Ceroc (pronounced /səˈrɒk/, short for the French "C'est le roc!") is a popular partner dance developed in the United Kingdom in the 1980s. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Partner dances are the Dances whose basic choreography involves coordinated dancing of two partners as opposed to individuals dancing alone or individually The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The term is a trademark owned by Ceroc Enterprises, who describe it as a "stylish form of Modern Jive which as a fusion of Salsa and Jive that is easy and fun to learn". A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Modern Jive is a dance style derived from Swing, Lindy Hop, Rock and Roll, Salsa and others the main innovation being to simplify Salsa refers to a fusion of informal dance styles having roots in the Caribbean (especially in Cuba and Puerto Rico) Latin and North America Jive is a Dance style in 4/4 time that originated among African-Americans in the early 1940s 
Ceroc has grown in popularity over twenty years and has also spread to other countries. As of 2008, there are 150 Ceroc venues in the UK and classes in other parts of Europe, (France, Spain, Italy, Ireland), also in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Dubai. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE 
Ceroc is derived from many other dances including Salsa, Jive, Swing, Lindy Hop, and Rock and Roll, the main change being simplified footwork which makes it more accessible to beginners. Salsa refers to a fusion of informal dance styles having roots in the Caribbean (especially in Cuba and Puerto Rico) Latin and North America Jive is a Dance style in 4/4 time that originated among African-Americans in the early 1940s The term " swing dance " commonly refers to a group of dances that developed concurrently with the swing style of Jazz music in the 1920s '30s and '40s although Lindy Hop is an African American dance that evolved in New York City in 1927 Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African The footwork and hand patterns are similar to Merengue, but with the inclusion of outward turns, multiple turns and dips.
It is danced to music with 4 beats to the bar (4/4 or Common time). The time signature (also known as " meter signature" is a notational convention used in Western Musical notation to specify how many beats It can be danced to most types of popular music from the past several decades, from classic music of the 1940s to the latest chart hits. Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more  Music is typically between 108 and 160 bpm. Experienced jivers occasionally dance to music outside those broad constraints. 
Ceroc does not require special clothes, although cool clothing is recommended. For both men and women, smooth soled (non-rubberised) shoes that are easy to turn/spin in are also highly recommended. One can buy specialized dance shoes, and long-time dancers often wear professional dance shoes. 
Ceroc is, like many partner dances, traditionally a male-led dance, with the male indicating the move to his partner via a range of signals. Ceroc events usually have more women than men participating.  Despite the tradition of the male lead, many female dancers today also learn the lead role, even though few male dancers learn the follow role. This is usually because of the sex imbalance, and because many males are less comfortable engaging in a partner dance with a member of the same sex than females are.
Ceroc dancers are typically aged between 25 and 50. 
Ceroc was created in London, England, by James Cronin, the son of writer, Vincent Cronin, and grandson of Scottish author, A. J. Cronin. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical cultural and biographical writer whose works have Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Archibald Joseph Cronin (19 July 1896–6 January 1981 was While visiting his grandmother in Normandy, Cronin quickly picked up the French style of dance at parties. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. Back at Exeter University, he was president of the Rock ‘n’ Roll Club, but as soon as he graduated he took his jive and business skills to London. The University of Exeter (usually abbreviated as Exon for post-nominals) is a University in the South West of London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. In 1980, he and other Sloane Rangers organised the first Ceroc gathering. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The term Sloane Ranger (plurals Sloanes, Sloanies) refers to the young upper class and upper-middle-class men and women living in South-West London. One of their leading lights was the young Diana Frances Spencer (this was a year before she married the Prince of Wales), and many of the devotees were the swish set of Chelsea and Knightsbridge. Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru is a title traditionally granted to the Heir Apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom (and formerly the Kingdom Chelsea is an area of south-west London, England, bounded to the south by the River Thames, where its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along Knightsbridge is a road which gives its name to an exclusive district lying to the west of Central London. In such an atmosphere, press coverage abounded, and Ceroc could be promoted as trendy, chic and jolly good fun. Cronin worked as a DJ for Gibson Chance, playing up-to-date sounds for the "Cerocers," and he had taxi dancers on hand to help beginners in lieu of formal teachers. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience He had the single-minded goal of reinstating the popularity of partner dancing.
In January 1980, Cronin, his brother and a friend hired Porchester Hall in Bayswater  and put up some posters. Bayswater is an area of west London in the City of Westminster. Around eighty people turned up, though within three months, the numbers had grown to seven hundred. By 1982, Ceroc had a cabaret team that went around to various London nightclubs and venues, performing routines. Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring Comedy, Song, Dance, and Theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue &mdash a Restaurant The line-up included James Cronin and Yum Yum Norman, Paul Aves and Janie Elton, Mark Derrington Bailey and Christine Keeble, and Richard and Katie Orr. Throughout the spring and summer of 1982, the Ceroc troupe worked with choreographer Michel Ange Lau, whose classes Cronin and Norman had attended at the Centre Charles Peguy, a French youth centre, in Leicester Square. For the British guitarist see Lester Square. Leicester Square (ˈlɛstɚ is a Pedestrianised square in the West End The first recording of Ceroc moves appears on the description for the "Gold Bug" routine, performed at the 1982 Ceroc Ball, a charity event, at the Hammersmith Palais. The Hammersmith Palais de Danse was a music venue in London, England. After the ball, one of the troupe's own dancers, Janie Elton, who would later marry Cronin, took on the role of choreographer, producing some highly creative new numbers. Harpers and Queen gave the Ceroc Ball a double page spread, describing the dance as "Ceroc - the imported Breton dance craze," and Cosmopolitan pronounced: "Ceroc - C'est le Roc, C'est Chic. Harper's Bazaar is a well-known American Fashion Magazine, first published in 1867 Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Cosmopolitan is the best-selling young women's magazine in the world "
In the late 1980s, Cronin and Sylvia Coleman created Ceroc Enterprises, registered Ceroc as a trademark and started to sell Ceroc franchises around the country. At this point, teachers who taught this form of dancing but were not part of the new company were legally obliged to stop referring to the dance style that they taught as Ceroc. Some clubs (particularly those in the Bristol area) adopted the name Leroc instead, whilst many others names also appeared. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London LeRoc is a form of Modern Jive, a dance style that was derived in the 1980s from dances including Swing, Lindy Hop and Rock and Roll, the main Around this time, Ceroc took steps to avoid the circulation of secondary material (such as dancer produced lists of moves or move sequence).
In 1990, one of the original Ceroc Franchisees, Robert Austin, (who had broken away from Ceroc to form LeJive) coined the phrase "Modern Jive". Modern Jive is a dance style derived from Swing, Lindy Hop, Rock and Roll, Salsa and others the main innovation being to simplify This description later became a generic term for Ceroc, that was used by teachers and clubs that were not part of the newly created Ceroc Enterprise.
Over the following years, Ceroc spread to Australia and New Zealand. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island However, the business model and teaching formula followed by the companies that teach Ceroc varies from country to country. Ceroc can be broadly split into two subtypes: the type of Ceroc taught at franchises of Ceroc Enterprises in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland venues, and the type of Ceroc taught at non-franchises companies such as those in Australia.
In the UK, Ceroc Enterprises is operated as a franchise business, and Ceroc is now a registered trademark of Ceroc Enterprises Ltd, founded in 1991. Franchising refers to the methods of practicing and using another person's Philosophy of business. Currently (Feb 2008), there are over 150 Ceroc venues across the UK. Ceroc has also spread from the UK to other countries, such as Ireland, France, Italy, Spain, UAE, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and the USA. 50,000 regularly dance the Ceroc in the UK.
The franchise nature of Ceroc enforces a degree of uniformity across all teachers and all venues.  The uniformity between franchises and venues is significantly greater in the UK than in New Zealand.
Ceroc classes are not arranged as a fixed sequence. Beginners can "just turn up" (to quote the advertising) to any Ceroc classes. The routine taught in the Beginners lesson is permuted from day to day such that if a beginner attends classes regularly for approximately two months, each beginner-level move will have been taught at least once.
In Ceroc classes a small number of volunteer experienced dancers (called taxi dancers or taxis) are often available specifically to dance with beginners, and are in fact forbidden from dancing with other experienced dancers until near the end of the evening. A taxi dancer, or "taxi" for short (the word has been used since circa 1927 is a professional dance partner in a Partner dance. The number of taxi dancers varies according to the size of the venue.
In the UK Ceroc classes follow essentially the same format, and comprise:
During this period certain venues run social dancing activities such as Dance With A Stranger (all students are to ask someone, that they never danced with before, for a dance) or Snowball (starting with a few couples on the dance floor, every 30–40 seconds the "Snowball" call is made by the teacher and all dancing couples need to "split" and ask someone else [not dancing] onto the dance floor until the next "Snow ball" call is made and the procedure repeats. After a few calls, based on an even number of males to females, all students should be dancing).
In many venues, depending on available space, a Beginners Review class (often referred to as Consolidation) takes place at the same time, where beginners may review the moves taught in the Beginners lesson with the help of the taxi dancers. Beginners may instead watch the Intermediate lesson, if they so choose. The usual recommendation is for Beginners to complete approximately six Beginners classes before attempting to move up to Intermediate level. 
The start time varies from venue to venue, but is generally between 7pm and 8pm. Sunday classes often start earlier in order to comply with English and Scottish licensing laws, which require that music and dancing be licensed. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  Whatever the start time, the entire evening lasts 3 hours in most venues (with rare exceptions).
A Beginner Progression  class (also known variously as Bridging, Beginner Consolidation, Intromediate or Freestyle class ) taught at the same time as the Intermediate class has also been introduced in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, and Adelaide, involving either a review of the preceding Beginner class (possibly with some extensions or variations to the moves from that class) or a new routine drawn from a mixture of intermediate and beginner level moves. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Brisbane ( is the state capital of Queensland. Brisbane is the third most populous city in Australia and the most populous city of Queensland Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia with a This class is taught at the same time as the Intermediate class.
Individual teachers are less constrained as to the content of the Intermediate classes, however there is generally a stronger focus on technique (footwork, frame & connection, balance etc. ), intermediate skills (dips & drops, leans, spinning etc. ) and styling rather than just teaching moves.
A video clip of a Ceroc class filmed in Melbourne can be seen at Mind Body & Soul
In New Zealand there are typically Beginners, Intermediate and Advanced classes, with the clearer separation of moves between the classes. Moving up the classes leads to moves which are more complicated, more syncopated and closer. Beginners moves have 2-4 timing, preserve contact between partners at all times, have single speed, single turn spins, the dancers keep their balance (no leans, drops or dips) and partners only contact with each other is hands, arms and shoulders. Intermediate moves introduce single speed double spins and assisted double speed turns, contact with the partners back, and leans (in which one partner takes the others' weight with their body). Advanced moves can include multiple speed, multiple turn spins, loss of contact, significant syncopation, dips and drops (in which one partner takes the weight of the other with their arms) and/or contact with different body parts. In Music, syncopation includes a variety of Rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced
Most Ceroc venues occasionally put on special events, termed freestyles, on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays.  (Sunday freestyles are often termed tea dances. ) The format of these is less rigidly determined by the franchise agreement, and franchisees often exercise the greater leeway that they thus have to differentiate their own franchises from others. Some franchisees organise their freestyles exactly as they do normal weekday classes, with Beginners and Intermediate lessons; some have just fun lessons, with "guest" teachers or unconventional moves, near to the beginning of the evening; some simply have freestyle dancing, with no interruptions, for the entire evening; and some organise themed events, sometimes even to the extent of having accompanying dance workshops through the daytime, prior to the main evening event.
Many Ceroc teachers also occasionally run daytime dance workshops at weekends, which in the UK are known as Cerocshops.  Places on these are booked in advance, and one cannot just turn up as with regular classes. This is to ensure that the numbers are limited, allowing the teacher to focus far more on individuals, and that the sex ratio is approximately 1:1.
A workshop lasts for several hours, and covers more moves than are covered in a single regular evening class. The standard Ceroc workshops are graded (Beginners 1, Beginners 2, Intermediate 1, Intermediate 2, Advanced), although the grading is fuzzy at intermediate level and no workshop is a prior requisite for any other. (In particular, the attendance of a 1 workshop is not a prior requisite for attending a 2 workshop, and Advanced is not of a higher difficulty than Intermediate. )
Some teachers will teach additional workshops. These will vary according to the specific teacher, and include (amongst many):
Ceroc Enterprises holds an annual UK dance championship. This is held in London at the beginning of May with a mix of freestyle dancing and competitions. Competitions range from beginner oriented ones, such as the Lucky Dip in which dancers are randomly allocated partners, all the way up to the Expert and Team competitions in which competitors will dress up to a particular theme.
Competitions are held over a number of rounds, with judges deciding who will continue on to the next round.