The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is central to modern world economy, converting raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, minerals) into more than 70,000 different products.
Polymers and plastics, especially polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonate comprise about 80% of the industry’s output worldwide. Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications Uses PET can be semi-rigid to rigid depending on its thickness and is very lightweight Polystyrene ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn ( IUPAC Polyphenylethene is an aromatic Polymer made from the aromatic Monomer Styrene Chemicals are used to make a wide variety of consumer goods, as well as thousands inputs to agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and service industries. The chemical industry itself consumes 26 percent of its own output. Major industrial customers include rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals. Chemicals is nearly a $2 trillion global enterprise, and the EU and U. S. chemical companies are the world's largest producers.
The largest corporate producers worldwide, with plants in numerous countries, are BASF, Dow, Shell, Bayer, INEOS, ExxonMobil, DuPont, SABIC, and Mitsubishi, along with thousands of smaller firms. BASF SE () is a German chemical company and the largest chemical company in the world For other uses see Bayer (disambiguation or Beyer or Buyer. Bayer AG (German ˈbaɪə () is a German Ineos is a privately owned UK chemicals company By revenue it is the third largest chemicals firm in the world (after BASF and Dow Chemical) and the biggest The Exxon Mobil Corporation, or ExxonMobil, is an American oil and gas Corporation and a direct descendant of John D E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corp is a diversified manufacturing company active in chemicals and intermediates industrial polymers fertilizers and metals The, Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies is a Japanese conglomerate consisting of a range of autonomous businesses which share the Mitsubishi
In the U. S. there are 170 major chemical companies. They operate internationally with more than 2,800 facilities outside the U. S. and 1,700 foreign subsidiaries or affiliates operating. The U. S. chemical output is $400 billion a year. The U. S. industry records large trade surpluses and employs more than a million people in the United States alone. The chemical industry is also the second largest consumer of energy in manufacturing and spends over $5 billion annually on pollution abatement.
In Europe, especially Germany, the chemical, plastics and rubber sectors are among the largest industrial sectors. Together they generate about 3. 2 million jobs in more than 60,000 companies. Since 2000 the chemical sector alone has represented 2/3 of the entire manufacturing trade surplus of the EU. The chemical sector accounts for 12% of the EU manufacturing industry's added value.
The chemical industry has shown rapid growth for more than fifty years. The fastest growing areas have been in the manufacture of synthetic organic polymers used as plastics, fibres and elastomers. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. An elastomer is a Polymer with the property of Elasticity. The term which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term Historically and presently the chemical industry has been concentrated in three areas of the world, Western Europe, North America and Japan (the Triad). The European Community remains the largest producer area followed by the USA and Japan.
The traditional dominance of chemical production by the Triad countries is being challenged by changes in feedstock availability and price, labour cost, energy cost, differential rates of economic growth and environmental pressures. Instrumental in the changing structure of the global chemical industry has been the growth in China, India, Korea, the Middle East, South East Asia, Nigeria, Trinidad, Thailand, Brazil, Venezuela, and Indonesia.
As accepted by chemical engineers, the chemical industry involves the use of chemical processes such as chemical reactions and refining methods to produce a wide variety of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials. In a " scientific " sense a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more Chemicals or Chemical compounds Such a chemical A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called A refinery is composed of a group of Chemical engineering unit processes and Unit operations used for Refining certain materials or converting Most of these products are used in manufacture of other items, although a smaller number are used directly by consumers. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale Solvents, pesticides, lye, washing soda, and portland cement are a few examples of product used by consumers. A solvent is a liquid or gas that dissolves a solid liquid or gaseous Solute, resulting in a Solution. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Lye is a Corrosive alkaline substance commonly Sodium hydroxide (NaOH Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. Portland cement is the most common type of Cement in general usage in many parts of the world as it is a basic ingredient of Concrete, mortar, Stucco The industry includes manufacturers of inorganic- and organic-industrial chemicals, ceramic products, petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers and rubber (elastomers), oleochemicals (oils, fats, and waxes), explosives, fragrances and flavors. Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin Agrichemical (or agrochemical) a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various Chemical products used in A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds An elastomer is a Polymer with the property of Elasticity. The term which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term Oleochemicals are Chemicals derived from biological oils or Fats They are analogous to Petrochemicals which are chemicals derived from Petroleum An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Examples of these products are shown in the Table below.
|inorganic industrial||ammonia, nitrogen, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, nitric acid|
|organic industrial||acrylonitrile, phenol, ethylene oxide, urea|
|ceramic products||silica brick, frit|
|petrochemicals||benzene, ethylene, styrene|
|agrochemicals||fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides|
|polymers||polyethylene, Bakelite, polyester|
|elastomers||polyisoprene, neoprene, polyurethane|
|oleochemicals||lard, soybean oil, stearic acid|
|explosives||nitroglycerin, ammonium nitrate, nitrocellulose|
|fragrances and flavors||benzyl benzoate, coumarin, vanillin|
Although the pharmaceutical industry is often considered a chemical industry , it has many different characteristics that puts it in a separate category. Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation Acrylonitrile is the Chemical compound with the formula CH2CHCN Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene as well as many other names (see table is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2 Agrichemical (or agrochemical) a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a generic term for the various Chemical products used in Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms A herbicide is used to kill unwanted Plants Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired Crop relatively unharmed A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds Polyethylene or polythene ( IUPAC name poly(ethene) is a Thermoplastic commodity heavily used in consumer products (notably the Bakelite (ˈbеɪkɨlaɪt is a material based on the thermosetting Phenol formaldehyde resin polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride developed in 1907–1909 by Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain An elastomer is a Polymer with the property of Elasticity. The term which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic Rubbers that are produced by Polymerization of Chloroprene. A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links Oleochemicals are Chemicals derived from biological oils or Fats They are analogous to Petrochemicals which are chemicals derived from Petroleum Lard is pig Fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a Cooking fat or Shortening Stearic acid (first syllable rhymes with either bear or gear) ( IUPAC Systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is a saturated An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Nitroglycerin ( NG) ( US spelling also known as nitroglycerine, ( UK Spelling trinitroglycerin, trinitroglycerine The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to Benzyl benzoate is the Organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2O2CC6H5 Coumarin is a Chemical compound ( Benzopyrone) a Toxin found in many Plants notably in high concentration in the Tonka bean, Vanillin, methyl vanillin, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is an Organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3 Other closely related industries include petroleum, glass, paint, ink, sealant, adhesive, and food processing manufacturers. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid An ink is a Liquid containing various Pigments and/or Dyes used for coloring a surface to produce an Image, text, or A sealant is a viscous material that changes state to become solid once applied and is used to prevent the penetration of Air, Gas, Noise, Dust Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw Ingredients into Food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by
Chemical processes such as chemical reactions are used in chemical plants to form new substances in various types of reaction vessels. A chemical plant is industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes Chemicals usually on a large scale In many cases the reactions are conducted in special corrosion resistant equipment at elevated temperatures and pressures with the use of catalysts. Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst The products of these reactions are separated using a variety of techniques including distillation especially fractional distillation, precipitation, crystallization, adsorption, filtration, sublimation, and drying. Distillation is a method of separating Mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts or fractions such as in separating Chemical compounds by their Boiling point by heating Precipitation is the formation of a Solid in a Solution during a Chemical reaction. Crystallization is the (natural or artificial process of formation of solid Crystals precipitating from a homogeneous --> identical Solution Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases by interposing a medium to fluid flow through which the fluid Drying is a Mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water Moisture or moisture from another Solvent, by Evaporation from a Solid The processes and product are usually tested during and after manufacture by dedicated instruments and on-site quality control laboratories to insure safe operation and to assure that the product will meet required specifications. In Engineering and Manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services A laboratory (informally lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific Research, Experiments and The products are packaged and delivered by many methods, including pipelines, tank-cars, and tank-trucks (for both solids and liquids), cylinders, drums, bottles, and boxes. Chemical companies often have a research and development laboratory for developing and testing products and processes. The phrase research and development (also R and D or more often R&D) according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers These facilities may include pilot plants, and such research facilities may be located at a site separate from the production plant(s).
Chandler (2005) argues the relative success or failure of American and European chemical companies is explained with reference to three themes: "barriers to entry," "strategic boundaries," and "limits to growth. " He says successful chemical firms followed definite "paths of learning" whereby first movers and close followers created entry barriers to would-be rivals by building "integrated learning bases" (or organizational capabilities) which enabled them to develop, produce, distribute, and sell in local and then worldwide markets. Also they followed a "virtuous strategy" of reinvestment of retained earnings and growth through diversification, particularly to utilize "dynamic" scale and scope economies relating to new learning in launching "next generation" products.
The chemical industry includes large, medium, and small companies that are located worldwide. Companies with sales of chemical products greater than $10 billion dollars in fiscal year 2005 are shown below. For some of these companies the chemical sales represented only a portion of their total sales; for example ExxonMobil’s chemical sales were only 8. 7 percent of their total sales.
|COMPANY, HEADQUARTERS||2005 Chemical Sales, billions||Rank||Country|
|BASF, AG, Ludwigshafen, Germany||$53. BASF SE () is a German chemical company and the largest chemical company in the world 2||1|
|Dow Chemical, Midland, Mich. The Dow Chemical Company () is an American Multinational corporation headquartered in Midland Michigan.||$46. 3||2|
|Shell Chemicals, Netherlands/UK||$35||3|
|Bayer, AG, Leverkusen, Germany||$34. "Shell Chemicals" is the Petrochemicals arm of Royal Dutch Shell. For other uses see Bayer (disambiguation or Beyer or Buyer. Bayer AG (German ˈbaɪə () is a German 1||4|
|INEOS, Lyndhurst, UK||$33||5|
|ExxonMobil, Irving, Texas||$31. Ineos is a privately owned UK chemicals company By revenue it is the third largest chemicals firm in the world (after BASF and Dow Chemical) and the biggest The Exxon Mobil Corporation, or ExxonMobil, is an American oil and gas Corporation and a direct descendant of John D 2||6|
|DuPont, Wilmington, Delaware||$28. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée 5||7|
|Mitsubishi Chemical, Tokyo, Japan||$21. or MCC, was a Japanese corporation It merged with Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation to create Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation. 9||8|
|Lyondell Chemical, Houston, Texas||$18. Lyondell Chemical Company is an American multinational corporation based in Houston, Texas. 6||9|
|Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia||$18. SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corp is a diversified manufacturing company active in chemicals and intermediates industrial polymers fertilizers and metals 4||10|
|Akzo Nobel, Arnhem, Netherlands||$16. Akzo Nobel NV, trading as AkzoNobel, is a multinational company active in the fields of decorative Paints performance Coatings and specialty Chemicals 2||11|
|Evonik Degussa, AG, Düsseldorf, Germany||$14. 6||12|
|Sumitomo Chemical, Tokyo, Japan||$14. is one of the largest Keiretsus ' founded by Masatomo Sumitomo. 1||13|
|Asahi Kasei, Tokyo, Japan||$13. is a Japanese company The main products are chemicals and in Materials science. 6||14|
|Mitsui Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan||$13. ( is a Japanese Chemicals company listed on the Nikkei. It is a part of the Mitsui conglomerate 4||15|
|Air Liquide, Paris, France||$13. L'Air Liquide SA, or Air Liquide (pronounced or;) is a major French company supplying Industrial gases and services to various industries including 0||16|
|Toray Industries, Tokyo, Japan||$13. ( is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Japan that specializes in industrial products centered around technologies in organic synthetic chemistry, 0||17|
|Huntsman Corp., Salt Lake City, Utah||$13. Huntsman Corporation is one of the world's largest Chemical companies 0||18|
|Chevron Phillips, The Woodlands, Texas||$10. Chevron Phillips is a chemical producer jointly owned by Chevron Corporation and ConocoPhillips. 7||19|
|Solvay SA, Brussels, Belgium||$10. This article deals with the company named Solvay For other meanings see Solvay. 7||20|
|Imperial Chemical Industries(ICI), London, UK||$10. Imperial Chemical Industries ( ICI) is a British chemical subsidiary of a Dutch conglomerate and one of the largest chemical producers 6||21|
|Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. , Ltd. , Tokyo, Japan||$10. 2||22|
|DSM NV, Heerlen, Netherlands||$10. DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM NV, or Royal DSM NV) is a multinational company specialized in life science and performance materials 2||23|