A-D Chondrus crispus ; E-F Mastocarpus stellatus
Chondrus crispus, known under the common name Irish moss, or carrageen moss (Irish carraigín, "little rock"), is a species of red alga which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. John Stackhouse (1742 – November 22, 1819, Bath Somerset) was an English Botanist. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. The red algae (Rhodophyta ˌroʊdəˈfaɪtə roʊˈdɒfɨtə from Greek: ῥόδον (rhodon = rose + φυτόν (phyton = plant thus red plant are In its fresh condition the plant is soft and cartilaginous, varying in colour from a greenish-yellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. The principal constituent of Irish moss is a mucilaginous body, made of the polysaccharide carrageenan of which it contains about 55%; the plant also has nearly 10% of protein and about 15% of mineral matter, and is rich in iodine and sulfur. Carrageenans or carrageenins (ˌkærəˈgiːnənz are a family of linear sulphated Polysaccharides extracted from red Seaweeds The name is derived from A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Iodine (ˈaɪədaɪn ˈaɪədɪn or /ˈaɪədiːn/ from ιώδης iodes "violet" is a Chemical element that has the symbol I and Atomic Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 When softened in water it has a sea-like odour, and because of the abundant cell wall polysaccharides it will form a jelly when boiled, containing from 20 to 100 times its weight of water. Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent colourless brittle nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the
Chondrus crispus is a relatively small red alga little more than 20 cm long growing from a discoid holdfast and branching in a dichotomous, fan-like, manner four or five times. A holdfast is a Root -like structure that anchors aquatic Sessile organisms such as Seaweed, other sessile Algae, stalked The morphology is very variable, especially the broadness of the thalli. The branches are 2 - 15 mm broad, firm in texture and dark reddish brown in colour bleaching to yellowish in sunlight. The gametophytes (see below) often show a blue iridescence and fertile sporophytes show a spotty pattern. In Plants and Algae that undergo Alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the multicellular structure or phase that is Haploid, containing Iridescence is an Optical phenomenon in which Hue changes with the angle from which a surface is viewed Mastocarpus stellatus (Stackhouse) Guiry is a similar species which can be readily distinguished being strongly channelled and often somewhat twisted. Mastocarpus stellatus, also called Clúimhín Cait Puff Carragheen or Carrageen Moss is closely related to Irish Moss, or Chondrus crispus The cystocarpic plants of Mastocarpus show reproductive papillae quite distinctively different from Chondrus.  When washed and sun-dried for preservation it has a yellowish translucent horn-like aspect and consistency.
Chondrus crispus is found growing on rock from the middle intertidal zone downwards. It is common all around the shores of Ireland and Great Britain and can also be found along the coast of Europe from Iceland, the Faroe Islands  western Baltic Sea to southern Spain. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  It is found on the Atlantic coasts of Canada and recorded from California in the United States to Japan. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  However, any distribution outside the Northern Atantic needs to be verified. There are also other species of the same genus in the Pacific Ocean, for example, C. ocellatus Holmes, C. nipponicus Yendo, C. yendoi Yamada et Mikami, C. pinnulatus (Harvey) Okamura and C. armatus (Harvey) Yamada et Mikami. 
Chondrus crispus is a source of carrageenan, which is commonly used as a thickener and stabilizer in milk products such as ice cream and processed foods including lunch meat, in Europe it is indicated as E407 or E407b. Carrageenans or carrageenins (ˌkærəˈgiːnənz are a family of linear sulphated Polysaccharides extracted from red Seaweeds The name is derived from Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from Dairy products such as Milk and Cream, combined It may also be used as a thickener in calico-printing and for fining beer or wine. Finings are substances that are usually added at or near the completion of the processing of Wine, Beer and various nonalcoholic juice beverages Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Irish moss is frequently mixed with Mastocarpus stellatus (Gigartina mammillosa), Chondracanthus acicularis (G. acicularis) and other seaweeds with which it is associated in growth. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. Carrageenan and agar-agar are also used in Asia for gelatin-like deserts such as almond jelly. Agar or agar agar is a Gelatinous substance derived from Seaweed.
Presently the major source of carrageenan is tropical seaweeds of the genera Kappaphycus and Eucheuma. Irish moss is also a beverage and pop popular in the Caribbean, and is made by boiling the Irish moss for about an hour in water, and a flavouring, among which Vanilla or Strawberry are popular, and then milk or sweetened condensed milk is added, or sometimes it is made flavourless and once the milk has been added rum and spices are then added. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Vanilla is a Flavoring derived from Orchids of the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. Garden strawberries are a common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide It is usually served chilled, is very thick and is sometimes thought to have aphrodisiac qualities. It is also now available ready made, tinned. The Irish Moss used in the Caribbean is most often Gracilaria spp. Gracilaria is a genus of red algae ( Rhodophyta) notable for its economic importance as an Agarophyte, as well as its use as a food for humans
In parts of Scotland, where it is known as (An) Cairgean in Scottish Gaelic, it is boiled in milk and strained, before sugar and other flavourings such as vanilla, cinnamon, brandy or whisky are added. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages.  The end-product is a kind of jelly similar to Tapioca or Blancmange. Tapioca is a flavorless colorless odorless Starch Blancmange, (bləˈmɒnʒ or /bləˈmɑːndʒ/ also known as shape) is a sweet Dessert commonly made with Milk or Cream and Sugar 
Chondrus crispus undergoes an alternation of generation life cycle common in many species of algae (see figure below). The Alternation of phases (or generations) describes the life cycle of Plants Fungi and Protists A multicellular Diploid phase alternates There are two distinct stages: the sexual haploid gametophyte stage and the asexual diploid sporophyte stage. "Haplo" redirects here For the fictional character see The Death Gate Cycle. In Plants and Algae that undergo Alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the multicellular structure or phase that is Haploid, containing "Haplo" redirects here For the fictional character see The Death Gate Cycle. All land plants and some Algae, have life cycles in which a haploid Gametophyte generation alternates with a Diploid sporophyte, the generation of a In addition there is a third stage- the carposporophyte, which is formed on the female gametophyte after fertilization. The male and female gametophytes produce gametes which fuse to form a diploid carposporophyte, which forms carpospores, which develops into the sporophyte. The sporophyte then undergoes meiosis to produce haploid tetraspores (which can be male or female) that develop into gametophytes. In Biology or life science meiosis (pronounced my-oh-sis is a process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half The three stages (male, female and sporophyte) are difficult to distinguish when they are not fertile; however, the gametophytes often show a blue iridescence.
|English||Irish moss, pearl moss, carrageen moss, seamuisin, curly moss, curly gristle moss, Dorset weed, jelly moss, sea moss, white wrack|
|French||petit goémon, mousse d’Irlande, lichen (carraghèen), goémon frisé, goémon blanc, goémon rouge, mousse perlée|
|Breton||pioka, liken ruz, teil piko, bouch, bouchounoù, bejin behan, bejin gwenn, bouch farad youd, bouch gad, bouch gwenn, jargod, ougnachou-ru, teles, tilez|
|Scottish (Gaelic)||cairgin, carragheen, killeen, mathair an diulisg|
|Irish||carraigín, fiadháin, clúimhín caitcarraigín, fiadháin, clúimhín cait|
|Portuguese||musgo gordo, folha de alface, folhina, botelho crespo|
|Galician||ouca riza, carrapucho, creba, pata de galiña|
|Spanish||musgo de Irlanda, musgo perlado, musgo marino, carrageen, liquen|
|German||Knorpeltang, Carrageen, Irländischer Perltang, Irländisches Moos, Karragaheen, Perlmoos|
|Norwegian||krusflik, driesflik, gelatintang|
|Danish||Carrageentang, Blomkålstang, Irlandsk mos|
|Japanese||hirakotoji, tochaka, tsunomata|
Chondrus crispus is, compared to most other seaweeds, well-investigated scientifically. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. It has been used as a model species to study photosynthesis, carageenan biosynthesis, and stress responses.