The ceremonial mace is a highly ornamented staff of metal and wood, carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a mace-bearer, intended to represent the official's authority. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A Mace-bearer, or Macebearer, is a person who carries a mace either a real weapon or ceremonial. The mace as used today derives from the original mace used as a weapon. A mace is a simple Weapon that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows Processions often feature maces, as on parliamentary or formal academic occasions.
The ceremonial mace was used early a symbol of authority of military commanders.
The earliest ceremonial maces were practical weapons intended to protect the king's person, borne by the Serjeants-at-Arms, a royal bodyguard established in France by Philip II, and in England probably by Richard I. A Serjeant at Arms (also spelled Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a Deliberative This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Philip II Augustus (Philippe Auguste ( 21 August[[ 165]] &ndash 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death By the 14th century, these serjants' maces had started to become increasingly decorative, encased in precious metals. The mace as a real weapon went out of use with the disappearance of heavy armor. The history of the civic mace (carried by the serjeants-at-arms) begins around the middle of the 13th century, though no examples from that period remain today. At the time, ornamented civic maces were considered an infringement of one of the privileges of the king's serjeants, who alone deserved to bear maces enriched with costly metals according to a House of Commons petition of 1344. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords However, the serjeants of London later gained this privilege, as did later those of York (1396), Norwich (1403-1404), and Chester (1506). Records exist of maces covered with silver in use at Exeter in 1387-1388; Norwich bought two in 1435, and Launceston others in 1467 and 1468. Several other cities and towns subsequently acquired silver maces, and the 16th century saw almost universal use.
Early in the 15th century the flanged end of the mace (the head of the war mace) was carried uppermost, with the small button bearing the royal arms in the base. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. By the beginning of the Tudor period, however, the blade-like flanges, originally made for offence, degenerated into mere ornaments, while the increased importance of the end with the royal arms (afterwards enriched with a cresting) resulted in the reversal of the position. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period The custom of carrying the flanged end upward did not die out at once: a few maces, such as the Winchcombe silver maces, which date from the end of the 15th century, were made to be carried both ways. Winchcombe is a Cotswold Town in the Local Authority District of Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, England. The Guildford mace provides one of the finest of the fifteen specimens of the 15th century. Guildford ( IPA /ˈgɪlfəd/ is the County town of Surrey, England, as well as the seat for the borough of Guildford and the
Craftsmen often pierced and decorated the flanged ends of the maces of this period beautifully. These flanges gradually became smaller, and by the 16th or early 17th century had developed into pretty projecting scroll-brackets and other ornaments, which remained in vogue until about 1640. The next development in the embellishment of the shaft was the reappearance of these small scroll-brackets on the top, immediately under the head of the mace. They disappear altogether from the foot in the last half of the 17th century, and remain only under the heads, or, in rarer instances, on a knob on the shaft. The silver mace-heads were mostly plain, with a cresting of leaves or flowers in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the reign of James I of England they began to be engraved and decorated with heraldic devices and similar ornamentation. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James
As the custom of having serjeants' maces began to die out about 1650, the large maces borne before the mayor or bailiffs came into general use. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Bailiff (from Late Latin baiulivus, Adjectival form of baiulus) is a Governor or Custodian (cf Thomas Maundy functioned as the chief maker of maces during the English Commonwealth. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland He made the mace for the House of Commons in 1649. This mace is still in use today, though without the original head. The original head, which was not engraved with regal symbols, was replaced by one with regal symbols at the time of the English Restoration. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Oliver Cromwell referred to the House of Commons mace as "A fool's bauble" when he dissolved the Rump Parliament on 20 April 1653. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride on December 6 1648 had purged Long Parliament of those Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII.
Ceremonial maces are to this day used to represent authority and prestige, as in the House of Commons in a Westminster System parliament. The House of Commons is the name of the elected Lower house of the Bicameral Parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those
The House of Lords has two maces, the earlier dating from the reign of William III. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" The Houses of the UK Parliament cannot lawfully meet without the mace present. The maces represent the authority of the Sovereign; they are carried before the speakers of both Houses when they enter or leave the Chamber.
In 1930, John Beckett, a member of the Labour Party was suspended from the British House of Commons for showing disrespect to the Mace by trying to leave the chamber with it while protesting the suspension of another member. John Warburton Beckett (1894-1964 was a leading figure in British politics between the world wars both in the Labour Party and Fascist movements The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords It was wrestled away from him at the door.
In 1976, Michael Heseltine, a member of the Conservative Party famously seized the mace and brandished it at the opposing Labour Party members, during a heated debate. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933 is a Welsh -born British businessman and Conservative 
In 1987, Labour MP Ron Brown was suspended from the Commons after throwing the mace to the floor during a debate on the poll tax. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Ronald Jansch Brown ( 29 June 1940 &ndash 3 August[[ 007]] known as Ron Brown and nicknamed Red Ron, was a Scottish The Community Charge, popularly known as the " poll tax " was a system of taxation introduced in replacement of the rates to part fund Local government
There are eight large silver-gilt maces of the serjeants-at-arms kept in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London Two date from the reign of Charles II, two from the reign of James II, three from William and Mary's reign, and one from Queen Anne (the cypher of George I of Great Britain was subsequently added to the latter). Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James See also William III of England, Mary II of England The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of George I (George Louis German Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727 For the first year of his life George was the only heir to his father's and three childless All these are of a type which was almost universally adopted, with slight variations, at the Restoration.
The remarkable mace or sceptre of the Lord Mayor of the City of London comprises crystal and gold set with pearls; the head dates from the 15th century, while the mounts of the shaft are from the early medieval period. A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling Monarch, a prominent item of royal Regalia. The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the legal title for the Mayor of (and head of the City of London Corporation.
A mace of an unusual form is that of the Tower Ward of London, which has a head resembling the White Tower in the Tower of London, and which was made in the reign of Charles II. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was started in 1078 by William the Conqueror who ordered the White Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London
The silver mace with crystal globe of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, at Holyrood Palace, was made about 1690 by Francis Garthorne. The Treasurer was a senior post in the pre- Union government of Scotland, the Privy Council of Scotland. The Palace of Holyroodhouse, or informally Holyrood Palace, founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence
The present Scottish Parliament (key result of Devolution within the UK) has a silver mace, which was designed in 1999 and incorporates a gold wedding ring. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a Metal ring, often set with diamonds or other precious stones 
The Scottish Parliament was presented with this mace by Her Majesty The Queen at the opening ceremony on 1 July 1999. It was designed and crafted by Michael Lloyd, a renowned silversmith who has a studio in south-west Scotland.
The mace is constructed of Scottish silver with an inlaid band of gold panned from Scottish rivers. The gold band is intended to symbolise the marriage of the Parliament, the land, and the people.
The words "Wisdom, Justice, Compassion, Integrity" are woven into thistles at the head of the mace to represent the aspirations of the Scottish people for the Members of their Parliament. The head of the mace bears the words: "There shall be a Scottish Parliament - Scotland Act 1998".
The Lord President's Mace (sometimes known as the Old Exchequer Mace) dates from 1667. The Lord President of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland and presiding Judge (and Senator of the College of Justice and Court of Session It is made of gilt solid silver, measures 4 ft 8 inches and weighs 17lb 5oz. In 1856, on the merging of the courts, it was transferred from the Court of Exchequer to the First Division of the Court of Session to be used by the Lord President. The Court of Exchequer was formerly a distinct part of the court system in Scotland, with responsibility for administration of government revenue and judicial matters The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland. It is both a Court of first instance and a court of Appeal and sits exclusively The mace remains in daily use in the court. The mace, and lesser ones used in the other courts, are borne by Macers, officers of the court who act as assistants to the judges. The Lord President's Mace is borne by the Falkland Macer. A new mace was presented to the Court in 2006 .
The National Assembly for Wales has a gold, silver and brass mace which bears the Assembly's official symbol at its head. The mace was presented to the assembly by the Parliament of New South Wales at the ceremony to mark the official opening of the Assembly Building, the Senedd, in Cardiff on St David's Day 2006. . A photograph of the mace can be seen on this page 
Prior to the presentation of this mace, the assembly used a glass, gold, iron and coal sculputre known as the "Tlws" as its mace. The Tlws was presented to the assembly by the Queen at the official opening of the First Assembly in 1999. , 
The silver mace of the old Irish House of Commons, which dates to 1765 or 1766 is now displayed in the old Irish House of Lords Chamber in the old Parliament House in Dublin. The Irish House of Commons was the Lower house of the Parliament of Ireland, that existed from 1297 until 1800 The Irish House of Lords (Irish Teach na dTiarnai) was the Upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from mediæval times until 1800 The Irish Houses of Parliament (Tithe na Parlaiminte also known as the Irish Parliament House, today called the Bank of Ireland, College Green
Some district councils in Northern Ireland, eg Belfast, also meet with maces present.
The ceremonial maces of the Australian House of Representatives and the Australian Senate symbolise both the authority of each chamber and the Royal authority of the Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy
The ceremonial mace of the Senate of Australia is the Black Rod. The ceremonial custodian of the Black Rod is the Usher of the Black Rod. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to just Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of a number of Commonwealth countries 
The Serjeant-at-Arms of the Australian House of Representatives is the ceremonial custodian of the Mace of the House. A Serjeant at Arms (also spelled Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a Deliberative At the beginning and end of every day the House sits, the Speaker of the House enters and leaves the House with the Serjeant-at-Arms walking in front of them, with the Serjeant-at-Arms carrying the mace on their right shoulder.  The current Mace is made of gilded silver, and was a gift to the House from King George VI on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Federation in 1951. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" It was presented to the House by a delegation of members of the British House of Commons. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The House of Commons is the name of the elected Lower house of the Bicameral Parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. 
On 27 April 1965, a day known in the Bahamas as "Black Tuesday", Lynden Pindling, then Opposition Leader, threw the 165 year old Speaker's Mace out of a House of Assembly window to protest the unfair gerrymandering of constituency boundaries by the then ruling United Bahamian Party (UBP) government. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Sir Lynden Oscar Pindling, KCMG, OM, JP ( 22 March 1930 - 26 August 2000) served as the first black Premier of The Bahamian Parliament is a Bicameral body that in its organisation and functions closely follows the canons of the Westminster system. Gerrymandering is a form of redistribution in which electoral district or Constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage The Speaker tried to restore order but he was reminded by labour leader Randol Fawkes that the business of the House could not legally continue without the mace. The badly damaged mace was recovered by the Police and returned to the House.
On 3 December 2001, Cassius Stuart and Omar Smith, leader and deputy leader of the Bahamas Democratic Movement, a minor political party, charged from the public gallery onto the floor of the House of Assembly and handcuffed themselves to the Mace in protest against "unfair gerrymandering" of constituency boundaries by the Free National Movement (FNM) government. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Bahamas Democratic Movement (BDM is a liberal Populist political party in the Bahamas without parliamentary representation The Free National Movement is a socially liberal and economically conservative Political party in The Bahamas. The Mace was unable to be separated from the men and the sitting of the House had to be suspended. The pair was jailed for almost 2 days but no charges were brought against them.
The ceremonial maces in the Canadian House of Commons and the Canadian Senate symbolize the authority of each chamber, as granted in the name of the Sovereign (currently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). The House of Commons (Chambre des communes is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and The Senate of Canada (Le Sénat du Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II A similar practice is employed in each of the provincial legislatures, with each mace representing the authority and power of the respective legislature. This is a list of the Legislative Assemblies of Canada 's provinces and territories. The ceremonial mace of the Royal Military College of Canada when carried into the ceremony and placed on stage signals the opening of the convocation. The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC is the Military academy of the Canadian Forces, and is a degree-granting University. A Convocation ( Latin 'calling together' translating the Greek Ecclesia) is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose
In Canada, the House of Commons (and most of the legislatures) follow a relatively standard protocol in relation to the ceremonial mace; the Speaker of the House normally enters, following a mace-bearer (normally the Sergeant-at-Arms) who subsequently sets the mace on the clerks' table to begin the sitting. Speaker of the House is a political term referring to a number of people In the United Kingdom and Canada, the Speaker of the House A Serjeant at Arms (also spelled Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a Deliberative When the Sergeant-at-Arms removes the mace from the table, then the House has either adjourned, recessed, or been resolved into a Committee of the Whole. A Committee of the Whole is a device in which a legislative body or other Deliberative assembly is considered one large committee
Before the reigning monarch or one of his or her representatives (the Governor General or one of the Lieutenant Governors) may enter the chamber, the mace must be completely hidden from view. The Governor General of Canada ( French: Gouverneure générale du Canada, or: Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative In Canada, the Lieutenant-Governor (lɛfˈtɛnənt often without a Hyphen) ( French: lieutenant-gouverneur, or: lieutenant-gouverneure This is done by draping the mace in a heavy velvet cloth, a procedure performed by the House Pages. A Page is a non-partisan employee of the Canadian House of Commons.
During the election of the speaker the mace is removed from the table to show that the House is not fully constituted, when a Speaker takes the chair the mace is laid on the table to show that the house is fully constituted and can do business with the new Speaker in the chair.
Being a symbol of the power and authority of a legislative assembly, a precedent was set in 2002 as to the severity of acts of disrespect toward the Mace in Canada and, by proxy, the monarch. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Keith Martin, Member of Parliament for Esquimalt—Juan de Fuca, had seized the ceremonial mace from the Clerk's table. Keith P Martin, PC, MP (born April 13, 1960, in London, UK) is a Canadian physician and politician Esquimalt—Juan de Fuca is a federal electoral district in the province of British Columbia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian The Speaker ruled that a prima facie breach of the privileges of the House had occurred, and contempt of the House been committed. In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons ( French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the Mr. Martin was not permitted to resume his seat until he had issued a formal apology from the Bar of the House, pursuant to a motion passed in response to the incident.
The ceremonial jeweled Mace, symbolizes the authority of Parliament of Sri Lanka, is kept in the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms. The Parliament of Sri Lanka is a Unicameral 225-member Legislature elected by Universal suffrage and Proportional representation for A Serjeant at Arms (also spelled Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a Deliberative The Mace, when kept on its stand in the Chamber signifies that the House is in session. At the commencement of a Session, the Serjeant-at-Arms bearing the Mace accompanies the Speaker when entering and leaving the Chamber. The Mace has to be legally brought into the House at the appointed time and removed at the end of the Session. Therefore unauthorized removal of the Mace cannot invalidate proceedings.
The civic maces of the 18th century follow the British type, with some modifications in shape and ornamentation. Examples of English silver maces in North America include one dating to 1753 at Norfolk, Virginia, and the mace of the State of South Carolina, dating to 1756. Norfolk is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. (In addition, there are two maces in Jamaica, made in 1753 and 1787; one belonging to the colony of Grenada, made in 1791, and the Speaker's Mace at Barbados, dating from 1812. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation )
The current Mace of the United States House of Representatives has been in use since December 1, 1842. The Mace of the United States House of Representatives is one of the oldest symbols of the United States government. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common It was created by William Adams at a cost of $400 to replace the first mace, which was destroyed on August 24, 1814 when the Capitol was destroyed in the burning of Washington by the British during the War of 1812. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Burning of Washington took place in 1814 during the Anglo-American War of 1812. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies A simple wooden mace was used in the interim.
The current mace is nearly four feet tall and is composed of 13 ebony rods tied together with silver strands criss-crossed over the length of the pole. Ebony ( Diospyros ebenum) also known as India Ebony or Ceylon Ebony depending on its origin is a Tree in the genus Diospyros It is topped by a silver eagle, wings outspread, standing on a world globe. The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government. A globe is a three- Dimensional scale model of Earth ( terrestrial globe) or other spheroid celestial body such as a planet star or moon
When the House is in session, the mace stands in a cylindrical pedestal of green marble to the right of the chair of the Speaker of the House. A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes the Surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given Straight line, the axis Pedestal (from French piedestal, Italian piedistallo, foot of a stall is a term generally applied to the support of a Statue or a Vase Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer&mdashor speaker &mdashof the United States House of Representatives. When the House is meeting as the Committee of the Whole, the mace is moved to a pedestal next to the desk of the Sergeant at Arms. In the United States House of Representatives, the Committee of the Whole, short for Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union is a parliamentary device The United States House of Representatives Sergeant at Arms is an officer of the House with law enforcement protocol, and administrative responsibilities Thus Representatives entering the chamber know with a glance whether the House is in session or in committee.
In accordance with the Rules of the House, when a Member becomes unruly the Sergeant at Arms, on order of the Speaker, lifts the mace from its pedestal and presents it before the offenders, thereby restoring order. The United States Constitution provides that each " House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings" therefore each Congress of the United States, This occurs very rarely.
Among other maces (more correctly described as staves) in use today are those carried before ecclesiastical dignitaries and clergy in cathedrals and some parish churches. For other uses of the word staff see Staff. A staff is a large thick Stick or stick-shaped object used to help with Walking Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral The ecclesiastical equivalent of the mace-bearer, the dodsman, appears in church contexts. Other churches, particularly churches of the Anglican Communion, a verger ceremoniously precedes processions. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches A verger (or virger, so called after the staff of the office is a person usually a layperson, who assists in the ordering of religious services particularly
In the Roman Catholic Church maces used to be carried before Popes and Cardinals. While the term " Pope " ( Latin: papa "father'" is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders ( e A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. 
Ceremonial maces, symbols of the internal authority over members and the independence from external authority, are still used at many educational institutions, particularly universities.
The University of St Andrews possesses three maces from the 15th century, perhaps the finest collection in the world. The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between The University also possesses three other maces, of a more modern origin. The University of Glasgow has one from the same period, which may be seen in its arms. The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu was founded in 1451 in Glasgow, Scotland and along with its contemporary institutions the University of St Andrews A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people At Oxford there are three dating from the second half of the 16th century and six from 1723 and 1724, while at Cambridge there are three from 1626 and one from 1628. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The latter was altered during the Cromwellian Commonwealth and again at the Stuart Restoration. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored
In the United States, almost all universities and free-standing colleges have a mace, used almost exclusively at commencement exercises and borne variously by the university or college provost, the marshal of the faculty, a dean or some other high official. In those universities that have a number of constituent colleges or faculties, each college, faculty or school often has a smaller mace, borne in procession by a dean, faculty member or sometimes a privileged student. Cornell University involves a ceremonial mace in the investiture of a new president.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. For other uses see Baton The word baton, from the French bâton (stick also in ordinary senses itself from Late Latin bastum A ceremonial weapon is an object used for ceremonial purposes to display power or authority A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff held by a ruling Monarch, a prominent item of royal Regalia. A staff of office is a staff, the carrying of which often denotes an Official 's position a Social rank or a degree of social prestige. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone