Chicano studies is an academic discipline. An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of Knowledge which is taught or Researched at the college or university level Like most branches of Ethnic studies, it incorporates aspects of various other disciplines, including history, sociology, psychology, and literary and textual analyses from the academic studies of the English and Spanish languages. Ethnic studies is an academic discipline dedicated to the study of Ethnicity. English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of Literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U
Most Chicano studies departments are at public universities in the Southwestern United States, particularly in California, although there are courses of study in Chicano studies at private and non-Southwestern colleges and universities. A public university is a University that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government as opposed to private universities. The Southwestern area of the United States could be defined as the states west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit such as the 37 California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Some universities, particularly outside the Southwest, offer similar courses of study under the titles of Latino studies or Latin American Studies. Latino studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestry in America Latin American studies ( LAS) is an Academic discipline dealing with the study of Latin America and Latin Americans
Some emphases in Chicano studies, are social change, identity, and borders. The Plan de Santa Bárbara the document that became the manifesto the educational aims of the Chicano Movement and a charter of the student activist group MEChA, emphasizes the need for Chicanos and Chicanas to use their educations to improve their communities when it proclaims that "man is never closer to his true self as when he is closer to his community". El Plan de Santa Barbara A Chicano Plan for Higher Education was written by the Chicano Coordinating Council on Higher Education as a manifesto for the implementation of Chicano Studies For the Roxy Music album see Manifesto (album. A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions often The Chicano Movement of the 1960s also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, also known as El Movimiento, it is an extension of the Mexican Word origin and usage The term "mecha" is derived from the Japanese abbreviation for the English word " mechanical " To this day, many Chicano studies departments maintain a strong commitment to campus and community activism.
Mexican Americans and other Hispanics have always studied themselves. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically Fray Angélico Chávez, who took a Hispano view of the history of New Mexico, George I. Reverend Fr Fray Angélico Chávez ( April 10 1910 &ndash March 18, 1996) was an American Franciscan Priest Evidence from archaeologists conveys the existence of natives back to approximately 9200 B Sánchez, who analyzed sociological statistics pertaining to Hispanics, Américo Paredes, who compiled and rendered Mexican American folklore, Carey McWilliams, who documented the lives and struggles of Mexican Americans, Ernesto Galarza, who organized agricultural workers, and Bert Corona, who studied migration issues, were all pioneers in the field. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological Carey McWilliams ( 13 December 1905 &ndash 27 June 1980) was an American Author, editor, and Lawyer Humberto Noé "Bert" Corona (May 29 1918 &ndash February 15 2001 was an American labor and Civil rights leader But the study was not institutionalized except in a few diverse locations, such as the University of Notre Dame, where Julián Samora established the Mexican-American Studies Center in the early 1960s. The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in
In 1967, a student group at the University of California, Berkeley began publishing El Grito: A Journal of Contemporary Mexican American Thought. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley At about the same time, students and faculty at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) began publishing Aztlán: A Chicano Journal of the Social Sciences and the Arts. The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United These publications helped to give the budding field its intellectual footing.
Chicano studies programs and departments were born of struggle. The first, developed at California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA) in 1968 at the height of the Chicano student movement that spawned the Chicano Blowouts, (a massive student boycott to protest unfair conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District schools), was as much a response to the social circumstances of Los Angeles-area Mexican Americans as it was a demand of the activist community. California State University Los Angeles (also known as Cal State L The East Los Angeles Walkouts or Chicano Blowouts were a series of 1968 protests against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District Los Angeles Unified School District (" LAUSD " is the largest (in terms of number of students Public school system in California. Other programs followed, usually after intense battles between students and administration, at California State University, Northridge (CSUN) in 1969, the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) in 1971, and the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in 1970 with Felipe de Ortego y Gasca as Founding Director. California State University Northridge (also known as CSUN, Cal State Northridge) is a public university in the San Fernando Valley, within the city limits The University of California Santa Barbara ( UCSB) is a selective research-oriented public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County California The University of Texas at El Paso, popularly known as UTEP, is a public, coeducational University, and it is a member of the University
By the mid-1970s, Chicana feminists came to challenge the masculine domination of the field, making gender issues central to the concerns of the academic community. Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze the historical social political and economic roles of Mexican American Chicana/Latina Studies is a journal dedicated to Chicana studies, which is seen as a sub- or co-discipline of Chicano studies that concentrates on the history, roles, and concerns of women. An academic journal is a peer-reviewed Periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular Academic discipline is published Important scholars of Chicana studies include Gloria Anzaldúa, Cherríe Moraga, Chela Sandoval, Vicki L. Gloria Evangelina Anzaldúa ( September 26, 1942 - May 15, 2004) was a Mexican American Lesbian Feminist writer Cherríe L Moraga (born 25 September 1952 is a Chicana writer Feminist Activist, Poet, Essayist, and Playwright. Ruiz, and Betita Martinez. Elizabeth "Betita" Martínez (born 1925 is a Chicana feminist and a long-time community organizer, activist, Author, and
Chicana/o student activism resurged in the early 1990's when UCLA's MEChA Chapter protested an attempt by the UCLA Administration to eliminate the Chicano Studies Program. Instead, after a 3 year struggle, which involved the support of the The United Community and Labor Alliance (also U. C. L. A. -a take on the campus name and consisting of Mexican American activists and community leaders) and a student hunger strike in 1993, UCLA established a Center for Interdisciplinary Instruction in Chicana/o Studies. This center was later changed to a full fledged campus department in 2004.
Other important scholars include Juan Gomez-Quinones, Jose Limon, Yolanda Broyles-Gonzalez, Guillermo Gómez-Peña, Rodolfo Acuña, Charles Truxillo, Amalia Mesa-Bains, Norma Elia Cantú, and Armando Navarro. Guillermo Gómez-Peña was born in Mexico City and moved to the US in 1978 where he established himself as a Performance artist writer activist and educator Rodolfo Francisco Acuña, PhD, (born May 18, 1932) is an Historian, Professor, and perhaps the foremost scholar of Chicano Norma Elia Cantú (born January 3, 1947 is a Chicana Postmodernist writer and a Professor of English at the University
Some universities have departments of Chicano studies, which is also referred to as "Mexican American studies", "Chicano and Chicana studies", "Chicano/a studies", and "Chican@ studies", while others offer programs and courses in Chicano studies as parts of other departments.