Chocolate (pronounced cacao tree. CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology. Native to lowland, tropical South America, cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Central America and Mexico, with its earliest documented use around 1100 BC. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The majority of the Mesoamerican peoples made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl, a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor. Taste (or more formally gustation) is a form of direct Chemoreception and is one of the traditional five Senses Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted, and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground and liquified, resulting in pure chocolate in fluid form: chocolate liquor. For chocolate-flavored liqueur see chocolate liqueur. Chocolate liquor, also known as cocoa liquor and cocoa mass, is a smooth The liquor can be further processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of Chocolate. Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao beanor /-ˈələt/) comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical
Pure, unsweetened chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining chocolate with sugar. Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e "White chocolate" contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids (and thus does not qualify to be considered true chocolate). White chocolate is a confection of sugar, Cocoa butter, and Milk solids Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects on the body. This article is about the chemical compounds alkaloids For the Pharmaceutical company in the Republic of Macedonia see Alkaloid (company. Theobromine, also known as xantheose, which also includes the similar compounds Theophylline and Caffeine. Phenethylamine, or β -phenylethylamine or 2-phenylethylamine is an Alkaloid and Monoamine. It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin (ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnən ( 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a Monoamine Neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic Neurons Scientists claim that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure.  Dark chocolate has recently been promoted for its health benefits, including a substantial amount of antioxidants that reduce the formation of free radicals, though the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, such as dogs and cats. Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic 
Chocolate has become one of the most popular flavors in the world. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays: chocolate bunnies and eggs are popular on Easter, chocolate coins on Hanukkah, Santa Claus and other holiday symbols on Christmas, and hearts on Valentine's Day. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Hanukkah (חנוכה alt Chanukah) also known as the Festival of Lights, is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Valentine's Day or Saint Valentine's Day is a Holiday celebrated on February 14 Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, to produce chocolate milk and hot chocolate. Chocolate milk is a sweetened Cocoa - Flavored milk Drink. It can be purchased pre-mixed or made at home with either cocoa powder and a Hot chocolate (also known as hot cocoa, drinking chocolate or just cocoa) is a heated Beverage that typically consists of
The word "chocolate" comes from the Aztecs of Mexico, and is derived from the Nahuatl word xocolatl which is a combination of the words, xocolli, meaning "bitter", and atl, which is "water". Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family The Aztecs associated chocolate with Xochiquetzal, the goddess of fertility. In Aztec mythology, Xoːchiquetzal (ʃotʃi'ketsal was a goddess of Flowers fertility games dancing and Agriculture, as well as craftsmen prostitutes Chocolate is also associated with the Maya god of fertility. Mexican philologist Ignacio Davila Garibi, proposed that "Spaniards had coined the word by taking the Maya word chocol and then replacing the Mayan term for water, haa, with the Aztec term, atl. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" " However, it is more likely that the Aztecs themselves coined the term, having long adopted into Nahuatl the Mayan word for the "cacao" bean; the Spanish had little contact with the Maya before Cortés' early reports to the Spanish King of the beverage known as xocolatl. Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2,  William Bright noted that the word xocoatl does not occur in early Spanish or Nahuatl colonial sources. 
Chocolate has been used as a drink for nearly all of its history. Chocolate has a very long history beginning with its discovery by ancient Mesoamerican civilizations over 3000 years ago The earliest record of using chocolate dates back to the Maya.  In November 2007, archaeologists reported finding evidence of the oldest known cultivation and use of cacao at a site in Puerto Escondido, Honduras, dating from about 1100 to 1400 BC. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America.  The residues found and the kind of vessel they were found in indicate that the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.  The Maya civilization grew cacao trees in their backyard, and used the cacao seeds it produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.  Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated that chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life. The Maya script, also known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently  The chocolate residue found in an early ancient Maya pot in Río Azul, Guatemala, suggests that Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest In the New World, chocolate was consumed in a bitter, spicy drink called xocoatl, and was often flavored with vanilla, chile pepper, and achiote (known today as annatto). The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Vanilla is a Flavoring derived from Orchids of the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade Annatto, sometimes called Roucou, is a derivative of the Achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas used to produce a red Food coloring and also  Xocoatl was believed to fight fatigue, a belief that is probably attributable to the theobromine content. Theobromine, also known as xantheose, which also includes the similar compounds Theophylline and Caffeine. Chocolate was also an important luxury good throughout pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and cacao beans were often used as currency. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is  For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost one hundred cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans. A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. The avocado ( Persea americana) (from Nahuatl āhuacatl) also known as aguacate ( Spanish) butter pear or  South American and European cultures have used cocoa to treat diarrhea for hundreds of years.  All of the areas that were conquered by the Azetcs that grew cacao beans were ordered to pay them as a tax, or as the Aztecs called it, a "tribute". 
Untill the 1500s, no European had ever heard of the popular drink from the Central and South American peoples. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a  It was not until the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs that chocolate could be imported to Europe, where it quickly became a court favorite.  To keep up with the high demand for this new drink, Spanish armies began enslaving Mesoamericans to produce cacao.  Even with cacao harvesting becoming a regular business, only royalty and the well-connected could afford to drink this expensive import.  Before long, the Spanish began growing cacao beans on plantations, and user African workforce to help manage them.  The situation was different in England. Put simply, anyone with money could buy it.  The first chocolate house opened in London in 1657.  In 1689, noted physician and collector Hans Sloane developed a milk chocolate drink in Jamaica which was initially used by apothecaries, but later sold to the Cadbury brothers. Sir Hans Sloane 1st Baronet, PRS ( 16 April, 1660 &ndash 11 January, 1753) was an Ulster-Scot Physician and Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. John Cadbury ( 12 August 1801 &ndash 11 May 1889) was proprietor of a small Chocolate business in Birmingham, England 
For hundreds of years, the chocolate making process remained unchanged. When the people saw the Industrial Revolution arrive, many changes occured that brought the hard, sweet candy we love today to life. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the In the 1700s, mechanical mills were created that squeezed out cocoa butter, which in turn helped to create hard, durable chocolate.  But, it was not until the arrival of the Industrial Revolution that these mills were put to bigger use. Not long after the revolution cooled down, companies began advertising this new invention to sell many of the chocolate treats we see today.  When new machines were produced, people began experiencing and consuming chocolate worldwide. 
Alongside milk chocolate, white chocolate and dark chocolate are also common chocolate varieties. Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e White chocolate is a confection of sugar, Cocoa butter, and Milk solids Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e
White chocolate is formed from a mixture of sugar, cocoa butter, and milk solids. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao bean Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Although its texture is similar to milk and dark chocolate, it does not contain any cocoa solids; thus not officially qualifying as true chocolate. Because of this, many countries do not consider white chocolate as chocolate at all.  Although first introduced by Hebert Candies in 1955, Mars, Incorporated was the first to produce white chocolate within the United States. The Hebert Candy Mansion is an historic property and tourist attraction in Shrewsbury Massachusetts. Mars Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of Confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$ 21 billion in annual sales in 2006 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Because it does not contain any cocoa solids, one benefit of white chocolate is that it also does not contain any theobromine, meaning it can be consumed by animals. Theobromine, also known as xantheose, which also includes the similar compounds Theophylline and Caffeine. Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. The U.S. Government calls this "sweet chocolate", and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids.  Dark chocolate, with its high cocoa content, is a rich source of the flavonoids epicatechin and gallic acid, which are thought to possess cardioprotective properties. The term flavonoid (or bioflavonoid refers to a class of Plant Secondary metabolites According to the IUPAC nomenclature they can be classified into Catechins are polyphenolic Antioxidant Plant Metabolites. They belong to the family of Flavonoids and to be more specific flavan-3-ols Gallic acid is an Organic acid, also known as 345-trihydroxy Benzoic acid, found in Gallnuts Sumac, Witch hazel, Tea leaves Dark chocolate has also been said to reduce the possibility of a heart attack when consumed regularly in small amounts.  Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. For chocolate-flavored liqueur see chocolate liqueur. Chocolate liquor, also known as cocoa liquor and cocoa mass, is a smooth It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. Semisweet chocolate is often used for cooking purposes. It is a dark chocolate with a low sugar content. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla and sometimes lecithin have been added. Lecithin is any of a group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues and in egg yolk composed of Phosphoric acid, Choline, It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking.
Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in Western Africa, with 43% sourced from Côte d'Ivoire. Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a  According to the World Cocoa Foundation, some 50 million people around the world depend on cocoa as a source of livelihood.  The industry is dominated by three chocolate makers, Barry Callebaut, Cargill and Archer Daniels Midland Company. Barry Callebaut is a multi-national chocolate manufacturing company Cargill Incorporated is a privately held, Multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. The Archer Daniels Midland Company ( is a conglomerate based in Decatur Illinois. In the UK, 99. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 999% of chocolatiers, whether they be large companies such as Cadbury Schweppes or small independents, purchase their chocolate from them, to melt, mold and package to their own design. Cadbury plc () is a Confectionery and Beverage  Despite some disagreement in the EU about the definition, chocolate is any product made primarily of cocoa solids and cocoa fat. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of Chocolate. Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao bean The different flavors of chocolate can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans, by adjusting the relative quantities of the cocoa solids and cocoa fat, and by adding non-chocolate ingredients.
Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solid content or by substituting cocoa butter with a non-cocoa fat. Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao bean Cocoa growers object to allowing the resulting food to be called "chocolate", due to the risk of lower demand for their crops. 
There are two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy, chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate. CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology. Couverture chocolate is a form of Chocolate. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate Chocolatiers use the finished couverture to make chocolate candies (bars, truffles, etc. Chocolate truffles are a group of Chocolate Confectionery, traditionally made with a chocolate Ganache center coated in chocolate or Cocoa powder ). 
Cacao trees are small, understory trees that need rich, well-drained soils. They naturally grow within 20 degrees of either side of the equator because they need about 2000 millimeters of rainfall a year, and temperatures in the range of 21 to 32 degrees Celsius. Cacao trees cannot tolerate a temperature lower than 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit). 
The three main varieties of cacao beans used in chocolate are criollo, forastero and trinitario. CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology.
Representing only five percent of all cocoa beans grown, criollo is the rarest and most expensive cocoa on the market and is native to Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern tier of South American states. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a  There is some dispute about the genetic purity of cocoas sold today as Criollo, as most populations have been exposed to the genetic influence of other varieties. Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree. The flavor of Criollo is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavor, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration. 
The most commonly grown bean is forastero, a large group of wild and cultivated cacaos, most likely native to the Amazon basin. The African cocoa crop is entirely of the Forastero variety. They are significantly hardier and of higher yield than Criollo. The source of most chocolate marketed, forastero cocoas are typically strong in classic "chocolate" flavor, but have a short duration and are unsupported by secondary flavors, producing "quite bland" chocolate. 
Trinitario is a natural hybrid of Criollo and Forastero. Trinitario originated in Trinidad after an introduction of Forastero to the local Criollo crop. Trinidad ( Spanish: " Trinity " is the largest and most populous of the two major islands and Nearly all cacao produced over the past five decades is of the Forastero or lower-grade Trinitario varieties. 
Harvesting cacao beans is a delicate process. First, the pods containing cacao beans, are harvested by cutting the pods from the tree using a machete, or by knocking them off the tree using a stick. CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology. The beans with their surrounding pulp are removed from the pod and placed in piles or bins to ferment. Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions The fermentation process is what gives the beans their familiar chocolate taste. It is important to harvest the pods when they are fully ripe because if the pod is unripe, the beans will have a low cocoa butter content, or there will be insufficient sugars in the white pulp for fermentation resulting in a weak flavor. After fermentation, the beans must be quickly dried to prevent mold growth. Climate and weather permitting, this is done by spreading the beans out in the sun from 5 to 7 days. 
The dried beans are transported from the plantation where they were grown to a chocolate manufacturing facility. The beans are then cleaned (removing twigs, stones, and other debris), roasted, and graded. Next the shells are removed to extract the nib. Finally, the nibs are ground which releases and melts the cocoa butter producing chocolate liquor. Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao bean For chocolate-flavored liqueur see chocolate liqueur. Chocolate liquor, also known as cocoa liquor and cocoa mass, is a smooth 
Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couvertures. Chocolate is a name given to products that are derived from Cacao which are then mixed with some sort of fat (e The basic blends of ingredients for the various types of chocolate (in order of highest quantity of cocoa liquor first), are as follows:
Usually, an emulsifying agent such as soy lecithin is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for purity reasons and to remain GMO free, sometimes at the cost of a perfectly smooth texture. Lecithin is any of a group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues and in egg yolk composed of Phosphoric acid, Choline, This article is about organisms which have been genetically modified Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel. Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate ( PGPR) E 476 is an Emulsifier made from Castor beans which reduces the Viscosity of Chocolate Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and Chemical interaction in the mouth
The texture is also heavily influenced by processing, specifically conching (see below). The more expensive chocolate tends to be processed longer and thus have a smoother texture and "feel" on the tongue, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added.
Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas, but varying proportions of the different constituents are used.
The finest, plain dark chocolate couvertures contain at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. High-quality white chocolate couvertures contain only about 33% cocoa.
Producers of high quality, small batch chocolate argue that mass production produces bad quality chocolate.  Some mass-produced chocolate contains much less cocoa (as low as 7% in many cases) and fats other than cocoa butter. Vegetable oils and artificial vanilla flavor are often used in cheaper chocolate to mask poorly fermented and/or roasted beans. Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a Food or other substance, and is determined Vanilla is a Flavoring derived from Orchids of the genus Vanilla native to Mexico. 
In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes. The Hershey Company ( known until April 2004 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is the largest Chocolate manufacturer Nestlé is a multinational packaged food company founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland The Archer Daniels Midland Company ( is a conglomerate based in Decatur Illinois. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups Hydrogenation is the Chemical reaction that results in addition of Hydrogen (H2  Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients. 
The penultimate process is called conching. A conche is an agitator that evenly distributes Cocoa butter within Chocolate, and may act as a 'polisher' of the Particles It also promotes Flavor A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept in a liquid state by frictional heat. Chocolate prior to conching has an uneven and gritty texture. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, lesser grades about four to six hours. After the process is complete, the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to approximately 45–50 °C (113–122 °F) until final processing. 
The final process is called tempering. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be clearly seen with the naked eye. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken.  The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the result of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process.
The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization).  The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. The six different crystal forms have different properties.
|I||17 °C (63 °F)||Soft, crumbly, melts too easily.|
|II||21 °C (70 °F)||Soft, crumbly, melts too easily.|
|III||26 °C (78 °F)||Firm, poor snap, melts too easily.|
|IV||28 °C (82 °F)||Firm, good snap, melts too easily.|
|V||34 °C (94 °F)||Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature (37 °C).|
|VI||36 °C (97 °F)||Hard, takes weeks to form.|
Making chocolate considered "good" is about forming as many type V crystals as possible. This provides the best appearance and texture and creates the most stable crystals so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization.
Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (115 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals.  Next, the chocolate is cooled to about 27 °C (80 °F), which will allow crystal types IV and V to form. At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. However, there are other methods of chocolate tempering used. The most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" chocolate. The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.
Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:
Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate, particularly for large volume applications.
Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 °C (59 to 63 °F), with a relative humidity of less than 50%. Chocolate should be stored away from other foods as it can absorb different aromas. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. Additionally chocolate should be stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly. If refrigerated or frozen without containment, chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration, the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. Moving chocolate from one temperature extreme to another, such as from a refrigerator on a hot day can result in an oily texture. Although visually unappealing, these conditions are perfectly safe for consumption. 
Child labor is sometimes used in cocoa production in West Africa, in violation of the Minimum Age Convention of 1973. This article discusses Child labor and Human trafficking related to west African Cocoa production Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Minimum Age Convention 1973, is a Convention adopted in 1973 by the International Labour Organization. Some farmers in West Africa use slave labor as a cost-cutting measure, especially when cocoa prices drop. 
While chocolate is regularly eaten for pleasure, there are potential beneficial health effects of eating chocolate. Cocoa or dark chocolate benefits the circulatory system. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System"  Other beneficial effects suggested include anticancer, brain stimulator, cough preventor and antidiarrhoeal effects. Chemotherapy, in its most general sense refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells specifically those of micro-organisms or Cancer. '''Nootropics''' popularly referred to as " smart drugs " " smart nutrients " " cognitive enhancers " and " brain enhancers A cough medicine is a medicinal drug used to treat Coughing and related conditions An anti-diarrheal drug is any Medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhea.  An aphrodisiac effect is yet unproven.
On the other hand, eating large quantities of any chocolate increases risk of obesity. Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected There is concern of mild lead poisoning for some types of chocolate. Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in Chocolate is toxic to many animals because of insufficient capacity to metabolize theobromine. 
A study reported by the BBC indicated that melting chocolate in one's mouth produced an increase in brain activity and heart rate that was more intense than that associated with passionate kissing, and also lasted four times as long after the activity had ended. 
Recent studies have suggested that cocoa or dark chocolate may possess certain beneficial effects on human health. Cocoa possesses a significant antioxidant action, protecting against LDL oxidation, perhaps more than other polyphenol antioxidant-rich foods and beverages. An antioxidant is a Molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules Low-density lipoprotein ( LDL) is a type of Lipoprotein that transports Cholesterol and Triglycerides from the Liver to peripheral Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of Antioxidant containing a Polyphenolic substructure Processing cocoa with alkali destroys most of the flavonoids.  Some studies have also observed a modest reduction in blood pressure and flow-mediated dilation after consuming dark chocolate daily. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories  There has even been a fad diet, named "Chocolate diet", that emphasizes eating chocolate and cocoa powder in capsules. Food faddism and Fad diet refer to idiosyncratic diets and eating patterns However, consuming milk chocolate or white chocolate, or drinking fat-containing milk with dark chocolate, appears largely to negate the health benefit.  Processed cocoa powder (so called Dutch chocolate), processed with alkali greatly reduces the antioxidant capacity as compared to "raw" cocoa powder. In Chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي القالي) is a basic, ionic salt of an Alkali metal
One-third of the fat in chocolate comes in the forms of a saturated fat called stearic acid and a monounsaturated fat called oleic acid. Saturated fat is Fat that consists of Triglycerides containing only saturated Fatty acids Explanation Fat that occurs Stearic acid (first syllable rhymes with either bear or gear) ( IUPAC Systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is a saturated Oleic acid is a Monounsaturated omega-9 Fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources However, unlike other saturated fats, stearic acid does not raise levels of LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream. Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian  Consuming relatively large amounts of dark chocolate and cocoa does not seem to raise serum LDL cholesterol levels; some studies even find that it could lower them.  Indeed, small but regular amounts of dark chocolate lower the possibility of a heart attack, a result of cholesterol imbalance according to the lipid hypothesis. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply The lipid hypothesis was one of two hypotheses developed in the 1850s to explain the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis. 
Romantic lore commonly identifies chocolate as an aphrodisiac. The reputed aphrodisiac qualities of chocolate are most often associated with the simple sensual pleasure of its consumption. Additionally, chocolate's sweet and fatty nature may stimulate the hypothalamus, inducing pleasureable sensations as well as affecting the levels of serotonin. The hypothalamus links the Nervous system to the Endocrine system via the Pituitary gland (hypophysis Serotonin (ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnən ( 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a Monoamine Neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic Neurons  While serotonin has a pleasurable effect, in high concentrations it can be converted to melatonin which in large amounts reduces sexual drive. Melatonin is a naturally occurring Hormone found in most animals including humans and some other living organisms including Algae.  Finally, chocolate has been shown to contain unsaturated N-acylethanolamines which might activate cannabinoid receptors or increase endocannabinoid levels resulting in heightened sensitivity and euphoria. Cannabinoids ( are a group of terpeno[[phenol]]ic compounds present in Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L The cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors under the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily Cannabinoids ( are a group of terpeno[[phenol]]ic compounds present in Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L  Although there is no firm proof that chocolate is indeed an aphrodisiac, a gift of chocolate is a familiar courtship ritual. giFT Internet File Transfer ( giFT) is a computer software daemon that allows several File sharing protocols to be used with a simple client having a
Several population studies have observed an increase in the risk of certain cancers among people who frequently consume sweet 'junk' foods such as chocolate. In Statistics, a statistical population is a set of entities concerning which Statistical inferences are to be drawn often based on a Random sample Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled However, very little evidence exists to suggest whether consuming flavonoid-rich dark chocolate may increase or decrease the risk of cancer. Evidence from laboratory studies suggests that cocoa flavonoids may possess anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but more research is needed to prove this idea. Anticarcinogenic is to do with preventing or delaying the development of Cancer.
Studies suggest a specially formulated type of cocoa may be nootropic and delay brain function decline as people age. '''Nootropics''' popularly referred to as " smart drugs " " smart nutrients " " cognitive enhancers " and " brain enhancers 
Mars, Incorporated, a Virginia-based candy company, spends money each year on flavonol research. Mars Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of Confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$ 21 billion in annual sales in 2006 Flavonols (with an "o"are a class of Flavonoids that use the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one (IUPAC  The company is talking with pharmaceutical companies to license drugs based on synthesized cocoa flavonol molecules. According to Mars-funded researchers at Harvard, the University of California, and European universities, cocoa-based prescription drugs could potentially help treat diabetes, dementia and other diseases. The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline 
Other research indicates that chocolate may be effective at preventing persistent coughing. The ingredient theobromine was found to be almost one third more effective than codeine, the leading cough medicine. Theobromine, also known as xantheose, which also includes the similar compounds Theophylline and Caffeine. Codeine ( INN) or methylmorphine is an Opiate used for its Analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties  The chocolate also appears to soothe and moisten the throat.
Flavonoids can inhibit the development of diarrhea, suggesting antidiarrhoeal effects of chocolate. The term flavonoid (or bioflavonoid refers to a class of Plant Secondary metabolites According to the IUPAC nomenclature they can be classified into An anti-diarrheal drug is any Medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhea. 
The major concern that nutritionists have is that even though eating dark chocolate may favorably affect certain biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, the amount needed to have this effect would provide a relatively large quantity of calories, which, if unused, would promote weight gain. A biomarker is a substance used as an indicator of a biologic state Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and This article is about the unit of energy For its use in Nutrition and Food labelling regulations, see the article on Food energy. Obesity is a significant risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected As a consequence, consuming large quantities of dark chocolate in an attempt to protect against cardiovascular disease has been described as 'cutting off one's nose to spite one's face'. 
There is a popular belief that the consumption of chocolate can cause acne. Acne vulgaris (commonly called acne) is a Skin disease caused by changes in the Pilosebaceous units (skin structures consisting of a Hair follicle Various studies seem to show that this is the case for high glycemic index foods in general, though the question is still being studied. The Glycemic index (also glycaemic index) or GI is a measure of the effects of Carbohydrates on Blood glucose levels Milk is known to cause acne, including any which is mixed with chocolate. 
Chocolate has one of the higher concentrations of lead among products that constitute a typical Westerner's diet, with a potential to cause mild lead poisoning. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in Recent studies have shown that although the beans themselves absorb little lead, it tends to bind to cocoa shells and contamination may occur during the manufacturing process. A recent peer-reviewed publication found significant amounts of lead in chocolate.  A review article published in a peer-reviewed journal in 2006 states that despite high consumption levels of chocolate, there is a paucity of data on lead concentrations in chocolate products. In a USDA study in 2004, mean lead levels in the samples tested ranged from 0. 0010 to 0. 0965 µg lead per gram of chocolate, but another study by a Swiss research group in 2002 found that some chocolate contained up to 0. 769 µg per gram, close to the international (voluntary) standard limit for lead in cocoa powder or beans, which is 1 µg of lead per gram.  In 2006, the U. S. FDA lowered by one-fifth the amount of lead permissible in candy, but compliance is only voluntary.  While studies show that the lead consumed in chocolate may not all be absorbed by the human body, there is no known threshold for the effects of lead on children's brain function and even small quantities of lead can cause permanent neurodevelopmental deficits including impaired IQ. 
In sufficient amounts, the theobromine found in chocolate is toxic to non-human animals such as horses, dogs, parrots, small rodents, and cats because they are unable to metabolise the chemical effectively. Theobromine, also known as xantheose, which also includes the similar compounds Theophylline and Caffeine. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life.  If they are fed chocolate, the theobromine will remain in their bloodstream for up to 20 hours, and these animals may experience epileptic seizures, heart attacks, internal bleeding, and eventually death. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply Internal bleeding is Bleeding occurring inside the Body. It can be a serious Medical emergency depending on where it occurs (e Medical treatment involves inducing vomiting within two hours of ingestion, or contacting a veterinarian. Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the A veterinarian ( American English) or a Veterinary surgeon ( British English) often shortened to vet, is a Physician
A typical 20-kilogram (40-lb) dog will normally experience great intestinal distress after eating less than 240 grams (8. 5 oz) of dark chocolate, but will not necessarily experience bradycardia or tachycardia unless it eats at least a half a kilogram (1. Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine is defined as a resting Heart rate of under 60 beats per minute though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min 1 lb) of milk chocolate. Dark chocolate has 2 to 5 times more theobromine and thus is more dangerous to dogs. According to the Merck Veterinary Manual, approximately 1. The Merck Veterinary Manual is a reference manual of animal health care 3 grams of baker's chocolate per kilogram of a dog's body weight (0. 02 oz/lb) is sufficient to cause symptoms of toxicity. For example, a typical 25-gram (0. 88 oz) baker's chocolate bar would be enough to bring about symptoms in a 20-kilogram (44 lb) dog. Of course, baking chocolate is rarely consumed directly due to its unpleasant taste, but other dark chocolates' canine toxicities may be extrapolated based on this figure. As dogs like the taste of chocolate products as much as humans do, and are capable of finding and eating quantities much larger than typical human servings, they should be kept out of their reach. There are reports that mulch made from cacao bean shells is dangerous to pets (and other animals). In Agriculture and Gardening, '''mulch''' is a protective cover placed over the Soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local Climate.  Treats made from carob can be used to substitute and pose no health threat to animals. The Carob tree (from Arabic: خروب "kharūb" and Hebrew: חרוב Charuv) Ceratonia siliqua, is a Leguminous 
Chocolate contains a variety of substances, some of which have an effect on body chemistry. The Reichstag building in Berlin was constructed to house the Reichstag, the first Parliament of the German Empire. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Chocoholism is a Portmanteau of " Chocolate " and " Alcoholism," referring to an Addiction to chocolate These include:
Chocolate is a mild stimulant to humans mainly due to the presence of theobromine. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Theobromine, also known as xantheose, which also includes the similar compounds Theophylline and Caffeine. This article is about the chemical compounds alkaloids For the Pharmaceutical company in the Republic of Macedonia see Alkaloid (company. Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an Essential amino acid in the Human diet In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Serotonin (ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnən ( 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a Monoamine Neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic Neurons Phenethylamine, or β -phenylethylamine or 2-phenylethylamine is an Alkaloid and Monoamine. The word endogenous means "arising from within" the opposite of Exogenous. This article is about the chemical compounds alkaloids For the Pharmaceutical company in the Republic of Macedonia see Alkaloid (company. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline Xanthine Alkaloid that acts as a Psychoactive Stimulant Drug and a mild Diuretic Stimulant drugs are Drugs that temporarily increase alertness and awareness  It is much more potent for horses, and its use in horse racing is prohibited. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics.
Some manufacturers provide the percentage of chocolate in a finished chocolate confection as a label quoting percentage of "cocoa" or "cacao". Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology. It should be noted that this refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids. Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of Chocolate. Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao bean Cocoa solids is a term for the nonfat component of Chocolate. 
Chocolates that are organic or fair trade certified carry labels accordingly. Organic foods are produced according to certain production standards, meaning they are grown without the use of conventional Pesticides artificial Fertilizers Fairtrade (one word redirects here For the more general article on the fair trade movement see Fair trade (two words
In the United States, some large chocolate manufacturers lobbied the federal government to permit confection containing cheaper hydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Hydrogenation is the Chemical reaction that results in addition of Hydrogen (H2 Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow pure edible Vegetable fat of the Cacao bean In June 2007, as a response to consumer concern after the proposed change, the FDA re-iterated that "Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of the product, will remain a principal component of standardized chocolate"
Many chocolate manufacturers have created products from chocolate bars to fudge, hoping to attract more consumers with each creation. The Hershey Company ( known until April 2004 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is the largest Chocolate manufacturer Mars Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of Confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$ 21 billion in annual sales in 2006 Fudge is a type of Confectionery which is usually very sweet extremely rich and sometimes flavored with Cocoa. Both The Hershey Company and Mars have become the largest manufacturers in the world, but other companies have attempted. The Hershey Company ( known until April 2004 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is the largest Chocolate manufacturer Mars Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of Confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$ 21 billion in annual sales in 2006 Major examples include Nestlé and Lindt. Nestlé is a multinational packaged food company founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland Lindt & Sprüngli, more commonly known as Lindt, is a Swiss premium Chocolate and confectionery company
The Hershey Company is the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. The Hershey Company ( known until April 2004 as the Hershey Foods Corporation and commonly called Hershey's, is the largest Chocolate manufacturer  Its headquarters is in Hershey, Pennsylvania, a town permeated by the aroma of cocoa on some days, and home to Hershey's Chocolate World. Hershey’s Chocolate World (opened June 30, 1973) is the name of Hershey’s visitor center in Hershey Pennsylvania, United States It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company. Milton Snavely Hershey ( September 13, 1857 &ndash October 13, 1945) was a confectioner philanthropist and founder of The Hershey Chocolate The Lancaster Caramel Company of Lancaster Pennsylvania was founded by Milton S Hershey's candies and other products are sold worldwide. 
The Hershey Company reached fame mainly because of three of its creations: the Hershey bar, Hershey's kisses and Reese's Peanut Butter Cups. The Hershey bar is the Flagship Chocolate bar (marketed as "The Great American Chocolate Bar" manufactured by the The Hershey Company, invented Hershey's Kisses are a type of Chocolate manufactured by The Hershey Company. Reese's Peanut Butter Cups are Chocolates with a peanut butter flavored filling
Mars, Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of confectionery and other food products with US$21 billion in annual sales in 2006. Mars Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of Confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$ 21 billion in annual sales in 2006 Headquartered in McLean, Virginia, USA, the company is entirely owned by the Mars family, making it one of the largest privately owned U. S. corporations. Mars is most famous for its eponymous Mars Bar, as well as other confectionery such as Milky Way, M&M's, Twix, Skittles and Snickers. The Mars Bar is a Chocolate bar manufactured by Mars Incorporated. The Milky Way bar is a popular candy bar distributed by the Mars candy company. M&M's Chocolate Candies are Candy -coated pieces of Chocolate with the letter "m" inscribed on them produced by Mars Incorporated. Twix is a chocolate-covered Chocolate bar made by Mars Inc, consisting of a Butter cookie centre topped with Caramel and coated in Skittles are small round fruit chews that come in hard sugar shells with the letter " S " printed on them representing the candy's name Snickers is a Chocolate bar made by Mars Incorporated. It consists of peanut butter Nougat topped with roasted Peanuts and Caramel
Chocolate is one of the most popular treats given on holidays. On Valentine's Day, a box of chocolate is given, usually with flowers and a greeting card. Valentine's Day or Saint Valentine's Day is a Holiday celebrated on February 14 A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also A greeting card is an illustrated folded card featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment It is given on other holidays, including Christmas, Thanksgiving, and birthdays, although no special chocolate creation is common on these holidays. Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a traditional North American Holiday, which is a form of harvest festival. Birthday is the name given to the date of the anniversary of a person's birth On Easter, chocolate eggs are popular gifts. A chocolate egg is a confectionery made primarily of chocolate, and can either be solid, hollow, or filled with cream.
Chocolate has been the center of several successful book and film adaptations. In 1964, Roald Dahl published a children's novel titled Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Roald Dahl ( 13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British Novelist Short story Writer Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964 is a children's book by British Author Roald Dahl. The novel centers around a poor boy named Charlie Bucket who takes a tour through the greatest chocolate factory in the world, owned by Willy Wonka. Willy Wonka is a fictional character in the Roald Dahl novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and its sequel Charlie and the Great Glass Two film adaptations of the novel were produced. The first was Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, a 1971 film which later became a cult classic. Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory is a 1971 motion picture based on the 1964 Roald Dahl novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory A cult film is a Film that has acquired a highly devoted but relatively small group of fans. Thirty-four years later, a second film adaptation was produced, titled Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is a 2005 Film directed by Tim Burton and starring Johnny Depp. The 2005 film was very well received by critics and was one of the highest grossing films of its year, earning over US$470,000,000 worldwide.  Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was also recognized at the 78th Academy Awards, where it was nominated for Best Costume Design for Gabriella Pesucci. The 78th Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 2005, were held on March 5 2006 at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood California This Academy Award was first given for movies made in 1948 when separate awards were given for black-and-white and color movies 
Chocolat is a 1999 novel by Joanne Harris. Chocolat is a 1999 Novel by Joanne Harris. It tells the story of Vianne Rocher a young mother who arrives at a fictional insular A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Joanne Michèle Sylvie Harris (b 3 July 1964, Barnsley, Yorkshire) is a British author It tells the story of Vianne Rocher, a young mother, whose confections change the lives of the townspeople through magic. The 2000 film adaptation, Chocolat, also proved successful, grossing over US$150,000,000 worldwide, and receiving Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for Best Picture, Best Actress, and Best Original Score. Chocolat is a 2000 Film based on the novel of the same name by Joanne Harris, directed by Lasse Hallström. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and Television programs given out each year during a formal dinner The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working 
Chocolate chips are small chunks of Chocolate. They are often sold in a round flat-bottomed teardrop shape " Big Chocolate " is a Pejorative business term assigned to multi-national Chocolate food producers much akin to the terms assigned to " Big Oil CACAO is a research Java Virtual Machine developed at Vienna University of Technology. Candida krusei is a budding Yeast (a species of Fungus) involved in Chocolate production Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made Chocolate milk is a sweetened Cocoa - Flavored milk Drink. It can be purchased pre-mixed or made at home with either cocoa powder and a Fudge is a type of Confectionery which is usually very sweet extremely rich and sometimes flavored with Cocoa. Military chocolate has been a part of standard United States military ration since the original Ration D or D ration bar of Chocolate Activism is a form of Social activism and Fundraising involving the wrapping or sale of Chocolate. The chocolate game is a Game often played at Children 's Parties, originating in Germany. The Open Directory Project ( ODP) also known as dmoz (from directory