distribution of Pan spp. The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. The South Province ( French Province du Sud) is located in the southwestern and south-central portion of the Republic of Cameroon. Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands A primate is a member of the biological order Primates ( Latin: "prime first rank" the group that contains Lemurs the Aye-aye Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Humans and some extinct relatives as well as the Gorillas and the Chimpanzees It comprises Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that comprises humans ( Homo) Chimpanzees ( Pan) and their Extinct ancestors Lorenz Oken ( August 1, 1779 &ndash August 11, 1851) was a German naturalist. In biology a type is that which fixes a name to a Taxon. Depending on the nomenclature code which is applied to the organism in question a type may be a specimen The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach ( May 11, 1752 – January 22, 1840) was a German doctor and Physiologist,
Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. The Bonobo (bə'noʊboʊ Pan paniscus) until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee (and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee Extant is a term commonly used to refer to Taxa (such as Species, genera or families) that are still in existence (living In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic The better known chimpanzee is Pan troglodytes, the Common Chimpanzee, living primarily in West, and Central Africa. The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad Its cousin, the Bonobo or "Pygmy Chimpanzee" as it is known archaically, Pan paniscus, is found in the forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Bonobo (bə'noʊboʊ Pan paniscus) until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee (and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to The Congo River forms the boundary between the two species. The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa.  Chimpanzees are members of the Hominidae family, along with gorillas, humans, and orangutans, and the two chimpanzee species are the closest living relatives to humans. Gorillas, the largest of the living Primates are ground-dwelling Herbivores that inhabit the Forests of Africa. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus The orangutans are two Species of great apes known for their intelligence long arms and reddish-brown hair
A fully grown adult male chimpanzee can weigh from 35-70 kilograms (75-155 lb) and stand 0. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass 9-1. 2 metres (3-4 ft) tall, while females usually weigh 26-50 kg (57-110 lb) and stand 0. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit 66-1 m (2-3½ ft) tall.
Chimpanzees rarely live past the age of 40 in the wild, but have been known to reach the age of more than 60 in captivity. Cheeta, star of Tarzan is still alive as of 2008 at the age of 76, making him the oldest known chimpanzee in the world. This article is about a famous chimpanzee For the species of big cat, see Cheetah. Tarzan is a Fictional character, an archetypal Feral child raised in the African jungle by Apes who later returns to civilization only to 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
Anatomical differences between the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo are slight, but in sexual and social behaviour there are marked differences. Common Chimpanzees have an omnivorous diet, a troop hunting culture based on beta males led by an alpha male, and highly complex social relationships. Omnivores (from Latin omne all everything vorare to devour are species that eat both Plants and Animals as their primary This article is primarily about the human diet For a discussion of animal diets see List of feeding behaviours. In Social animals the alpha male is the individual in the community to whom the others follow and defer Bonobos, on the other hand, have a mostly frugivorous diet and an egalitarian, nonviolent, matriarchal, sexually receptive behaviour. A frugivore is an Animal that feeds primarily or in some cases exclusively on Fruit. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Matriarchy is a term which is applied to gynocentric form of Society, in which the leading role is by the Female and especially by the Mothers  The exposed skin of the face, hands and feet varies from pink to very dark in both species, but is generally lighter in younger individuals, darkening as maturity is reached. Bonobos have proportionately longer upper limbs and tend to walk upright more often than the Common Chimpanzee. A University of Chicago Medical Centre study has found significant genetic differences between chimpanzee populations.  Different groups of Chimpanzees also have different cultural behaviour with preferences for types of tools. 
Africans have had contact with chimpanzees for millennia. Chimpanzees have been kept as domesticated pets for centuries in a few African villages, especially in Congo. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to The first recorded contact of Europeans with chimps took place in present-day Angola during the 1600s. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The diary of Portuguese explorer Duarte Pacheco Pereira (1506), preserved in the Portuguese National Archive (Torre do Tombo), is probably the first European document to acknowledge that chimpanzees built their own rudimentary tools. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Duarte Pacheco Pereira, called the Great, was a 15th century Portuguese sea captain explorer and cartographer.
The first use of the name "chimpanzee", however, did not occur until 1738. The name is derived from a Tshiluba language term "kivili-chimpenze", which is the local name for the animal and translates loosely as "mockman" or possibly just "ape". The colloquialism "chimp" was most likely coined some time in the late 1870s. Biologists applied Pan as the genus name of the animal. Chimps as well as other apes had also been purported to have been known to Western writers in ancient times, but mainly as myths and legends on the edge of Euro-Arabic societal consciousness, mainly through fragmented and sketchy accounts of European adventurers. Apes are mentioned variously by Aristotle, as well as the Bible, where apes and baboons are described as having been collected by Solomon in 1 Kings 10:22. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The baboons are African Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. King Solomon ( Ge'ez: ስለሞን Arabic: ar سليمان, Sulayman, all from the Triliteral root S-L-M, "peace" The Books of Kings ( Sefer Melachim, ספר מלכים are a part of Judaism 's Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible.
When chimpanzees first began arriving on the European continent, European scientists noted the inaccuracy of some ancient descriptions, which often reported that chimpanzees had horns and hooves. The first of these early transcontinental chimpanzees came from Angola and were presented as a gift to Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange in 1640, and were followed by a few of its brethren over the next several years. Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch ( 29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647) was the Prince of Orange Scientists who examined these rare specimens were baffled, and described these first chimpanzees as "pygmies", and noted the animals' distinct similarities to humans. Pygmies (singular Pygmy) refers to a member of any human group whose adult males grow to less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches in average height or less than 155 cm The next two decades would see a number of the creatures imported into Europe, mainly acquired by various zoological gardens as entertainment for visitors.
Darwin's theory of evolution (published in 1859) spurred scientific interest in chimpanzees, as in much of life science, leading eventually to numerous studies of the animals in the wild and captivity. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles The observers of chimpanzees at the time were mainly interested in behaviour as it related to that of humans. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually This was less strictly and disinterestedly scientific than it might sound, with much attention being focused on whether or not the animals had traits that could be considered 'good'; the intelligence of chimpanzees was often significantly exaggerated. At one point there was even a scheme drawn up to domesticate chimpanzees in order to have them perform various menial tasks (i. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals e. factory work). By the end of the 1800s chimpanzees remained very much a mystery to humans, with very little factual scientific information available.
The 20th century saw a new age of scientific research into chimpanzee behaviour. The Los Angeles Zoo founded in 1966 is a large Zoo located in Los Angeles, California, USA The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Before 1960, almost nothing was known about chimpanzee behaviour in their natural habitat. In July of that year, Jane Goodall set out to Tanzania's Gombe forest to live among the chimpanzees. Dame Jane Goodall, DBE (born Valerie Jane Morris Goodall on 3 April 1934) is an English UN Messenger of Peace primatologist Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya Gombe Stream National Park in Tanzania, located at 4 40' S 29 38' E is the smallest of that country's national parks and was formed in 1968 to give protection Her discovery that chimpanzees made and used tools was groundbreaking, as humans were previously believed to be the only species to do so. The most progressive early studies on chimpanzees were spearheaded primarily by Wolfgang Köhler and Robert Yerkes, both of whom were renowned psychologists. Both men and their colleagues established laboratory studies of chimpanzees focused specifically on learning about the intellectual abilities of chimpanzees, particularly problem-solving. Problem solving forms part of thinking. Considered the most complex of all intellectual functions problem solving has been defined as higher-order Cognitive This typically involved basic, practical tests on laboratory chimpanzees, which required a fairly high intellectual capacity (such as how to solve the problem of acquiring an out-of-reach banana). Notably, Yerkes also made extensive observations of chimpanzees in the wild which added tremendously to the scientific understanding of chimpanzees and their behaviour. Yerkes studied chimpanzees until World War II, while Köhler concluded five years of study and published his famous Mentality of Apes in 1925 (which is coincidentally when Yerkes began his analyses), eventually concluding that "chimpanzees manifest intelligent behaviour of the general kind familiar in human beings . World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including . . a type of behaviour which counts as specifically human" (1925). 
Common Chimpanzees have been known to attack humans on occasion.  There have been many attacks in Uganda by chimpanzees against human children; the results are sometimes fatal for the children. Some of these attacks are presumed to be due to chimpanzees being intoxicated (from alcohol obtained from rural brewing operations) and mistaking human children for the Western Red Colobus, one of their favourite meals. The Western Red Colobus ( Piliocolobus badius) is a species of Old World monkey found in West African forests from Senegal to Ghana  The dangers of careless human interactions with chimpanzees are only aggravated by the fact that many chimpanzees perceive humans as potential rivals, and by the fact that the average chimpanzee has over 5 times the upper-body strength of a human male.  As a result virtually any angered chimpanzee can easily overpower and potentially kill even a fully grown man, as shown by the attack and near death of former NASCAR driver Saint James Davis. The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing ( NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of Stock cars in the United States. 
The August, 2008, issue of the American Journal of Primatology reports results of a year-long study of chimpanzees in Tanzania’s Mahale Mountains National Park which produced evidence that chimpanzees are becoming sick from viral infectious diseases they have likely contracted from humans. Molecular, microscopic and epidemiological investigations demonstrated that the chimpanzees living at Mahale Mountains National Park have been suffering from a respiratory disease that is likely caused by a variant of a human paramyxovirus. 
Chimpanzees make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have sophisticated hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank; they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception; they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax, concepts of number and numerical sequence.  Young chimpanzees have outperformed human college students in tasks requiring remembering numbers. 
Modern chimpanzees use tools, and recent research indicates that chimpanzee stone tool use dates to at least 4300 years ago.  A recent study revealed the use of such advanced tools as spears, which Common Chimpanzees in Senegal sharpen with their teeth, being used to spear Senegal Bushbabies out of small holes in trees. The Common Chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes) also known as the Robust Chimpanzee, is a great ape. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. The Senegal Bushbaby ( Galago senegalensis) also known as the Senegal Galago, the Lesser Galago or the Lesser Bush Baby, is a small nocturnal  Before the discovery of tool use in chimps, it was believed that humans were the only species to make and use tools, but several other tool-using species are now known. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. 
Recent studies have shown that chimpanzees engage in apparently altruistic behaviour. Altruism is selfless concern for the welfare of others It is a traditional Virtue in many cultures and central to many religious traditions 
Scientists have long been fascinated with the studies of language, as it was potentially the most uniquely human cognitive ability. Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching Gorillas Chimpanzees and Orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other To test the hypothesis of the human uniqueness of language, scientists have attempted to teach several species of great apes language. One early attempt was performed by Allen and Beatrice Gardner in the 1960s, in which they spent 51 months attempting to teach a chimpanzee, named Washoe, American Sign Language. Washoe (c September 1965 – October 30, 2007) was a chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn to use a human language that of American American Sign Language (or ASL Ameslan is the dominant Sign language of the Deaf community in the United States, in the English-speaking parts Washoe reportedly learned 151 signs in those 51 months.  Over a longer period of time, Washoe reportedly learned over 800 signs.  Numerous other studies including one involving a chimpanzee named Nim Chimpsky have been conducted since with varying levels of success. --> Nim Chimpsky ( November 19, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was There is ongoing debate among some scientists, notably Noam Chomsky and David Premack, about the great apes' ability to learn language. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political David Premack is currently emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania
Laughter might not be confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. Self-awareness of one's situation such as the monkey-mirror experiments below, or the ability to identify with another's predicament (see mirror neurons), are prerequisites for laughter, so animals may be laughing in the same way that we do. A mirror neuron is a Neuron which fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially Conspecific
Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans show laughterlike vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. Gorillas, the largest of the living Primates are ground-dwelling Herbivores that inhabit the Forests of Africa. The orangutans are two Species of great apes known for their intelligence long arms and reddish-brown hair Tickling is the act of touching a part of the body so as to cause involuntary twitching movements or Laughter. This is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting. There are instances in which non-human primates have been reported to have expressed joy. One study analysed and recorded sounds made by human babies and bonobos (also known as pygmy chimpanzees) when tickled. It found, that although the bonobo’s laugh was a higher frequency, the laugh followed a pattern similar to that of human babies and included similar facial expressions. Humans and chimpanzees share similar ticklish areas of the body, such as the armpits and belly. The enjoyment of tickling in chimpanzees does not diminish with age. 
As of November 2007, there were 1,300 chimpanzees housed in 10 U. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. S. laboratories (out of 3,000 great apes living in captivity there), either wild-caught, or acquired from circuses, animal trainers, or zoos.  Most of the labs either conduct or make the chimps available for invasive research, defined as "inoculation with an infectious agent, surgery or biopsy conducted for the sake of research and not for the sake of the chimpanzee, and/or drug testing".  Two federally funded laboratories use chimps: Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Southwest National Primate Center in San Antonio, Texas. Emory University is a Private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County,  Five hundred chimps have been retired from laboratory use in the U. S. and live in sanctuaries in the U. S. or Canada. 
Chimpanzees used in biomedical research tend to be used repeatedly over decades, rather than used and killed as with most laboratory animals. Some individual chimps currently in U. S. laboratories have been used in experiments for over 40 years.  According to Project R&R, a campaign to release chimps held in U. S. labs — run by the New England Anti-Vivisection Society in conjunction with Jane Goodall and other primate researchers — the oldest known chimp in a U. Dame Jane Goodall, DBE (born Valerie Jane Morris Goodall on 3 April 1934) is an English UN Messenger of Peace primatologist S. lab is Wenka, who was born in a laboratory in Florida on May 21, 1954. She was removed from her mother on the day of birth to be used in a vision experiment that lasted 17 months, then sold as a pet to a family in North Carolina. She was returned to the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in 1957 when she became too big to handle. Since then, she has given birth six times, and has been used in research into alcohol use, oral contraceptives, ageing, and cognitive studies. 
With the publication of the chimpanzee genome, there are reportedly plans to increase the use of chimps in labs, with some scientists arguing that the federal moratorium on breeding chimps for research should be lifted. The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the Genome of the closest living human relatives  A five-year moratorium was imposed by the U. S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1996, because too many chimps had been bred for HIV research, and it has been extended annually since 2001. 
Other researchers argue that chimps are unique animals and either should not be used in research, or should be treated differently. Pascal Gagneux, an evolutionary biologist and primate expert at the University of California, San Diego, argues that, given chimpanzees' sense of self, tool use, and genetic similarity to human beings, studies using chimps should follow the ethical guidelines that are used for human subjects unable to give consent. The University of California San Diego (popularly known as UC San Diego or UCSD) is a public Research university in San Diego, California  Stuart Zola, director of the Yerkes National Primate Research Laboratory, disagrees. He told National Geographic: "I don't think we should make a distinction between our obligation to treat humanely any species, whether it's a rat or a monkey or a chimpanzee. No matter how much we may wish it, chimps are not human. "
An increasing number of governments are enacting a Great Ape research ban forbidding the use of chimpanzees and other great apes in research or toxicology testing. A great ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human Great apes in research is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the  As of 2006, Austria, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK had introduced such bans. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 
The genus Pan is now considered to be part of the subfamily Homininae to which humans also belong. Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Humans and some extinct relatives as well as the Gorillas and the Chimpanzees It comprises Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus These two species are the closest living evolutionary relatives to humans. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Humans shared a common ancestor with chimpanzees five to eight million years ago. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts is the period in the Geologic timescale that extends The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene period and extends from about 23  Groundbreaking research by Mary-Claire King in 1973 found 99% identical DNA between human beings and chimpanzees, although research since has modified that finding to about 94% commonality, with at least some of the difference occurring in 'junk' DNA. Mary-Claire King (1946-) is an American human geneticist She is professor at the University of Washington, where she studies the Genetics and interaction of Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known It has even been proposed that troglodytes and paniscus belong with sapiens in the genus Homo, rather than in Pan. Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives One argument for this is that other species have been reclassified to belong to the same genus on the basis of less genetic similarity than that between humans and chimpanzees.
A study published by Clark and Nielsen of Cornell University in the December 2003 issue of the journal Science highlights differences related to one of humankind's defining qualities — the ability to understand language and to communicate through speech. Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them These macro-phenotypic differences, however, may owe less to physiology than might be assumed given that Homo sapiens developed modern cultural features long after the modern physiological features were in place and indeed competed averagely against other species of Homo with regard to tools, etc. for many millennia. Differences also exist in the genes for smell, in genes that regulate the metabolism of amino acids and in genes that may affect the ability to digest various proteins. See the history of hominoid taxonomy for more about the history of the classification of chimpanzees. See Human evolutionary genetics for more information on the speciation of humans and great apes. Human evolutionary genetics studies how one Human genome differs from the other the evolutionary past that gave rise to it and its current effects
Many human fossils have been found, but chimpanzee fossils were not described until 2005. Human evolution, or anthropogenesis, is the part of biological Evolution concerning the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct Species Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa. However, chimpanzee fossils have now been reported from Kenya. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south This would indicate that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene. A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic Rift or fault. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period