative movement, whether specific to one religion or shared across religious lines. For example, conservative Christians, Muslim social conservatives, and Orthodox Jews cooperate in national and international projects through the World Congress of Families and United Nations NGO gatherings. The World Congress of Families is an international meeting of pro-family organisations that was first held in 1997 in Prague.  Christian right on the other hand refers to only the Christian segment of the Religious right and includes leaders who are outspoken critics of radical Islam and other faiths, regardless of their political leanings. Islamic fundamentalism Arabic: usul (from usul the "fundamentals"] is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the 
The term Christian right is used by people from a wide range of political and religious viewpoints, for self identification and outside commentary. Some 15% of the electorate in the United States tell pollsters they align themselves with the Christian right, which serves as an important voting bloc within the U. S. Republican Party. In recent years, Christian right groups have appeared in other countries than the United States. However, the Christian right remains a idiosyncratic phenomenon most commonly associated with the United States. 
The movement became prominent due to a variety of developments including the "shift in gravity" (the movement of the Christian population) to the South and West, both in regards to population movements and to rising leaders in the "anti-establishment" of the West, which consequently led to more power in electoral votes. Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr ( August 11 1933 – May 15, 2007) was an American evangelical Christian Pastor, The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an Agenda of evangelical Christian -oriented political Lobbying 
An important factor that led to the concentration of the Christian Right's popularity was creating a climate where churches would be central in the absence of community. It was the physical design of neighborhoods, particularly in developing areas like southern California that were unique to the movement. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The 'planned sprawl' model of development fostered an environment of private growth, often spread out, in absence of public space and weakening the community bonds of the area. The church thus became an alternative means for establishing a sense of togetherness, and a place for social activity. The church acted as the new center for the community, bringing people together for socialization and the exchange of ideas. The growth of the church community was integral in the subsequent mobilization of conservative activists, particularly in suburban areas. 
The alienation of Southern Democrats also contributed to the rise of the Right as a result of the dissolution over race, particularly after desegregation efforts following the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and the Barry Goldwater campaign attracted members of the Southern elite into the Republican party. The Right also grew as a reaction of the progressive culture of the 1960s and a fear of social disintegration. This has created the idea racial tension often attributed to the social construct of the Christian right. 
The contemporary Christian right became increasingly vocal and organized in reaction to a series of United States Supreme Court decisions (notably Roe v. Wade) and also engaged in local battles over pornography, obscenity, taxation of private Christian schools, state sanctioned prayer in public schools, textbook contents (concerning evolution vs. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Roe v Wade, 410 US 113 (1973 is a controversial United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a Landmark decision regarding Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer Obscenity (in Latin obscenus, meaning "foul repulsive detestable" is a term that is most often used in a legal context to School prayer in its most common usage refers to state sanctioned Prayer by students in state Schools. A textbook is a manual of instruction or a standard book in any branch of study intelligent design), homosexuality and abortion. Intelligent Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. An The movement strengthened as an influential movement through grassroots activists, intellectual think tanks (such as American Enterprise Institute, Heritage Foundation, Hoover Foundation, etc), and a wide range of media institutions and key media figures (i. The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI is a conservative Think tank, founded in 1943 The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative Think tank. e. National Review, Rupert Murdoch, and Rush Limbaugh). National Review ( NR) is a biweekly Magazine and Web site, founded by the late author William F is gay Bold text' Keith Rupert Murdoch', AC, KCSG (born Melbourne, March 11 1931 usually known as Rupert Murdoch, is an Australian-American Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio host and conservative Political commentator.
Much of the Christian right's power within the American political system is attributed to their extraordinary turnout rate at the polls. The voters that coexist in the Christian Right are also highly motivated and driven to get out a viewpoint on issues they care about. As well as high voter turnout, they can be counted on to attend political events, knock on doors and distribute literature. Members of the Christian Right are willing to do the electoral work needed to see their candidate elected. Because of their high level of devotion, the Christian right does not need to monetarily compensate these people for their work, thus making them a valuable resource for Christian right. 
Led by Robert Grant's Christian Voice, Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority, Ed McAteer's Religious Roundtable Council, James Dobson's Focus on the Family, and Pat Robertson's Christian Broadcasting Network, the New Religious Right combined conservative politics with evangelical and fundamentalist teachings. Dr Robert G Grant (*1936 is one of the early leaders of the Christian Right in America. There is an unconnected organization called Christian Voice in the UK Christian Voice is an American conservative Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr ( August 11 1933 – May 15, 2007) was an American evangelical Christian Pastor, The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an Agenda of evangelical Christian -oriented political Lobbying WikipediaPersondata --> James Clayton "Jim" Dobson (born April 21, 1936 in Shreveport, Louisiana Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22 1930 is a controversial Televangelist from the United States. The Christian Broadcasting Network, or CBN, is a Christian Television broadcasting network in the United States.  The birth of the New Christian right, however, is usually traced to a 1979 meeting where televangelist Jerry Falwell was urged to create a "Moral Majority" organization. The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an Agenda of evangelical Christian -oriented political Lobbying 
One early effort to institutionalize the Christian right as a politically-active social movement began in 1974 when Dr. Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22 1930 is a controversial Televangelist from the United States. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Dr R Randolph "Randy" Brinson (born 1957 is a Christian right activist and Gastroenterologist from Montgomery Alabama. Redeem the Vote is a Christian right organization founded by Randy Brinson during the 2004 presidential campaign to register young evangelical Christians Rock the Vote is a 501(c(3 Non-profit organization founded in Los Angeles in 1990 by Jeff Ayeroff for the purposes of political advocacy The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an Agenda of evangelical Christian -oriented political Lobbying For other organizations with a similar name see Christian Coalition. Eagle Forum is a conservative interest group in the United States founded by Phyllis Schlafly in 1967 and is the parent organization that also includes Robert Grant, an early movement leader, founded American Christian Cause to advocate Christian moral teachings in Southern California. Dr Robert G Grant (*1936 is one of the early leaders of the Christian Right in America. Concerned that Christians overwhelmingly voted in favor of President Jimmy Carter in 1976, Grant founded Christian Voice to mobilize Christian voters in favor of candidates who share their values. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 There is an unconnected organization called Christian Voice in the UK Christian Voice is an American conservative
In the late 1980s Pat Robertson founded the Christian Coalition, building from his 1988 presidential run, with Republican activist Ralph Reed, who became the spokesman for the Coalition. For other organizations with a similar name see Christian Coalition. -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties Ralph Reed may refer to Ralph E Reed Jr, American political strategist Ralph Edwin Reed American baseball player better known as Ted Reed In 1992, the national Christian Coalition, Inc. , headquartered in Virginia Beach, Virginia, began producing voter guides which it distributed to conservative Christian churches. Under the leadership of Reed and Robertson, the Coalition quickly became the most prominent voice in the conservative Christian movement, its influence culminating with an effort to support the election of a conservative Christian to the presidency in 1996. The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice In addition, they have talked about attempting to intersperse the traditional moral issues associated with the Christian Right into a broader message that emphasizes other political issues, such as healthcare, the economy, education and crime. 
Political activists worked within the Republican party locally and nationally to influence party platforms and nominations . More recently Dr. James Dobson's group Focus on the Family, based in Colorado Springs and its lobbying arm the Family Research Council in Washington D. The Family Research Council (FRC is a Christian right Non-profit Think tank and Lobbying organization. C have gained enormous clout among Republican lawmakers. While strongly advocating for these "moral issues", Dobson himself is more wary of the political spectrum and much of the resources of his group are devoted to other aims such as media.  However, as a private citizen, Dobson has stated his opinion on presidential elections; on February 5, 2008, Dobson issued a statement regarding the 2008 presidential election and his strong disappointment with the Republican party's candidates. 
The Christian Right is filled with many nuances that are sometimes not conveyed adequately. The role of Christian Right in politics is unique, reaching beyond the simplistic view that they represent a singular, homogeneous sect that vote on issues concerning abortion or homosexuality. An activist like Ralph Reed represents the complexities of the Christian Right that are sometimes ignored. Ralph Reed, in an essay written in 1996, argues against the Moral Absolutist tone of leaders in the Christian Right. He argued for the Republican Party Platform to stress the moral dimension of abortion rather than placing emphasis on the repealing of Roe v. Wade. Ralph Reed believes that pragmatism is the best way to advocate for the Christian Right. 
Small churches self-identified as within the Christian right have taken overtly partisan actions, which are generally considered inappropriate in most conservative Protestant churches, and which could threaten these organizations' tax-exempt status. In one notable example, the former pastor of the East Waynesville Baptist Church in Waynesville, North Carolina "told the congregation that anyone who planned to vote for Democratic Sen. John Kerry (the Democratic presidential candidate in 2004) should either leave the church or repent". Waynesville is an incorporated Town in Haywood County, North Carolina, United States of America The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator Repentance is a change of thought and action to correct a wrong and gain Forgiveness from the one wronged  The church later expelled nine members who had voted for Kerry and refused to repent, which led to criticism on the national level. The pastor resigned and the ousted church members were allowed to return. 
Christian Right organizations conduct polls to determine which candidate will be supported and ultimately, represent, the Christian Right in the public sphere. The Family Research Council (FRC is a Christian right Non-profit Think tank and Lobbying organization. For example, from October 19 to October 21, 2007 the Family Research Council convened a summit of several hundred conservative Christian activists in Washington, DC called the Values Voters Summit. The Family Research Council (FRC is a Christian right Non-profit Think tank and Lobbying organization. The mission of the meeting was to conduct a straw poll on who is the best choice for religious conservatives.  George W. Bush's electoral success owed much to his overwhelming support from white evangelical voters, who comprise 23% of the vote. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. In 2000 he received 68% of the white evangelical vote; in 2004 that percentage rose to 78%. 
The Home School Legal Defense Association was cofounded in 1983 by Michael Farris, who would later establish Patrick Henry College, and Michael Smith. Patrick Henry College, or PHC, is a private independent Protestant College that focuses on teaching classical Liberal arts and Government This organization attempts to challenge laws that serve as obstacles to allowing parents to homeschool their children and to organize the disparate group of homschooling families into a cohesive bloc. The number of homeschooling families has increased in the last twenty years, and around 80 percent of these families identify themselves as evangelicals.
A number of universities and colleges have been founded due to the growing popularity of the Christian right. The main universities associated with the Christian Right are:
The media has played a major role in the rise of the Christian Right since the 1920s and has continued to be a powerful force for the movement today. The 700 Club is the flagship news Talk show of the Christian Broadcasting Network, airing on cable's ABC Family and in syndication The Christian Broadcasting Network, or CBN, is a Christian Television broadcasting network in the United States. Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term " inspirational music " is a genre of Popular music which is The role of the media for the Religious Right has been influential in its ability to connect Christian audiences to the larger American culture while at the same time bringing together religion, politics, and culture that was personal and practical.  The political agenda of the Christian Right has been disseminated to the public through a variety of media outlets including radio broadcasting, television, and books. Religious broadcasting began in the 1920s through the radio.  Between the 1950s and 1980s, TV became a powerful way for the Christian Right to influence the public through shows such as Pat Robertson's 700 Club and The Family Channel. Family, sometimes referred to as Family Channel, is a Canadian Premium television service marketed to children The use of the Internet has also helped the Christian Right reach a much larger audience. Organizations websites contain easily accessible and detailed information on the issues the organizations are involved in and the positions they take, along with ways the site viewer can get involved. The Christian Coalition, for example, has used the Internet to inform the public, as well as sell merchandise and gather members. 
Contemporary Christian Music has grown in popularity since the late 1960’s. Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term " inspirational music " is a genre of Popular music which is In fact the sales of religious music increased 318 percent in the 16 years between 1989 and 2005.  Music that is influenced by the styles of mainstream culture, but with lyrics of biblical reference and contemporary controversial themes airs on Christian radio stations. Contemporary Christian Music has a large influence on the youth of the Christian Right, making Christian musicians role models within the Christian community. 
The Christian Right is a movement that has been difficult to define due to the heterogeneity of the movement. Although they are virtually unanimous on certain issues such as abortion, some contrasting viewpoints can be found among people who identify themselves as members of the Christian Right. For example, there is dissent regarding issues such as capital punishment and global warming.
As a right-wing political movement, the Christian right is strongly opposed to left-wing ideologies such as Socialism, and opposed to left-wing policies such as the welfare state. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. One reason for the Christian Right's opposition to these movements is the significance given to the individual--individualism is an important component of the Christian Right ideology. Another reason is that communism was seen as a threat to the Western Judeo-Christian tradition. 
It also supports economic conservative policies such as tax cuts and social conservative policies such as child tax credits and State and Federal money for Christian causes and organizations.
The Christian Right has made inroads on issues of the public school because many of their followers have been able to influence the curriculum of school districts by running for and winning school board elections. Research suggests that these candidates run to apply their religious or moral beliefs to school policy.  The smaller the jurisdiction, the greater the tendency for the Christian Right pragmatically to support favorable candidates who can win, regardless of political-party affiliation.
Their stance on the Middle East can be traced to their beliefs about biblical prophecy, which includes inter-religious conflict, support for the war in Iraq, and strong political support for Israel. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
Some members of the Christian Right base their stance on Middle Eastern politics on their belief in the Second Coming. In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven to earth an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic This precept views the foundation of a Jewish State (Israel) as a necessary precursor to Christ’s return to earth. For this reason, those who believe in the Second Coming give public support to protecting the state of Israel.
Some groups, such as American Christian Zionists, believe the establishment of the state of Israel was a precursor to the Second Coming of Christ, and that war between the Jews and Arabs was prophesised in the Bible.  Ed McAteer, founder of the Moral Majority, said of the current situation in the Middle East: "I believe that we are seeing prophecy unfold so rapidly and dramatically and wonderfully and, without exaggerating, makes me breathless. The Moral Majority was a political organization of the United States which had an Agenda of evangelical Christian -oriented political Lobbying "
Gershom Gorenberg said, "The Jews die or convert. Gershom Gorenberg is an American -born Israeli historian journalist and blogger, specializing in the Middle Eastern politics and the interaction of religion As a Jew, I can’t feel very comfortable with the affections of somebody who looks forward to that scenario. They don’t love real Jewish people. They love us as characters in their story, in their play, and that’s not who we are, and we never auditioned for that part, and the play is not one that ends up good for us. If you listen to the drama they’re describing, essentially it’s a five-act play in which the Jews disappear in the fourth act. "
Isreali political analyst Yossi Alfer has also criticised this view, saying "It’s not good for the Jews. We have to get God out of this conflict if we’re going to have any chance to survive as a healthy, secure Jewish state. "
The Christian right builds the foundation for its beliefs on sexuality and reproduction around its article of faith: the nuclear family. The term nuclear family developed in the Western world to distinguish the Family group consisting of parents most commonly a Father and Mother
The conclusions of a review of 112 studies on Christian faith and ethnic prejudice were summarised by a later study as being that "white Protestants associated with groups possessing fundamentalist belief systems are generally more prejudiced than members of nonfundamentalist groups, with unchurched whites exhibiting least prejudice. " The original review found that its conclusions held "regardless of when the studies were conducted, from whom the data came, the region where the data were collected, or the type of prejudice studied. " More recently, at least eight studies have found a positive correlation between fundamentalism and prejudice, using different measures of fundamentalism. 
A number of prominent members of the Christian right, including Jerry Falwell and Rousas John Rushdoony, have in the past supported segregation, with Falwell arguing in a 1958 sermon that integration will lead to the destruction of the white race. Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr ( August 11 1933 – May 15, 2007) was an American evangelical Christian Pastor, Rousas John Rushdoony ( 25 April 1916 &ndash 8 February 2001) was a Calvinist philosopher  He later claimed he changed his views. 
In Thy Kingdom Come, Randall Balmer recounts comments that Paul M. Weyrich, who he describes as "one of the architects of the Religious Right in the late 1970s", made at a conference, sponsored by a Religious Right organization, that they both attended in Washington in 1990:
|“||In the course of one of the sessions, Weyrich tried to make a point to his Religious Right brethren (no women attended the conference, as I recall). Randall Herbert Balmer (born October 22 1954) is an American author professor of American religious history at Barnard College, Columbia University Paul M Weyrich (born October 7, 1942, in Racine Wisconsin) is a US conservative political activist and commentator Let's remember, he said animatedly, that the Religious Right did not come together in response to the Roe decision. No, Weyrich insisted, what got us going as a political movement was the attempt on the part of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to rescind the tax-exempt status of Bob Jones University because of its racially discriminatory policies.||”|
Bob Jones University had policies which refused black students enrollment until 1971, admitted only married blacks from 1971 to 1975, and prohibited interracial dating and marriage between 1975 and 2000. Bob Jones University ( BJU) is a private, Protestant fundamentalist, Liberal arts University Bob Jones University ( BJU) is a private, Protestant fundamentalist, Liberal arts University
|“||As someone who grew up in Mississippi and Alabama during the civil rights movement, … my reading is that the conservative Christian movement never was able to distinguish itself from the segregationist movement, and that is one of the reasons I find so much of the rhetoric familiar — and unsettling. This article is about the newspaper For the description of a person see Politico. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research |
By the end of the civil rights movement, the way was set for this marriage of the Republican Party and conservative Christians. … At the Neshoba County Fair in Mississippi in 1980, (Ronald) Reagan's statement "I am for states' rights" was a remarkable moment in the conservative South. The Southern way of life was affirmed and then deftly grafted into national conservative politics.
Sara Diamond, Frederick Clarkson, and some other critics of the Christian right claim that the Christian right's political agendas are a form of Dominionism influenced by Dominion Theology and Christian Reconstructionism; the latter two are related philosophies that regard the Bible as the only strictly true reference for civics, government, scientific theory or any scholarly pursuit. Dominionism describes in several distinct ways a tendency among some conservative politically-active Christians, especially in the United States Sara Rose Diamond (born 1958 is an American Sociologist and attorney and the author of four books that "study and expose the agenda and tactics of the American political Frederick Clarkson is an American Journalist and Public speaker in the fields of Politics and Religion. Dominionism describes in several distinct ways a tendency among some conservative politically-active Christians, especially in the United States This is a sub-article to Dominionism and Theology. See Dominion (disambiguation for other meanings of the word Dominion Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity that calls for Christians to put their faith into action in all Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Many in the Christian right oppose this point of view, and no major Christian right leader has gone on record as advocating Reconstructionism, although some admit being influenced by Reconstructionist philosophical writings.
Dan Olinger, a professor at the Fundamentalist Bob Jones University in Greenville said, “We want to be good citizens and participants, but we’re not really interested in using the iron fist of the law to compel people to everything Christians should do. Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and Bob Jones University ( BJU) is a private, Protestant fundamentalist, Liberal arts University Greenville is a mid-sized city located in the upstate of South Carolina. ”
And Bob Marcaurelle, interim pastor at Mountain Springs Baptist Church in Piedmont, said the Middle Ages were proof enough that Christian ruling groups are almost always corrupted by power. “When Christianity becomes the government, the question is whose Christianity?” Marcaurelle asked. 
"Most Americans still do not realize how extraordinary their brand of conservatism is. While the American Left - unions, academics, public-sector workers - have their equivalents overseas, Dustin [Hastert], Maura, Focus on the Family, the angry taxpayers and the militant gun owners are distinctly American. "  While the Christian Right is a stronger movement in the United States, other western nations have their own Christian right movements. A brief summary and evaluation of those movements follow.
In Australia, the Christian right has had mixed fortunes. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. In the case of the anti-abortion movement, there has been considerable fragmentation between the Federation of Right to Life Associations and Right to Life Australia. The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of Abortion. Right to Life Australia is an organisation which advocates Pro-life positions in issues such as Abortion, Euthanasia and Stem cell research. The latter favours direct action tactics, and has tended to alienate public opinion. Two other organisations that both began in 1995 with a Christian right focus and agenda were the Australian Christian Coalition, now known as the Australian Christian Lobby, and Salt Shakers. The Australian Christian Lobby has its headquarters in Canberra with State Offices, whilst Salt Shakers has a single office in Melbourne. Over time the Australian Christian Lobby has moved from the political right to a centre right position whilst Salt Shakers has not. Both have had their wins and losses over the 11 years that they have been operating. Both organisations form loose coalitions with other like minded organizations. These coalitions are issue focused and come and go as issues come and go.
In New South Wales, Reverend Fred Nile and his Christian Democratic Party have occupied two to three Legislative Council seats since the 1980s. Frederick John Nile (born 15 September 1934) Australian politician clergyman and social activist has been a member of the New South Wales Legislative The Christian Democratic Party (CDP is a minor Political party in Australia. The New South Wales Legislative Council, or upper house is one of the two chambers of the parliament of New South Wales in Australia. Nile has been conspicuously unsuccessful in his efforts against the popular Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras, and lesbian/gay rights legislation in general, as well as abortion. An
Similarly, his former vehicle, the South Australia-based Festival of Light has been ebbing in recent years. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country See Also Festival of Light (disambiguation Origin The idea of an Australian Festival of Light began in the home of an Adelaide In that state, the Family First political party has been elected at the state and federal upper house levels. Victoria used to be the headquarters of the National Civic Council, a conservative Catholic organisation that still produces News Weekly, a conservative Catholic news publication that opposes free market capitalism as well as reproductive choice, voluntary euthanasia and lesbian/gay rights.
For a decade, this movement delayed the introduction of medical abortion in Australia (1996-2005). A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical Abortion in which a drug is used to induce the abortion As time went on, all Australian states and territories either partially or fully decriminalised abortion access, although keeping abortion-on-demand illegal. Eventually, a unified multipartisan pro-choice movement insured passage of legislation that repealed obstacles within the federal Therapeutic Goods Act.
The former Liberal-National Coalition federal government under Prime Minister John Howard banned same-sex marriage and had threatened to legislate against proposed civil unions for lesbians and gay men at the federal level, as it had previously done against euthanasia law reform after the Northern Territory parliament carried it out in 1995. The Coalition in Australian politics refers to a pragmatic grouping of Centre-right parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922 This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the center of the mainland continent as well as the central northern regions Euthanasia marks a particular point of conflict. In 2005, the Howard administration passed an anti-euthanasia Criminal Code Amendment (Suicide Related Offences) Act, which made it illegal to "aid or abet the suicide or attempted suicide" or "incite or counsel another person to commit suicide".  However, with its 2007 defeat, the Australian Labor Party controls all jurisdictions. Labor Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has stated he personally opposes same-sex marriage. Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957 is the 26th and current Prime Minister of Australia and federal leader of the Centre-left Australian Labor 
In Australia, Protestant fundamentalist movements have supported conservative state or provincial or national governments. In the case of Fred Nile, he has strongly supported former federal Prime Minister John Howard and his (Liberal Party of Australia/National Party of Australia) Coalition federal government, as has South Australia's Family First party, represented at the state and federal levels. Frederick John Nile (born 15 September 1934) Australian politician clergyman and social activist has been a member of the New South Wales Legislative See also Howard Government John Winston Howard AC (born 26 July 1939 was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia from 11 March The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party. The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party.
While other western Christian right movements model themselves after the US Christian right and seek closer ties with their dominant national center-right parties, efforts backfired in New Zealand and perhaps Canada and have only succeeded in Australia, and only at the federal level, at that.
Canada has had a Charter of Rights and Freedoms since the Canadian Constitution was patriated in 1982. On July 20, 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide with the approval of the Civil Marriage Act. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (also known as The Charter of Rights and Freedoms or simply the Charter) is a Bill of rights entrenched in the The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's Constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions As a result, there have been major changes in the law's application to issues that bear on individual and minority group rights. Abortion rights were completely decriminalized after two R. v. Morgentaler cases (in 1988 and in 1993). R v Morgentaler  1 SCR 30 was a decision of the Supreme Court of Canada wherein the Abortion provision in the Criminal Code of R v Morgentaler 3 SCR 463 was a decision by the Supreme Court of Canada invalidating a provincial attempt to regulate abortions in Canada A series of provincial superior court decisions allowing same-sex marriage, led the federal government to introduce legislation that introduced same sex marriage in all of Canada. The current prime minister, Stephen Harper and his Conservative Party of Canada, stated before taking office that he would hold a free vote on the issue , but declared the issue closed after a vote in the Canadian House of Commons in 2006 . WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC The Conservative Party of Canada ( Parti conservateur du Canada) colloquially known as the " Tories " is a conservative The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and
A number of groups can be characterized as religiously motivated and right of centre. Groups that support traditional definitions of the family such as REAL Women of Canada, and pro-life supporters within Campaign Life Coalition, and political parties like the Christian Heritage Party of Canada and Family Coalition Party of Ontario, as well as Focus on the Family Canada, a satellite of the US-based multinational Focus on the Family, based in Colorado Springs, might all be included. REAL Women of Canada is a socially conservative Lobby group in Canada. The Campaign Life Coalition (often called Campaign Life) is a Canadian socially conservative group primarily associated with the Pro-life movement Electoral activity National leaders Ron Gray, national leader Jim Hnatiuk, deputy leader Kelsey The Family Coalition Party is a small political party in Ontario, Canada that promotes a socially conservative ideology Focus on the Family Canada is a Canadian affiliate of the American evangelical Christian organization Focus on the Family. These groups have limited influence and the political parties among them have never been elected to office.
These groups have had little success in advancing their agenda when faced with Charter challenges on the grounds of gender equality or protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation; the trend has been toward increased liberalization in these areas.
Similarly, in Canada, REAL Women of Canada and Campaign Life Coalition vociferously supported Stephen Harper and his Conservative Party of Canada in the Canadian general election held in late 2005. REAL Women of Canada is a socially conservative Lobby group in Canada. The Campaign Life Coalition (often called Campaign Life) is a Canadian socially conservative group primarily associated with the Pro-life movement WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC The Conservative Party of Canada ( Parti conservateur du Canada) colloquially known as the " Tories " is a conservative Thirteen federal Conservative MPs voted against a 2006 federal bill that would have repealed legislation that introduced same-sex marriage in Canada. On July 20, 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide with the approval of the Civil Marriage Act. In the 2006 federal election for a variety of reasons, Harper and the Canadian Tories only succeeded in achieving a minority government, and seem to have backed away from divisive tactics like repeal of federal same-sex marriage legislation. The 2006 Canadian federal election (more formally the 39th General Election) was held on January 23 2006 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same
In New Zealand, a unitary state, with a single parliamentary chamber, there was little opportunity for social conservative niche parties to influence politics until the electorate voted for Mixed Member Proportional electoral reform at a referendum held in 1993. Mixed member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is an ' additional member '
United Future New Zealand had been the only socially conservative party able to take advantage of this, but had not conspicuously succeeded in preventing sex work decriminalisation or civil union laws, and won reduced support at the New Zealand general election 2005. United Future New Zealand is a New Zealand Political party. As of 2008 it has two members of the New Zealand Parliament – party leader Peter Dunne The 2005 New Zealand general election took place on 17 September 2005 and determined the composition of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. At that election, the Exclusive Brethren may have alienated urban voters from Don Brash and his National Party. The Exclusive Brethren are a subset of the Christian evangelical movement generally described as the Plymouth Brethren. Dr Donald Thomas Brash (born 24 September 1940) a former New Zealand politician served as the Leader of the Opposition and parliamentary leader The New Zealand National Party ("National" or "the Nats" currently forms the second-largest (in terms of parliamentary seats Political party In 2007 United Future lost its conservative Christian faction, and the party has rebranded itself as a sensible, moderate centre party.
The United Kingdom has also had an active Christian right movement, whose fortunes peaked during the 1980s, under the Conservative Party administration of Margaret Thatcher, a social conservative. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 However, Mary Whitehouse and her National Viewers and Listeners Association (now Mediawatch-uk) were the only political beneficiaries of tighter censorship legislation and policy during the eighties. Mary Whitehouse CBE ( 13 June 1910 – 23 November 2001) was a British campaigner for values of Morality mediawatch-uk, formerly known as the National Viewers' and Listeners' Association (NVALA is a special interest Pressure group in the United Kingdom, which mediawatch-uk, formerly known as the National Viewers' and Listeners' Association (NVALA is a special interest Pressure group in the United Kingdom, which The Thatcher administration passed Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988, the effect of which was disputed but which aimed to reduce the "promotion" of homosexuality by local authorities. Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988 was a controversial amendment to the United Kingdom 's Local Government Act 1986 enacted on 24 May The United Kingdom Local Government Act of 1988 was famous for introducing the controversial Section 28 into law
During the 1990s, John Major pursued a softer stance, and Edwina Currie, a libertarian Conservative MP, produced a private members bill to reduce the gay male age of consent from twenty-one to sixteen. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Edwina Currie Jones née Cohen (born 13 October 1946) is a former British Member of Parliament. However, the British Parliament accepted eighteen as a compromise age of consent. In 2001, full age of consent equality prevailed. From 1997 to 2007, Tony Blair was Prime Minister, and fully supportive of lesbian/gay rights. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to Under his Labour Party government, Clause 28 was repealed, the gay male age of consent was equalised at sixteen (2001), civil partnership legislation (civil unions) were introduced, and gay adoption reform passed after several libertarian Conservative MPs crossed the floor to support the measure. LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people
Many Christian right issues are treated of matters of conscience by major parties for the purposes of the parliamentary whip, meaning the policies of parties are less important than those of individual members. In recent years, none of the major political parties has promoted such policies, and parliament has moved away from them in free votes. Outside the major political parties, there have been campaigns from small hard-line groups such as The Christian Institute and the Scottish Christian Party. The Christian Institute (CI is a British contemporary evangelical Christian registered charity. Despite occasional attempts to reduce time limits for abortion access, British pro-life groups have been unsuccessful at limiting women's abortion access, due to that country's long-established and vigilant pro-choice movement. Overview See also Ethical aspects of abortion Pro-choice advocates emphasize their beliefs that having a child is a personal choice that affects a woman's body and Some newspapers such as the Daily Mail and Daily Express run campaigns and print right-leaning coverage on subjects such as pornography and some of the aims of gay rights campaigners. The Daily Mail is a British newspaper currently published in a tabloid format The Daily Express is a conservative Middle-market British Tabloid Newspaper.
Britain, Canada and New Zealand have all faced repeated attempts to introduce voluntary euthanasia legislation, or decriminalise voluntary euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide through the courts, in the case of Canada. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner Physician-assisted suicide: may refer to Euthanasia, in cases where the physician performs the action may refer to Assisted suicide, where However, to date, none of these reform efforts have passed the select committee stage in any national, federal or provincial parliament. For example, a euthanasia law reform bill has just been postponed in the United Kingdom's House of Lords, after a massive anti-euthanasia/pro-care rally in London. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords"
In the United Kingdom, Margaret Thatcher actively courted the conservative Christian vote throughout her tenure as Prime Minister (1979-1990). Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 However, despite Clause 28 and stricter censorship law and policy, the Conservative Family Campaign proved to be divisive, and the Conservative Party has always had a more active socially liberal libertarian contingent than its Republican counterpart in the United States. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the The Conservative Family Campaign was closed down in the late nineties under John Major, and replaced with a less strident Conservative Christian Fellowship. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Conservative Christian Fellowship is an organisation allied with the British Conservative Party, established in 1990 by Tim Montgomerie To complicate matters, there are also left-wing evangelicals in British Protestant circles, who strongly disagree with the US Christian right over issues like social and environmental policies, and major evangelical and anti-abortion lobby groups like CARE, SPUC and LIFE have always been careful to appear nonpartisan, and not alienate social conservatives within the Labour Party and Liberal Democrats. Society for the Protection of Unborn Children ( SPUC) is a Pro-life organization in the United Kingdom and several other countries The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the
Under new Tory leader David Cameron, it appears that the British Conservatives have decided that there is no benefit in seeking socially conservative constituencies if they alienate younger, gay, urban professional or female voters. David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966 is a British Politician and the current leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of Her Majesty's
In Britain, the Conservative Party has backed away from actively courting evangelical and fundamentalist voters out of fear of alienating other significant electoral interest constituencies. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom.
A recent study by the Barna Research Group concluded that most Americans under the age of 40 have a negative view of evangelical Christians as a result of the activities of the Christian Right. 
When describing voting trends of twenty-somethings, neoconservative journalist David Frum commented on a divergence of viewpoint between the Christian right and younger generations and the inability of the current Christian right leadership to connect with the values and aspirations of the next generation:
The Republican Party has become increasingly identified with conservative Christianity. Neoconservatism (or Neocon is a Right-wing political philosophy that emerged in the United States from the rejection of the Social liberalism, Moral relativism David J Frum (born 1960 is a Canadian-born Conservative and journalist active in the both US and Canadian political arenas Younger Americans are becoming more secular and more permissive. In particular, young Americans have become increasingly tolerant of homosexuality and increasingly willing to have children outside marriage. While unmarried births have dropped among teenagers since the welfare reform of 1995, unmarried births have actually been rising among women in their 20s.
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