Christ Church Cathedral (The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, commonly known as Christ Church, Cathedral of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough and Metropolitical Cathedral of the United Provinces of Dublin and Cashel) in Dublin is the elder of the city's two mediæval cathedrals, the other being St. Patrick's Cathedral. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, formally known as The National Cathedral and Collegiate Church of Saint Patrick Dublin or in the Irish language It is officially claimed as the seat (cathedra) of both the Church of Ireland and Roman Catholic archbishops of Dublin. The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. In practice it has been the cathedral of only the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin, since the Irish Reformation. The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. Archbishop of Dublin is the title of the senior cleric who presides over the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough in the Church of Ireland. Though nominally claimed as his cathedral, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin uses a church elsewhere, St Mary's in Malborough Street in Dublin, as his pro-cathedral (acting cathedral). Archbishop of Dublin ( Irish: Ard-Easpuig Bhaile Átha Cliath) is the title of the senior cleric who presides over the Archdiocese of Dublin. St Mary's Church (Leas-Ardeaglais Naomh Muire known also as St Mary's Pro-Cathedral or simply the Pro-Cathedral, is a Pro-cathedral and is the episcopal A Pro-cathedral is a Parish Church that is temporarily serving as the Cathedral or Co-cathedral of a Diocese. 
Christ Church Cathedral is located in the former heart of mediaeval Dublin, next to Wood Quay, at the end of Dame Street (the latter owes its name to a Norman French title given to Our Lady). Wood Quay ( An Ché Adhmaid in Irish) is a riverside area of Dublin that was a site of Viking settlement Dame Street ( is a large thoroughfare in Dublin, Ireland. The street is the location of many banks such as AIB, Ulster Bank and the Central However a major dual carriage-way building scheme around it separated it from the original mediaeval street pattern which once surrounded it, with it original architectural context (at the centre of a maze of small buildings and streets) lost both by road-building and by the demolition of the older residential quarter at Wood Quay. As a result the cathedral now appears dominant in isolation behind new civil offices along the quays, out of its original mediaeval context.
Christchurch is the only one of the three cathedrals or acting cathedrals which can be seen clearly from the River Liffey. The Liffey ( An Life in Irish) is a River in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin.
The cathedral was begun in 1038 by King Sitric Silkenbeard, the Danish Viking King of Dublin, for the first Bishop of Dublin, Donat or Donagh (the Diocese of Dublin was at that time a small island surrounded by a huge Diocese of Glendalough, and answered to Canterbury). Sigtrygg Silkbeard Olafsson (known also as Sihtric and "Sitric" in Irish texts was the son of King Olaf Cuaran (also called Kvaaran and Gormflaith Donat (died 1074 was the first Bishop of Dublin to be appointed under Dublin 's Danish kings The church was built on the high ground overlooking the Viking settlement of Wood Quay and Sitric gave the "lands of Baldoyle, Raheny and Portrane for its maintenance. " Of the four old Celtic Christian churches reputed to have existed around Dublin, only one, dedicated to St. Martin of Tours, lay within the walls of the Viking city, and so Christ Church was one of just two churches for the whole city. Saint Martin of Tours (Martinus (316/317 Savaria, Pannonia &ndash November 8, 317, Candes, Gaul; buried November 
Originally staffed by secular clergy, the second Bishop of Dublin introduced the Benedictines, and then in 1163, Christ Church was converted to a Priory of the Regular Order of Arrosian Canons (Reformed Augustinian Rule) by the second Archbishop of Dublin, later Saint, Laurence O'Toole, who adhered to the rule himself; it was subsequently headed by an Augustinian Prior, who ranked as the second ecclesiastical figure of the diocese, and not a Dean, until re-establishment in 1541.
Henry II attended the Christmas service at the cathedral in 1171, and in the years thereafter, Strongbow and other Anglo-Norman magnates helped to fund a complete rebuilding of Christ Church, comprising the construction of a choir, choir aisles and transepts, the crypt, and chapels to St. Edmund and St. Mary and St. Lô. For the 13th century Archbishop see St Edmund of Abingdon. Edmund the Martyr (841&ndash 20 November 869) was a Saint Laud of Coutances, also known as Saint Lô, is a Christian saint
A chapel to St. Laurence O'Toole was added in the 1200s and much of the extant nave was built in the 1230s. Lorcán Ua Tuathail, also known as St Laurence O'Toole, was born at Castledermot, Kildare, Ireland, in 1128 and died at Eu,
In 1300 Archbishop Ferings of Dublin arranged an agreement between the two cathedrals, the Pacis Compostio, which acknowledged both as cathedrals and made some provision to accommodate their shared status (see below for more on this).
By 1358, the nave of the cathedral was partly in use for secular purposes, and a "long quire" was added, extending the old choir area by around 10 metres.
The cathedral was the location of the coronation of Lambert Simnel in 1487 as 'King Edward VI' a boy pretender who sought unsuccessfully to depose Henry VII of England. Lambert Simnel (c 1477 &ndash c 1525 was a child Pretender to the throne of England.
In 1493, the Choir School was founded.
As discussed further below, in 1539, King Henry VIII converted the Priory to a Cathedral with a Dean and Chapter, and worked to ensure Christ Church adhered to his new church structure. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of
King Edward VI, in 1547, provided funds for an increase in cathedral staffing, and annual royal funding for the Choir School.
Also under King Edward VI, St. Patrick's Cathedral was formally suppressed and, on 25 April 1547, its silver, jewels and ornaments were transferred to the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church. This episode ended with a late document of Queen Mary's reign, a deed dated 27 April 1558, comprising a release or receipt by Thomas Leverous, Dean, and the Chapter of St. Patrick's, of the "goods, chattels, musical instruments, etc. ," belonging to that Cathedral, and which had been in the possession of the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church.
Queen Mary, and later James I, also increased Christ Church's endowment. Meanwhile, in 1551, divine service was sung for the first time in Ireland in English instead of Latin, and in 1560, the bible was first read in English.
The foundations of the nave, resting in peat, slipped in 1562, bringing down the south wall and the arched stone roof (the north wall, which visibly leans, survived, and largely dates back to 1230). Partial repairs were carried out but much of the debris was simply levelled and new flooring built over it until 1871.
In the seventeenth century, both parliament and the law courts met in buildings erected alongside Christ Church. King James II himself presided over a state opening of parliament in that location. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James However, parliament and the law courts both moved elsewhere; the law courts to the newly built Four Courts and parliament to Chichester House in Hoggen Green (now College Green). The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna in Dublin is the Republic of Ireland 's main courts building The Irish Houses of Parliament (Tithe na Parlaiminte also known as the Irish Parliament House, today called the Bank of Ireland, College Green College Green ( Faiche an Choláiste in Irish) previously called Hoggen Green, is a three sided 'square' in the centre of Dublin.
Some limited works were carried out between 1829 and 1831 but the building, as with nearby St. Patrick's, was in poor condition for much of the 19th century.
The cathedral was extensively renovated in Victorian times, with the sponsorship of distiller Henry Roe, of Mount Anville, who also built the adjacent Synod Hall, taking in the last remnant of St. Michael's Church, and hosting General Synods, and Diocesan Synods for Dublin, Glendalough and Kildare. Mr. Roe spent over 230,000 pounds at the time (over 26 million euro in 2006 terms).
Further renovations were carried out, notably between 1980 and 1982.
Christ Church is the centre of worship for the United Dioceses, and holds notable annual events such as the Citizenship Service. As the cathedral of the southern province of the Church, it also hosts ordination of priests and consecration of bishops.
Following the extensive renovation in Victorian times, while the seriously decayed structure was preserved from collapse, it remains difficult, to tell which parts of the interior are genuinely mediæval and which parts are Victorian pastiche. Photographs taken from the exterior show the dramatic nature of the rebuilding done by the Victorians. Nonetheless, Christ Church remains a fascinating sampling of surviving medieval and later church building.
The Cathedral famously contains the purported tomb of Strongbow, a mediæval Norman-Welsh peer and warlord who came to Ireland at the request of King Diarmuid MacMorrough and whose arrival marked the beginning of English involvement in Ireland. Richard de Clare 2nd Earl of Pembroke Lord of Leinster Justiciar of Ireland (1130 &ndash 20 April 1176) known as Strongbow, was a Early Life and Family Mac Murchadha was born in 1110 a son of Donnchadh, King of Leinster and Dublin he was a descendant of Brian Boru. The tomb in the nave is believed today not to actually be Strongbow's: the original tomb having been destroyed centuries ago, an unconnected mediæval tomb was moved soon afterwards from a church in Drogheda to Christ Church, placed on the site of Strongbow's tomb and identified as Strongbow's. Drogheda (ˈdrɒhədə ˈdrɔːdə ( Droichead Átha in Irish, meaning "Bridge of the Ford" is an industrial and port town in County Louth on In the Middle Ages, oaths were sworn on the tomb of Strongbow, an occurrence clearly stated in the Christ Church Deeds. Alongside the main tomb is a smaller one, perhaps of a female figure, perhaps of a child.
On one wall alongside the Choir is the famous mummified group of "Cat and Mouse," found trapped behind the organ and preserved by the very dry air of the cathedral.
Christ Church also contains the largest cathedral crypt (63. 4m long) in Britain or Ireland, constructed in 1172-1173. Having been renovated in the early 2000s, it is now open for visitors.
The crypt contains various monuments and historical features, including:
Behind the altar area, there is the Chapter House, which contains cathedral offices, meeting rooms and other facilities. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James
At the west end of the cathedral is a fully-integrated stone bridge, leading to the former Synod House, itself built onto the remains of another church (St. Michael's). The Synod House is now home to the Dublinia exhibition about old Dublin city.
For most of their common history, both Christ Church and St. Patrick's held the status of cathedral for the Dublin Diocese, a rare arrangement which only ended following the move to disestablish the Church of Ireland. In early times, there was considerable conflict over status but under the six-point agreement of 1300, Pacis Compositio, still extant, and in force until 1870:
To this day, the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, St. Mary's, is known as a Pro-Cathedral, in acknowledgement of the fact that the Holy See recognizes Christ Church as the rightful seat of the Catholic Archbishop. Primate of Ireland is a title possessed by the Roman Catholic and the Anglican Church of Ireland Archbishops of Dublin. St Mary's Church (Leas-Ardeaglais Naomh Muire known also as St Mary's Pro-Cathedral or simply the Pro-Cathedral, is a Pro-cathedral and is the episcopal The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic
The Dean and Chapter, with the consent of the Archbishop of Dublin, preside over the cathedral, with the Dean as first among equals in Chapter but holding a day-to-day authority, subject to the special roles of some other figures (the Dean and Chapter together are in a similar position to a Rector of a Parish).
The Chapter comprises the Dean, Precentor (who must be skilled in music), Chancellor, Treasurer, Archdeacons of Dublin and Glendalough, and twelve Canons, eight being clergy of the Diocese of Dublin, and four clergy of the Diocese of Glendalough (the three most senior in order of appointment are known as the Prebendary of St. Michael's, Prebendary of St. Michan's, and the Prebendary of St. John's).
See Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin for more on the Deans and the preceding Priors. The Dean of Christ Church Cathedral Dublin is the senior official of that church the Cathedral of the United Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough in the The Dean is appointed by the Archbishop of Dublin, and in an arrangement commenced in 1971 is also Incumbent of the Christ Church Cathedral Group of Parishes, whose day-to-day care is in the hands of a Vicar appointed by a special Board of Patronage.
The Dean can appoint a Deputy, and also appoints the Cathedral Verger, and the Dean and Chapter together appoint the Precentor, while the other members of the Chapter are appointed by the Archbishop.
Having been historically governed by its clerical chapter alone, since 1872 the Cathedral has been operationally overseen by a Board comprising nine clerical members (the Dean, Precentor, two Clerical Vicars and five other clerics) and nine lay members, elected every third annual Easter Vestry. The Cathedral Board has the power to appoint and remove officers of the cathedral other than those whose appointment is vested in the Archbishop, or the Dean and Chapter, or Dean, to regulate salaries, and to manage financial matters. The Board is in a similar position to a Select Vestry of a Parish.
The Board has committees - mid-2007, these are: Administration & Finance, Culture (including the Treasury), Deanery, Fabric, Fundraising, Health & Safety, Information Technology, Music, Safeguarding Trust and Tower.
There is a Dean's Vicar (and Clerk of the Chapter), a Vicar of the Cathedral Group of Parishes, and posts for a Curate Assistant and a Student Reader. There are also usually Honorary Clerical Vicars.
Christ Church has a long musical history, with a well-known Cathedral Choir and a Girls Choir. Along with the Precentor, the musical side of its work is led by the Organist and Direcor of Music, working with any Assistant Organist and Organ Scholar, as well as the Honorary Keeper of the Music and Music Librarian, and at 2007, a Music Development Officer.
Christ Church Cathedral is known to have had at least one ringing bell since 1038. By 1440 there were known to be three great bells in the tower, however in 1603 an accidental gunpowder explosion in one of the nearby quays damaged the tower and caused the bells to crack. The effects of this blast also damaged the tower nearby of St. Audoen's Church.
In 1670, six new bells were cast for the tower from cannon metal. These were augmented to eight in 1738 and then to twelve in 1878.
The most recent augmentation was in 1999 when an additional seven bells were added to the ring, giving a grand total of 19 bells, a world record for bells rung this way. Although this does not produce a diatonic scale of 19 notes, it does uniquely provide a choice of combinations: three different 12-bell peals (in the keys of B, C# and F#) as well as 14 and 16 bell peals. At the time of the augmentation, this was only the second 16 full circle bell peal in the world - St Martin's Church in Birmingham being the first. The church of St Martin in the Bull Ring ( in Birmingham, England is a Parish church in the Church of England.
The bell-ringing work is led by the Ringing Master and Master of the Tower.
The Cathedral staff are led by the Administrator, and include a Visitor Services head, and a Shop manager.
The vergers are led by the Cathedral or Dean's Verger, and at August 2007 include three other vergers.
Christ Church has a range of historical archives and has arranged for a number of publications over the years, as well as maintaining a website since the 1990s. This work is overseen by the Honorary Keeper of the Archives and the Web and e-mail Editor, along with the Honorary Secretary of Christ Church Publications, Ltd.
The Cathedral is supported by the voluntary Friends of Christ Church Cathedral, founded in 1929, and working with the Cathedral authorities in a variety of ways.
As Christ Church receives no regular State support, while it welcomes all guests, and has a chapel for those who simply wish to pray, there are fees for sightseeing, which can also be paid in combination with the purchase of a ticket for the neighbouring Dublinia exhibition. There is a gift shop with souvenirs, recordings of cathedral music groups and publications.
In 1971, the General Synod, following prior discussions, created the Christ Church Cathedral Group of Parishes, uniting what were then four parishes with the cathedral, whose Dean is their Rector: St. Andrew's, St. Werburgh's, All Saints (Grangegorman) and St. Michan's, St. Paul and St. Mary. The parishes are overseen day-to-day by a Vicar appointed by a special Board of Patronage.