of St. Ignatius of Antioch
(†107) being eaten by lions. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John
A Christian martyr is one who is murdered or put to death for his Christian faith or convictions. Many Christian martyrs suffered cruel and torturous deaths like stoning, crucifixion, and burning at the stake. Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of Capital punishment whereby an organized group throws stones at the convicted individual until the person dies Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from Execution by burning has a long history as a method of Punishment for Crimes such as Treason, Heresy and Witchcraft The word 'martyr' comes from the Greek word translated "witness. The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom " Martyrdom is the result of religious persecution. Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs of affiliations.
The first known Christian martyr was Saint Stephen as recorded in the Acts 6:8–8:3, who was stoned to death for his faith. Stephen was killed (i. e. , martyred) for his support, belief and faith in Jesus Christ of Nazareth as the Messiah. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Nazareth (ˈnæzərəθ (נָצְרַת Hebrew Natz'rat or Natzeret, الناصرة an-Nāṣira or an-Naseriyye) is the capital and largest This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions There were probably other early Christian martyrs besides Stephen since Saul, later-known as the Apostle Paul of Tarsus, is mentioned as bringing many murderous threats against the disciples or followers of Jesus (Acts 9:1ff. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and ).
In subsequent centuries, during periods of widespread persecution, and in particular during the Protestant Reformation, many Christians were martyred, being charged alternately as heretics or Papists. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Papist is a term usually disparaging or an Anti-Catholic slur referring to a member of the Catholic Church. Modern statistics of total Christian martyrs are estimated to total around 70 Million. 
Significance of martyrdom in Christian theology
In 1933 the German church historian Ethelbert Stauffer put forth a thesis regarding the role of martyrdom in Christian theology (specifically Anabaptist theology). 
According to Stauffer, in the period of post-canonical Judaism (since about 175 B. C. ) a new viewpoint impressed itself on the then flourishing apocryphal literature: the idea that suffering and martyrdom for one's faith are the very meaning of the happenings of history, for a double reason: (a) they represent a causal necessity in the great fight between the divine and the satanic order. The great Adversary does not allow a pure realization of God's plan, at least not in this present aeon or world period. (b) Such suffering, however, serves at the same time a very great purpose: it ushers in the new aeon. Death becomes victory, martyrdom is an expiating sacrifice, and Satan will be overcome only by such nonresistant suffering. That was the teaching of Daniel 3 (the three men in the furnace) and of the Second and Third Book of the Maccabees (e. g. , the story of the mother and her seven sons). In short, the apocalyptic, pre-Christian literature offers this double justification of martyrdom: causally it is inescapable, and teleologically ("what for") it is absolutely meaningful.
The New Testament continued this apocalyptic trend even further; the Cross becoming the very center not only of salvation but also the vindication of all martyrdom for conscience' sake. In fact the idea of Nachfolge or discipleship would almost be without meaning if it were not connected with such earthly tribulations. The believer's conflict with the "world" is the surest indication that the disciple is true to the master, testifying for another reality and preparing for the coming of the kingdom. Two figures of speech soon became generally accepted: the disciple must become a "soldier" [occasionally also called a "knight"] of Christ who "fights the good fight" to the bitter end, and secondly, baptism is called death just as death is a sort of baptism by blood.
The lives of the martyrs became a great source of inspiration for the Christians and their lives and relics were greatly revered. Second century Church Father, Tertullian wrote that "The blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians", implying that the willing sacrificing of the martyrs lives leads to the conversion of many more. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca  Even to this day, relics of the saints are given great reverence in the Church. The age of martyrdom also helped develop some of the liturgical worship such as having relics in altars, and the architecture of the buildings built for worship.
The age of martyrs also forced the church to confront theological issues such as the proper response to those Christians who “lapsed” and renounced the Christian faith to save their lives…. were they to be allowed back into the Church? Some felt they should not while others said they could. In the end, it was agreed to allow them in after a period of penance. The re-admittance of the “lapsed” became a defining moment in the Church because it allowed the sacrament of repentance and readmission to the Church despite issues of sin.
History of Christian martyrdom
Apostolic Age—1st century
Saint Stephen, depicted by Carlo Crivelli
in 1476 with three stones and the martyrs' palm. "Crivelli" redirects to this page See Crivelli (surname for more
- Saint Stephen, Protomartyr, was stoned c. Protomartyr ( Koine Greek, πρότος prótos "first" + μάρτυρας mártyras " Martyr " is a 34 A. Year 34 was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. D.
- James the Great (Son of Zebedee) was beheaded in 44 A. For people and places called Saint James, see the Saint James disambiguation page Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal Year 44 was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. D.
- Philip the Apostle was crucified in 54 A. Saint Philip was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. Later Christian traditions describe Philip as the apostle who proselytized in Year 54 was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. D.
- Matthew the Evangelist killed by a halberd in 60 A. Matthew the Evangelist (מתי/מתתיהו "Gift of Yahweh " Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay or Mattithyahu Year 60 was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. D.
- James the Just, beaten to death by a club after being crucified and stoned. Saint James the Just ( Hebrew: יעקב or Jacob ( Greek Iάκωβος (died 62AD also known as James of Jerusalem, James Adelphotheos
- Matthias was stoned and beheaded. In the New Testament Acts of the Apostles, the author of the Gospel of Luke records that Saint Matthias was the Apostle chosen by the remaining
- Saint Andrew, St. Peter's brother, was crucified.
- Mark was beaten to death. "Saint Mark" redirects here For other uses see Saint Mark (disambiguation.
- Saint Peter, crucified upside-down.
- Apostle Paul, beheaded in Rome. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and
- Saint Jude was crucified. Saint Jude was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. He is generally identified with Thaddeus, and is also variously called Jude of James
- Saint Bartholomew flayed alive and crucified. Saint Bartholomew was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bartholomew (Βαρθολομαίος transliterated "Bartholomaios" comes from
- Thomas the Apostle was killed by a spear. Thomas the Apostle, also called Judas Thomas, Doubting Thomas, or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus.
- Luke the Evangelist was hanged. Luke the Evangelist ( Hebrew: לוּקָֻא Greek: Loukás) was an early Christian leader who is said by tradition to be the author of
- Simon the Zealot was crucified in 74 A. St Simon redirects here See also Saint-Simon. The apostle called Simon Zelotes, Simon the Zealot, in Luke D.
(Note: John the Evangelist according to legend was cooked in boiling hot oil but survived. Saint John the Evangelist (d ca 110 יוחנן " The LORD is merciful" Standard Hebrew Yoḥanan, Tiberian Hebrew He was the only one of the original twelve Apostles who was not martyred).
Age of Martyrdom—2nd to 4th centuries
The martyrdom of St. Alban
, from a 13th century manuscript, now in the Trinity College Library, Dublin. Saint Alban of Mainz (b unknown Greece or Albania; d c 406 in Mainz) was a Priest, Missionary, and Martyr.
Note the executioner's eyes falling out of his head.
- Saint Afra c. Saint Afra (died 304 was a Christian Martyr. Biography Although many different accounts of her life exist the most widely known is that of an 304 at Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany. Events By Place Roman Empire The Roman colony of Konstanz is founded
- Ignatius of Antioch in 107 A. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus) (ca 35-110 was the third Bishop and Patriarch of Antioch and possibly a student of the Apostle John D.
- Saint Januarius of Naples, Italy in 305 A. Saint Januarius, (San Gennaro Bishop of Naples, is a martyr Saint of both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches He Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Events By Place Roman Empire May 1 — Diocletian and Maximian, Emperors of Rome retire from office D.
- Justin Martyr of Palestine in 168 A. Saint Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher, Latin Iustinus Martyr or Flavius D.
- Origen of Alexandria, about 250 A. Origen ( Greek: Ōrigénēs, or Origen Adamantius, ca 185–ca Events By Place Roman Empire A group of Franks penetrate as far as Tarragona in Spain (approximate date D.
- Perpetua and Felicity of Carthage in 202 A. Perpetua redirects here For other uses see Perpetua (disambiguation For the other saint named Felicitas see Felicitas of Rome. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers For the area code see Area code 202. Events By Place Roman Empire Septimus Severus returns to Rome after D.
- Saint Philomena of Corfu, Greece (died in Rome) about 305 A. Saint Philomena is venerated as a Virgin Martyr Saint of the Roman Catholic Church, said to have been a young Greek princess martyred in Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea D.
- Polycarp of Smyrna, probably around 160 A. Saint Polycarp of Smyrna (ca 69 – ca 155 was a second century Bishop of Smyrna. D.
- The Martyrs of Scili (in North Africa, about 180 A. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Events By place Roman Empire The praetorian prefect Tarutenius Paternus achieved a decisive victory against the Quadi D. ) The Passio Sanctorum Scilitanorum is regarded as the oldest Christian text in the Latin language.
- Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, died in what is now Armenia under the Roman Imperial persecutions of 320 A. The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste or the Holy Forty (Ancient/ Katharevousa Greek Ἃγιοι Τεσσεράκοντα Demotic Άγιοι Σαράντα Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Events By Place Roman Empire Under Crispus, son of Constantine I, the Franks are defeated again assuring twenty years D.
- Saint George, died in the Diocletianic Persecution in 303. In Christian hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Anglican Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox The Diocletianic Persecution was the last and most severe episode of Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. Events By Place Roman Empire Persuaded by Galerius, Diocletian launches the last major persecution of Christians
etching from Martyrs Mirror
. A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" Segovia is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Segovia in Castile-Leon. Saint Ludmila (c 860 - September 15, 921) is a Saint and Martyr venerated by the Orthodox and the Roman Catholics Events By Place Asia Ahmad ibn Fadlan is sent from Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, on behalf of the Edward the Martyr or Eadweard II (c 962&ndash 18 March 978) was King of England from 975 until he was murdered in 978 Events By Place Europe The Tynwald (parliament of the Isle of Man is founded Saint Stanisław Szczepanowski or Saint Stanislaus of Szczepanów (July 26 1030 &ndash April 11? 1079 was a Bishop of Kraków known chiefly for having been St Thomas Becket (c 1118 &ndash December 29, 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 Jan Hus ( (ˈjan ˈɦus alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c Jerome of Prague ( Jeroným Pražský in Czech, 1379 &ndash May 30 1416) was one of the chief followers and most devoted friends of John Joan of Arc (c 1412 Joan asserted that she had visions from God that told her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Dirk Willems (?? &ndash May 16 1569) was a martyred Anabaptist who is most famous for after his escape from prison turning around to rescue
- Diego Botello, Spanish missionary in the Caribbean, 1516
- Fernando Salzedo, Spanish missionary in the Caribbean, 1516
- Jan de Bakker, 1525
- Felix Manz, 1527
- Patrick Hamilton, 1528
- George Blaurock, 1529
- St Thomas More, 1535
- St John Fisher, 1535
- William Tyndale, 1535
- Carthusian Martyrs, 1535 - 1537
- St. Arthur of Glastonbury, 1539
- Margaret Pole, 1541
- Juan de la Cruz, Spanish missionary to New Mexico, 1542
- Luis de Escalona, Spanish missionary to New Mexico, 1542
- Juan de Padilla, Spanish missionary to New Mexico, 1542
- George Wishart, 1546
- Hugh Latimer, 1555
- Nicholas Ridley , 1555
- Rowland Taylor, 1555
- John Hooper, 1555
- John Rogers, 1555
- William Hunter, 1555
- Lawrence Saunders, 1555
- Thomas Cranmer, 1556
- Dirk Willems, 1569
- St Edmund Campion, 1581
- Margaret Ball, 1584
- The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, various dates
Modern Era—17th to 21st centuries
, an Old Believer
being arrested by Czarist authorities. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Jan Jansz de Bakker van Woerden ( Johannes Pistorius Woerdensis) ( Woerden, Netherlands, 1499 - The Hague, Netherlands, 15 Felix Manz (c 1498 &ndash January 5 1527) was a co-founder of the original Swiss Brethren Anabaptist congregation in Zürich Patrick Hamilton ( 1504 - February 29, 1528) was a Scottish churchman and an early Protestant Reformer in Scotland Jörg vom Haus Jacob (Georg Cajacob or George of the House of Jacob commonly known as George Blaurock (c Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained John Cardinal Fisher (c1469 &ndash 22 June, 1535) from 1935 Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop cardinal and Tyndale redirects here For the English family see Tyndall. For other uses see Tyndale (disambiguation. The Carthusian Martyrs were a group of monks of the London Charterhouse, the monastery of the Carthusian Order in central London who were put to death by the English state from According to Breton and French Catholic sources Saint Arthur (Arzur of Glastonbury (d Margaret Pole ( née Plantagenet) 8th Countess of Salisbury ( 14 August 1473 &ndash 27 May 1541) was an Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. Father Juan de Padilla (1500 &ndash 1542 born in Andalusia, was a Spanish Roman Catholic Missionary who spent much of his life exploring Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. George Wishart (c 1513 &ndash 1 March 1546) was a Scottish religious reformer and Protestant Martyr. Latimer's belief in Christ's return Hugh Latimer said "It may come in my days old as I am or in my children's days the saints shall be taken up to meet Christ in the air Nicholas Ridley (died October 16, 1555) was an English Clergyman. Rowland Taylor ( October 6, 1510 - February 9, 1555) was an English martyr during the Marian Persecutions. John Hooper (c1495-1500 &ndash February 9, 1555) was an English churchman Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. John Rogers (c 1505 &ndash 4 February 1555) was a minister, Bible translator and commentator and the first English Protestant William Hunter was a Marian martyr burnt to death in Brentwood at the age of 19 on March 27, 1555 on Ingrave Road Laurence Saunders (1500s - February 8, 1555) was the son of Thomas Saunders and Margaret Cave of Harrington, Northamptonshire, England Dirk Willems (?? &ndash May 16 1569) was a martyred Anabaptist who is most famous for after his escape from prison turning around to rescue Saint Edmund Campion SJ ( January 24 1540 &ndash December 1 1581) was an English Jesuit priest Blessed Margaret Ball (1515 &ndash 1584 was born Margaret Birmingham near Skryne in County Meath, and died of deprivation in the dungeons of Dublin The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales are a group of Christian martyrs who were canonized on 25 October 1970 by Pope Paul VI to represent the The term modern period or modern era (sometimes also modern times) is the period of history that followed the Middle Ages between c Feodosia Prokopiyevna Morozova (Феодосия Прокофьевна Морозова in Russian) (1632-1675 was one of the most well-known partisans of the Old Introductory summary of origins In 1652 Nikon (1605 – 1681 Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658 introduced a number of ritual and textual
An illustration depicts the brutal death of Father Luís Jayme
by the hands of angry natives at Mission San Diego de Alcalá
in Alta California
, November 4, 1775. Luís Jayme, OFM (born Melchor Jayme October 18, 1740; died November 4, 1775) was a Spanish -born Roman Catholic Mission San Diego de Alcalá, also known as the San Diego Mission Church, was founded on July 16, 1769, the first in the twenty-one Alta California Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the
- Martyrs of Japan
- Kakure Kirishitan
- Francis Taylor, 1621
- Vietnamese Martyrs 1625 - 1886
- Magdalene of Nagasaki 1634
- Lorenzo Ruiz, 1637
- Canadian Martyrs, North American Martyrs, 1642 - 1649
- Arthur Bell, 1643
- Isaac Jogues, 1646 (French Jesuit in New York killed by Indians)
- Francis Ferdinand de Capillas (Dominican missionary to China), 1648
- Diego Luis de San Vitores and Pedro Calungsod, 1672
- Feodosia Morozova (Old Believer), 1675
- Oliver Plunkett, 1681
- Felipe Songsong, 1685
- Constantin Brâncoveanu, 1714
- Lorenzo Carranco, Spanish missionary to Baja California, 1734
- Nicolás Tamarál, Spanish missionary to Baja California, 1734
- Vicente Liem de la Paz (Tonkinese Dominican), 1773
- Luís Jayme, Spanish missionary to Alta California, 1775
- Cosmas of Aetolia, 1779
- Francisco Garcés, Spanish missionary to Alta California, 1781
- Martyrs of Compiegne, 1794
- Andrés Quintana, Spanish missionary to Alta California, 1812
- Chinese Martyrs (various Christian denominations), 19th and 20th centuries
- Andrew Dung-Lac (Vietnamese Catholic), 1839
- Korean Martyrs 1839, 1846, 1866
- Peter Chanel (Catholic priest), 1841
- Andrew Kim Taegon, 1846
- Martyrs of India 1857
- Lucy Yi Zhenmei, one of the 19th century Chinese Catholic Martyrs, 1862
- Thomas Baker, 1867, English missionary killed and eaten, Fiji
- Martyrs of Uganda, 1885-1887
- Esther John 1929-1960, Found Killed in Chichawatni commemorated at Westminster Abbey. Martyrs of Japan were Christians who were persecuted for their faith in Japan mostly during the 17th century is a modern term for a member of the Japanese Roman Catholic Church that went underground after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s Blessed Francis Taylor (c 1550 - 1621 was a Lord Mayor of Dublin, Ireland, incarcerated because of his Catholicism Born in Swords The Vietnamese Martyrs, also known as the Martyrs of Tonkin Martyrs of Annam or Martyrs of Indochina, are Saints on the Roman Catholic calendar Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common was born in 1611 as the daughter of a Christian couple martyred about 1620 Saint Lorenzo Ruiz, aka San Lorenzo de Manila (1600 &ndash September 29, 1637) is the first Filipino Saint ( Protomartyr The North American Martyrs, also known as the Canadian Martyrs, were eight Jesuit Missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, who were The North American Martyrs, also known as the Canadian Martyrs, were eight Jesuit Missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, who were See also St Arthur of Glastonbury Christian martyrs Protestant Reformation Anglicanism Saint Isaac Jogues ( January 10, 1607 – October 18, 1646) was a Jesuit priest, Missionary, and Martyr The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Francis Ferdinand de Capillas, OP (1607-1648 was a Castilian Christian Missionary to China. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is Venerable Diego Luis de San Vitores (1627-1672 was a Spanish Jesuit Missionary who founded the first Catholic church on the island of Guam Blessed Pedro Calungsod ( ca 1654, Visayas, Philippine Islands - April 2, 1672, Guam) is a Filipino Feodosia Prokopiyevna Morozova (Феодосия Прокофьевна Морозова in Russian) (1632-1675 was one of the most well-known partisans of the Old Saint Oliver Plunkett ( 1 November 1629 &ndash 1 July 1681) was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh Phelippe Songsong (1611 – 1685 was a Filipino Jesuit. He was born to a noble family of Macabebe, Pampanga. See also Brâncovenesc architecture Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654 &ndash August 15 1714) was Prince of Wallachia Year 1714 ( MDCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. Year 1734 ( MDCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico. Year 1734 ( MDCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Vicente Liem de la Paz ( 1732 - November 7, 1773) was a Tonkinese (present day northern Vietnam) Dominican Tonkin (Đông Kinh in Vietnamese) also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Year 1773 ( MDCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Luís Jayme, OFM (born Melchor Jayme October 18, 1740; died November 4, 1775) was a Spanish -born Roman Catholic Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the Year 1775 ( MDCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Cosmas of Aetolia (sometimes Kosmas of Aetolia or Cosmas/Kosmas the Aetolian) (Greek Κοσμάς Αιτωλός/Kosmas Aitolos (1714 - 1779 was a monk in Year 1779 ( MDCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Francisco Hermenegildo Tomás Garcés ( April 12, 1738 &ndash July 18, 1781) was a Spanish Franciscan missionary who explored much of Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the Year 1781 ( MDCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Commemorated on 17 July of the Carmelite Calendar of Saints are the Martyrs of Compiegne. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Andrés Quintana, OFM ( November 27, 1777 &ndash October 12, 1812) was a Spanish missionary who labored in the Mission Santa Cruz Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Alta California (Upper California was formed in 1804 when the Province of the Californias, then a part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the Year 1812 ( MDCCCXII) a leap year started on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Chinese Martyrs is the name given to a number of Christians specifically Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox, who were killed in China during Andrew Dũng Lạc (1785&ndash 21 December 1839) is a Roman Catholic Saint and Martyr, executed by Beheading. Year 1839 ( MDCCCXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Korean Martyrs were the victims of religious persecution against the Roman Catholic Church during the 19th century in Korea. Peter Chanel (1803–1841 was a Catholic Priest, Missionary, and Martyr. For the game see 1841 (board game. Year 1841 ( MDCCCXLI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link Andrew Kim Taegon (김대건 안드레아 was the first Korean born Catholic priest For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Click here for Indian Rebellion of 1857 Year 1857 ( MDCCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the A native of Mianyang in Sichuan, China, St Lucy Yi Zhenmei was born on December 9, 1815, and was the youngest member in her Chinese Martyrs is the name given to a number of Christians specifically Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox, who were killed in China during Thomas Baker or Tom Baker is a name shared by several notable persons British people Tom Baker (b Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य The Uganda Martyrs were Ugandan Christians who were murdered for their faith Esther John was a Christian Nurse. She is counted in ten most famous Christian martyrs of the present day Chichawatni (چیچہ وطنی Urdu ٫ Punjabi) is an historic town in the Sahiwal District of Punjab province Pakistan. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church
- Maria Goretti (virgin martyr), 1902
- Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna, 1918
- Nun Barbara (Yakovleva), 1918
- Saints of the Cristero War 1926-1927
- Miguel Pro, 1927
- Toribio Romo González, 1928
- Manche Masemola, (1913-1928)
- José Sánchez del Río 1928
- Innocencio of Mary Immaculate 1934
- Bartolome Blanco Marquez, 1936
- Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War 1934, 1936-1939
- Maximilian Kolbe (Polish Franciscan, died at Auschwitz), 1941
- Edith Stein (Carmelite nun, died at Auschwitz), 1942
- Lucian Tapiedi (b. Saint Maria Goretti ( October 16, 1890 &ndash July 6, 1902) is an Italian Roman Catholic Virgin Martyr Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting HIH The Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia (Elizabeth Feodorovna Romanova Елизавета Фëдоровна Романова ( 1 November 1864 Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Sister Varvara Yakovleva, also known as Sister Barbara Yakovleva (Варвара Яковлева or simply Nun Barbara, (died July 18, 1918 On May 21, 2000, Pope John Paul II canonized a group of 25 Saints and Martyrs arising from the Mexican Cristero War Miguel Agustín Pro Juárez SJ ( January 13 1891 – November 23 1927) was a Mexican Roman Catholic Jesuit Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Saint Toribio (in Latin Thuribius Romo González was a Mexican martyr who died in the Cristero War. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Manche Masemola (1913-1928 was a Christian Martyr, of the Pedi tribe lived in Marishane, a small village near Pietersburg, in South José Luis Sánchez del Río ( March 28, 1913 – February 10, 1928) was a young Mexican Cristero who was put to death by Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Saint Innocencio of Mary Immaculate ( March 10, 1887 &ndash October 9, 1934) born Emanuele Canoura Arnau, was a member of the Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Blessed Bartolomé Blanco Márquez Bartolomé Blanco Márquez was born in Pozoblanco, Cordoba, Spain in 1914 Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by the Catholic Church to the people who were killed during the Spanish Civil War because of their connection to the church Biography Maximilian Kolbe was born in January 1894 in Zduńska Wola, which was at that time part of the Russian Empire. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Edith Stein ( October 12, 1891 &ndash August 9, 1942) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a Carmelite nun Martyr The Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by Synecdoche; Latin: Ordo fratrum Beatæ Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lucian Tapiedi (b ca 1921—1942 was a Papuan Anglican teacher who was one of the "New Guinea Martyrs ca. 1921—1942)
- Franz Jägerstätter, 1943
- Dusty Miller (Martyr), 1945, a Methodist layman killed as a P. Franz Jägerstätter ( May 20 1907 &mdash August 9 1943; born as Franz Huber) was an Austrian Conscientious objector Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "Dusty" Miller was a British POW in Thailand on the Burma Railway during Second World War. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations O. W. of the Japanese in Thailand during WWII.
- Dietrich Bonhoeffer, (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) Lutheran Pastor and member of the German Resistance
- Theodore Romzha, 1947
- Zdenka Cecilia Schelingová, 1955
- Jim Elliot, 1956
- Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968),
- Wang Zhiming (1907 - December 29, 1973) Chinese pastor, publicly executed
- Janani Jakaliya Luwum (1922 – 17 February 1977), Archbishop of Uganda. Dietrich Bonhoeffer ˈdiːtrɪç ˈboːnhøfɐ ( February 4, 1906 &ndash April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran The German Resistance refers to those individuals and groups in Nazi Germany who opposed the regime of Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945 Biography Early life Theodore Romzha was born in the Subcarpathia region Austria-Hungary (in the Rusyn village Velykyy Bychkiv Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Blessed Zdenka Cecília Schelingová ( December 24 1916 &ndash July 31 1955) was a Slovak Nun of the Congregation Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Philip James Elliot ( October 8, 1927 &ndash January 8, 1956) was an evangelical Christian Missionary to Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Wang Zhiming ( 1907 - December 29, 1973) was a Miao Pastor little known outside his home in Wuding County, Yunnan Janani Jakaliya Luwum (1922 &ndash 17 February, 1977) was the Archbishop of the Church of Uganda from 1974 to 1977 and one of the most influential
- Óscar Romero (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), Archbishop of San Salvador
- Martyrs of Atlas, 1996
- Graham Staines 1999, Australian missionary to Leprosy Hospital in India, with sons Philip, 10 and Timothy, 8. Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez ( August 25 1917 &ndash March 24 1980) commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a Bishop The Roman Catholic Trappist Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (O Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Graham Stuart Staines (1941-January 1999 was an Australian Missionary who was burnt to death along with his two sons Philip (aged 9 and Timothy (aged 7 while sleeping Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
- Rhoel Gallardo, CMF, 2001, Claretians priest and missionary in Basilan, Philippines. The Claretians, a community of Roman Catholic priests and brothers were founded by Saint Anthony Claret in 1849 Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Claretians, a community of Roman Catholic priests and brothers were founded by Saint Anthony Claret in 1849 Basilan (Officially Province of Basilan; Fil - Lalawigan ng Basilan Span
- Declan O'Toole, March 2002, Catholic priest in Uganda
- Martin R. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Burnham, June 2002, US missionary, and Ediborah Yap, Filipina Nurse, Philippines. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
- Lance Gersbach 2003, Seventh-day Adventist missionary in the Solomon Islands, beheaded with a machete
- René de Haes SJ, May, 2005 Jesuit, Belgian Congo
- Saji Abraham Indian national in Guyana murdered for the sake of Christ in March 2006. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state
- Fr. Ragheed Ganni, subdeacons Basman Yousef Daud, Wahid Hanna Isho, and Gassan Isam Bidawed, 3 June 2007, in Mosul, Iraq. Ragheed Aziz Ganni (20 January 1972 Mosul, Iraq - 3 June 2007 Mosul was a Chaldean Catholic priest who was murdered together with subdeacons
- Bae Hyung-kyu (배형규), pastor and leader of South Korean volunteer group, Afghanistan, July 2007.
- Shim Sung-min (심성민), former information technology worker, Afghanistan, July 2007.
- Tiffany Johnson and Philip Crouse, December 2007, shot at missionary training centre, Colorado, US. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America.
- Jesus Reynaldo Roda, January 2008, Roman Catholic Priest, Mindanao, Philippines
- Catacombs of Rome
- Christian pacifism
- Marian Persecutions
- Martyrs' Memorial
- Martyrs Mirror
- Religious Persecution
- Roman Emperor
- The Oxford Martyrs
- "Silence", the acclaimed novel by Shusaku Endo, draws from the oral history of Japanese Christian communities pertaining to the seventeenth century suppression of the Church. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Catacombs of Rome are ancient Catacombs or underground Burial places under or near Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty some discovered Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith The Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Religious Reformers Protestants and other Dissenters for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England The Martyrs' Memorial is an imposing stone monument positioned at the intersection of St Giles', Magdalen Street and Beaumont Street in Oxford The Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs of affiliations. The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC The Oxford Martyrs were tried for Heresy in 1555 and subsequently Burnt at the stake in Oxford, England, for their religious beliefs The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr ( Greek: νεο, neo, the prefix for "new" and μάρτυς, martys, "witness" A martyrology is a catalogue or list of Martyrs (or more precisely of Saints, arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts is a 1966 novel of historical fiction by Japanese author Shusaku Endo drawn from the oral histories of Kakure Kirishitan and Hanare Kirishitan communities Shūsaku Endō (遠藤 周作 Endō Shūsaku, March 27[[ 923]]&ndash September 29[[ 996]] was a renowned 20th century Japanese author who wrote
- ^ Twentieth Century Atlas - Historical Body Count p.2
- ^ Stauffer, Ethelbert. "Täufertum und Märtyrertheologie" (in German). Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte year=1933: 545-98.
- ^ Stauffer, Ethelbert (1945). "The Anabaptist Theology of Martyrdom"". MQR XIX: 179-214.
- ^ Salisbury, Joyce EllenThe Blood of Martyrs: Unintended Consequences of Ancient Violence 2004 Routledge, ISBN 0-415-94129-6
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