Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
Central African Republic
|Motto: "Unité, Dignité, Travail" (French)|
"Unity, Dignity, Work"
|Anthem: La Renaissance (French)|
E Zingo (Sango)
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Sango, French|
|-||Prime Minister||Faustin-Archange Touadéra|
|-||Date||August 13, 1960|
|-||Total||622,984 km² (43rd)|
240,534 sq mi
|-||2007 estimate||4,216,666 (124th)|
|-||Density||6. Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad Constitutional origins It was commonly understood that Southern Rhodesia would be the dominant territory in the federation — economically electorally and militarily The flag of the Central African Republic was adopted on December 1, 1958. The Coat of Arms of the Central African Republic consists of a shield in the center with two flags on its edges and with a sun rising over the shield A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " La Renaissance " is the National anthem of the Central African Republic, adopted upon independence in 1960. There are more than 80 ethnic groups in the Central African Republic (CAR each with its own language Bangui is the Capital of and the largest city in the Central African Republic. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its This is a complete list of the heads of state of the Central African Republic and Central African Empire. François Bozizé Yangouvonda (born October 14, 1946) is the President of the Central African Republic. Faustin-Archange Touadéra (born April 21, 1957) has been Prime Minister of the Central African Republic since January 2008 Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 77/km² (191st)|
17. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 53/sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$5. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 015 billion (153rd)|
|-||Per capita||$1,198 (167th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$1. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 48 billion (152nd)|
|-||Per capita||$355 (160th)|
|Gini (1993)||61. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 3 (high)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 384 (low) (171st)|
|Currency||Central African CFA franc (|
|Time zone||WAT (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+1)|
The Central African Republic (CAR), French: République Centrafricaine pronounced [ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn] or Centrafrique [sɑ̃tʀafʀik]) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Central African CFA franc ( French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code XAF) is the currency of six independent states ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in western and west-central Africa (though not in countries west of Benin, which instead use GMT Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad It borders Chad in the north, Sudan in the east, the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the south, and Cameroon in the west. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó) also known as Congo-Brazzaville The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa.
Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas but it also includes a Sahelo-Sudanese zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country lies in the basins of the Ubangi River, which flows south into the Congo River, while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari River, which flows north into Lake Chad. The Ubangi River, also spelled Oubangi, (juːˈbæŋɡi or /uːˈbæŋɡi/ is a major Tributary of the Congo River in Central Africa. The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa. The Chari or Shari River is a 949- Kilometer -long river of Central Africa. Lake Chad (in French Lac Tchad) is a historically large shallow lake in Africa, whose size has varied greatly over the centuries
Since most of the territory is located in the Ubangi and Shari river basins, the French called the colony it carved out in this region Ubangi-Shari, or Oubangui-Chari in French. Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African This French colony of Ubangi-Shari became a semi-autonomous territory of the French Community in 1958 and then an independent nation on 13 August 1960. The French Community (Communauté française was the political entity which replaced in 1958 the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French colonial Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For over three decades after independence, the CAR was ruled by presidents who were not chosen in truly democratic elections or who took power by force. Local discontent with this system was eventually reinforced by international pressure, following the end of the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
The first fair democratic elections were held in 1993 with resources provided by the country's donors and help from the UN Office for Electoral Affairs. They brought Ange-Félix Patassé to power, but President Patassé lost popular support and was overthrown by French-backed General François Bozizé in 2003. Ange-Félix Patassé (born January 25, 1937) was President of the Central African Republic from 1993 until 2003 when he was deposed by the rebel leader François Bozizé Yangouvonda (born October 14, 1946) is the President of the Central African Republic. General Bozizé won a democratic election in May 2005. Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in the Central African Republic on March 13, 2005 (first round and May 8, 2005
Inability to pay workers in the public sector led to strikes in 2007, forcing the resignation of the government in early 2008. A new Prime Minister, Faustin-Archange Touadéra was named on January 22, 2008. Faustin-Archange Touadéra (born April 21, 1957) has been Prime Minister of the Central African Republic since January 2008
The Central African Republic is one of the poorest countries in the world and among the ten poorest countries in Africa.
In 2001 The Ecologist magazine estimated that Central African Republic is the world's leading country in sustainable development. The Ecologist is a monthly British Magazine that broadly focuses on promoting an ecological agenda in its news stories opinion and debate Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present 
Between about 1000 BC and 1000 AD, Adamawa-Eastern-speaking peoples spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan and settled in most of the territory of the CAR. Early history The Central African Republic is believed to have been settled from at least the 7th century on by overlapping empires including the Kanem-Bornu, The Adamawa-Ubangi languages are spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, southern Sudan, and the Central African Republic, by a total During the same period, a much smaller number of Bantu-speaking immigrants settled in Southwestern CAR and some Central Sudanic-speaking populations settled along the Oubangi. Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people Central Sudanic is a grouping of about thirty languages of the Nilo-Saharan language family The majority of the CAR's inhabitants thus speak Adamawa-Eastern languages or Bantu languages belonging to the Niger-Congo family. The Niger-Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa 's largest in terms of geographical area number of speakers and number A minority speak Central Sudanic languages of the Nilo-Saharan family. The Nilo-Saharan languages are a hypothetical group of African languages spoken mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers (hence the term More recent immigrants include many Muslim merchants who most often speak Arabic or Hausa. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
Until the early 1800s, the peoples of the CAR lived beyond the expanding Islamic frontier in the Sudanic zone of Africa and thus had relatively little contact with Abrahamic religions or northern economies. During the first decades of the nineteenth century, however, Muslim traders began increasingly to penetrate the region of the CAR and to cultivate special relations with local leaders in order to facilitate their trade and settlement in the region. The initial arrival of Muslim traders in the early 1800s was relatively peaceful and depended upon the support of local peoples, but after about 1850, slave traders with well-armed soldiers began to penetrate the region. Between c. 1860 and 1910, slave traders from Sudan, Chad, Cameroon, Dar al-Kuti in Northern CAR and Nzakara and Zande states in Southeastern CAR exported much of the population of Eastern CAR, a region with very few inhabitants today. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. Niam-Niam redirects here Niam-Niam can also refer to a Mancala game with a 2×8 and stores
European penetration of Central African territory began in the late nineteenth century during the so-called Scramble for Africa (c. The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New 1875-1900). Count Savorgnan de Brazza took the lead in establishing the French Congo with headquarters in the city named after him, Brazzaville, and sent expeditions up the Ubangi River in an effort to expand France's claims to territory in Central Africa. Pietro Paolo Savorgnan di Brazzà, best known as Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de Brazza ( January 26, 1852 - September 14, French Congo was the original French Colony established in the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and the Central African ||-||} Brazzaville is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is located on the Congo River. King Leopold II of Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom also competed to establish their claims to territory in the Central African region. Leopold II (Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor (9 April 1835 – 17 December 1909 was King of the Belgians. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In 1889 the French established a post on the Ubangi River at Bangui, the future capital of Ubangi-Shari and the CAR. Bangui is the Capital of and the largest city in the Central African Republic. Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African De Brazza then sent expeditions in 1890-91 up the Sangha River in what is now Southwestern CAR, up the center of the Ubangi basin toward Lake Chad, and eastward along the Ubangi River toward the Nile. The Sangha River, a River in central Africa, is a Tributary of the Congo River. Lake Chad (in French Lac Tchad) is a historically large shallow lake in Africa, whose size has varied greatly over the centuries The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River De Brazza and the procolonial in France wished to expand the borders of the French Congo to link up with French territories in West Africa, North Africa and East Africa. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. In 1894, the French Congo's borders with Leopold II's Congo Free State and German Cameroon were fixed by diplomatic agreements. The Congo Free State was a Corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization the Then, in 1899, the French Congo's border with Sudan was fixed along the Congo-Nile watershed, leaving France without her much coveted outlet on the Nile and turning Southeastern Ubangi-Shari into a cul-de-sac.
Once European negotiators agreed upon the borders of the French Congo, France had to decide how to pay for the costly occupation, administration, and development of the territory. The reported financial successes of Leopold II's concessionary companies in the Congo Free State convinced the French government in 1899 to grant 17 private companies large concessions in the Ubangi-Shari region. In return for the right to exploit these lands by buying local products and selling European goods, the companies promised to pay rent to the colonial state and to promote the development of their concessions. The companies employed European and African agents who frequently used extremely brutal and atrocious methods to force Central Africans to work for them. At the same time, the French colonial administration began to force Central Africans to pay taxes and to provide the state with free labor. The companies and French administration often collaborated in their efforts to force Central Africans to work for their benefit, but they also often found themselves at odds. Some French officials reported abuses committed by private company militias and even by their own colonial colleagues and troops, but efforts to bring these criminals to justice almost always failed. When news of terrible atrocities committed against Central Africans by concessionary company employees and colonial officials or troops reached France and caused an outcry, there were investigations and some feeble attempts at reform, but the situation on the ground in Ubangi-Shari remained essentially the same.
In the meantime, during the first decade of French colonial rule (c. 1900-1910), the rulers of African states in the Ubangi-Shari region increased their slave raiding activities and also their sale of local products to European companies and the colonial state. They took advantage of their treaties with the French to procure more weapons which were used to capture more slaves and so much of the eastern half of Ubangi-Shari was depopulated as a result of the export of Central Africans by local rulers during the first decade of colonial rule. Those who had power, Africans and Europeans, often made life miserable for those who did not have the power to resist.
During the second decade of colonial rule (c. 1910-1920), armed employees of private companies and the colonial state continued to use brutal methods to deal with local populations who resisted forced labor but the power of local African rulers was destroyed and so slave raiding was greatly diminished. In 1911, the Sangha and Lobaye basins were ceded to Germany as part of an agreement which gave France a free-hand in Morocco and so Western Ubangi-Shari came under German rule until World War I, during which France reconquered this territory by using Central African troops.
The third decade of colonial rule (1920-1930) was a period of transition during which a network of roads was built, cash crops were promoted, mobile health services were formed to combat sleeping sickness, and Protestant missions established stations in different parts of the country. Sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis is a Parasitic Disease of people and animals caused by Protozoa of species Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. New forms of forced labor were also introduced, however, as the French conscripted large numbers of Ubangians to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway and many of these recruits died of exhaustion and illness. The Congo-Ocean Railway (COR or CFCO links the Atlantic port of Pointe-Noire (now in the Republic of Congo) with Brazzaville, a distance of 502 kilometres In 1925 the French writer André Gide published Voyage au Congo in which he described the alarming consequences of conscription for the Congo-Ocean railroad and exposed the continuing atrocities committed against Central Africans in Western Ubangi-Shari by employees of the Forestry Company of Sangha-Ubangi, for example. In 1928 a major insurrection, the Kongo-Wara 'war of the hoe handle' broke out in Western Ubangi-Shari and continued for several years. The extent of this insurrection, perhaps the largest anticolonial rebellion in Africa during the interwar years, was carefully hidden from the French public because it provided evidence, once again, of strong opposition to French colonial rule and forced labor.
During the fourth decade of colonial rule (c. 1930-1940), cotton, tea, and coffee emerged as important cash crops in Ubangi-Shari and the mining of diamonds and gold began in earnest. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Several cotton companies were granted purchasing monopolies over large areas of cotton production and were thus able to fix the prices paid to cultivators in order to assure profits for their shareholders. Europeans established coffee plantations and Central Africans also began to cultivate coffee.
The fifth decade of colonial rule (c. 1940-1950) was shaped by the Second World War and the political reforms which followed in its wake. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In September 1940 pro-Gaullist French officers took control of Ubangi-Shari.
On 1 December 1958 the colony of Ubangi-Shari became an autonomous territory within the French Community and took the name Central African Republic. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The French Community (Communauté française was the political entity which replaced in 1958 the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French colonial The founding father and president of the Conseil de Gouvernement, Barthélémy Boganda, died in a mysterious plane accident in 1959, just eight days before the last elections of the colonial era. Barthélemy Boganda (4 April 1910 – 29 March 1959 was the leading nationalist politician of what is now the Central African Republic. On 13 August 1960 the Central African Republic gained its independence and two of Boganda's closest aides, Abel Goumba and David Dacko, became involved in a power struggle. Events 3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury correlation the start of the Maya calendar. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Abel Nguéndé Goumba (born September 18 1926 is a Centroafrican political figure David Dacko ( March 24, 1930 &ndash November 20, 2003) was the first President of the Central African Republic (CAR from August With the backing of the French, Dacko took power and soon had Goumba arrested. By 1962 President Dacko had established a one-party state.
On 31 December 1965 Dacko was overthrown by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa, who suspended the constitution and dissolved the National Assembly. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Jean-Bédel Bokassa (ʒɑ̃ bedɛl bɔkasa 22 February 1921 &ndash 3 November 1996) also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa President Bokassa declared himself President for life in 1972, and named himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire on 4 December 1976. The Central African Empire (Empire Centrafricain was the name of the short-lived self-declared autocratic Monarchy that replaced the Central African Republic "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A year later, Emperor Bokassa crowned himself in a lavish and expensive ceremony that was ridiculed by much of the world. In 1979 France carried out a coup against Bokassa and "restored" Dacko to power. Dacko, in turn, was overthrown in a coup by General André Kolingba on 1 September 1981. André-Dieudonné Kolingba (1935- was the fourth president of the Central African Republic (CAR from 1 September 1981 until 1 October Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981
Kolingba suspended the constitution and ruled with a military junta until 1985. He introduced a new constitution in 1986 which was adopted by a nationwide referendum. Membership in his new party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC) was voluntary. The Central African Democratic Rally (Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain is a Political party in the Central African Republic. In 1987, semi-competitive elections to parliament were held and municipal elections were held in 1988. Kolingba's two major political opponents, Abel Goumba and Ange-Félix Patassé, boycotted these elections because their parties were not allowed to compete. Ange-Félix Patassé (born January 25, 1937) was President of the Central African Republic from 1993 until 2003 when he was deposed by the rebel leader
By 1990, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a pro-democracy movement became very active. In May 1990 a letter signed by 253 prominent citizens asked for the convocation of a National Conference but Kolingba refused this request and detained several opponents. Pressure from the United States, more reluctantly from France, and from a group of locally represented countries and agencies called GIBAFOR (France, USA, Germany, Japan, EU, World Bank and UN) finally led Kolingba to agree, in principle, to hold free elections in October 1992, with help from the UN Office of Electoral Affairs. After using the excuse of alleged irregularities to suspend the results of the elections as a pretext for holding on to power, President Kolingba came under intense pressure from GIBAFOR to establish a "Conseil National Politique Provisoire de la République" (Provisional National Political Council) (CNPPR) and to set up a "Mixed Electoral Commission" which included representatives from all political parties.
When elections were finally held in 1993, again with the help of the international community, Ange-Félix Patassé came in first in the first round and Kolingba came in fourth after Abel Goumba and David Dacko. In the second round, Patassé won 53 percent of the vote while Goumba won 45. 6 percent. Most of Patassé's support came from Gbaya, Kare and Kaba voters in seven heavily-populated prefectures in the northwest while Goumba's support came largely from ten less-populated prefectures in the south and east. Furthermore, Patassé's party, the Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC) or Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People gained a simple but not an absolute majority of seats in parliament, which meant Patassé needed coalition partners.
Patassé relieved former President Kolingba of his military rank of general in March of 1994 and then charged several former ministers with various crimes. Patassé also removed many Yakoma from important, lucrative posts in the government. Yakoma are an ethnic group in the Central African Republic who make up 4% of the population of the country or 160000 people Two hundred mostly Yakoma members of the presidential guard were also dismissed or reassigned to the army. Kolingba's RDC loudly proclaimed that Patassé's government was conducting a "witch hunt" against the Yakoma.
A new constitution was approved on 28 December 1994 and promulgated on 14 January 1995, but this constitution, like those before it, did not have much impact on the practice of politics. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 In 1996-1997, reflecting steadily decreasing public confidence in its erratic behaviour, three mutinies against Patassé's government were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and heightened ethnic tension. On 25 January 1997, the Bangui Peace Accords were signed which provided for the deployment of an inter-African military mission, the Mission Interafricaine de Surveillance des Accords de Bangui (MISAB). Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Mali's former president, Amadou Touré, served as chief mediator and brokered the entry of ex-mutineers into the government on 7 April 1997. General (ret Amadou Toumani Touré (born November 4, 1948 in Mopti, Mali) is the president of Mali. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar The MISAB mission was later replaced by a U. N. peacekeeping force, the Mission des Nations Unies en RCA (MINURCA).
In 1998 parliamentary elections resulted in Kolingba' RDC winning 20 out of 109 seats, which constituted a comeback, but in 1999, notwithstanding widespread public anger in urban centers with his corrupt rule, Patassé won free elections to become president for a second term. On 28 May 2001 rebels stormed strategic buildings in Bangui in an unsuccessful coup attempt. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The army chief of staff, Abel Abrou, and General Francois N'Djadder Bedaya were shot, but Patassé regained the upper hand by bringing in at least 300 troops of the rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba from over the river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and by Libyan soldiers. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo (born 4 November 1962) is a politician in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to
In the aftermath of this failed coup, militias loyal to Patassé sought revenge against rebels in many neighborhoods of the capital, Bangui, that resulted in the destruction of many homes as well as the torture and murder of many opponents. Eventually Patassé came to suspect that General François Bozizé was involved in another coup attempt against him and so Bozizé fled with loyal troops to Chad. François Bozizé Yangouvonda (born October 14, 1946) is the President of the Central African Republic. On 25 October 2002 Bozizé launched a surprise attack against Patassé, who was out of the country. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Libyan troops and some 1,000 soldiers of Bemba's Congolese rebel organization failed to stop the rebels, who took control of the country and thus succeeded in overthrowing Patassé.
François Bozizé suspended the constitution and named a new cabinet which included most opposition parties. Abel Goumba, "Mr. Clean", was named vice-president, which gave Bozizé's new government a positive image. Bozizé established a broad-based National Transition Council to draft a new constitution and announced that he would step down and run for office once the new constitution was approved. A national dialogue was held from 15 September to 27 October 2003, and Bozizé won a fair election that excluded Patassé, to be elected president on a second ballot, in May 2005. Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. Events 312 - Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.
The CAR is heavily dependent upon multilateral foreign aid and the presence of numerous NGOs which provide numerous services which the government fails to provide. Multilateralism is a term in International relations that refers to multiple countries working in concert on a given issue Aid (from the french word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, especially in the United States) is As one UNDP official put it, the CAR is a country "sous serum," or a country metaphorically hooked up to an IV. Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of Liquid substances directly into a Vein. (Mehler 2005:150). The very presence of numerous foreign personnel and organizations in the country, including peacekeepers and even refugee camps, provides an important source of revenue for many Central Africans.
The country is self-sufficient in food crops, but much of the population lives at a subsistence level. Livestock development is hindered by the presence of the tsetse fly. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food This page is about the insect For other meanings see Tsetse (disambiguation.
In 2006 due to ongoing violence, over 50,000 in the country's north-west were at risk of starvation, and this was only averted thanks to United Nations support. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
The country is currently under the rule of François Bozizé. Politics of the Central African Republic takes place in a framework of a presidential Republic, whereby the President is both Head of state and François Bozizé Yangouvonda (born October 14, 1946) is the President of the Central African Republic. A new constitution was approved by voters in a referendum held on December 5, 2004. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Full multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections were held in March 2005, with a second round in May. Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in the Central African Republic on March 13, 2005 (first round and May 8, 2005 Bozizé was declared the winner after a run-off vote. The two-round system (also known as the second ballot or runoff voting) is a Voting system used to elect a single winner 
In February 2006, there were reports of widespread violence in the northern part of the CAR.  Thousands of refugees fled their homes, caught in the crossfire of battles between government troops and rebel forces. More than 7,000 people fled to neighboring Chad. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Those who remained in the CAR told of government troops systematically killing men and boys suspected of cooperating with rebels. 
The Central African Republic is divided into 14 administrative prefectures (préfectures), along with 2 economic prefectures (préfectures economiques) and one autonomous commune. The Prefectures of the Central African Republic are divided into 71 sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office A township (or Municipality) is a settlement which has the status and powers of a unit of local government The prefectures are further divided into 71 sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures).
The prefectures include:
the two economic prefectures are Nana-Grébizi and Sangha-Mbaéré; the commune is Bangui. Bamingui-Bangoran is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Basse-Kotto is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Haute-Kotto is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Haut-Mbomou is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Kémo is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Lobaye is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Mambéré-Kadéï is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Mbomou can also refer to the Mbomou River. Mbomou is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic Nana-Mambéré is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Ombella-M'Poko is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Ouaka is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Ouham is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Ouham-Pendé is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Vakaga is one of the 14 Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Nana-Grébizi is one of the 2 economic Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Sangha-Mbaéré is one of the 2 economic Prefectures of the Central African Republic. Bangui is the Capital of and the largest city in the Central African Republic.
The Central African Republic is an entirely land-locked nation within the interior of the African continent. Location Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo Geographic coordinates Map references Africa Area In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels The Map Library should not be confused with the Map Library of The British Museum. It is bordered by the countries of Cameroon, Chad, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo. Much of the country consists of flat, or rolling plateau savanna, typically about 1,640 feet (500 m) above sea level. A savanna or savannah is a Tropical or Subtropical Grassland or Woodland Ecosystem. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit In the northeast are the Fertit Hills, and there are scattered hills in southwest part of the country. To the northwest is the Yade Massif, a granite plateau with an altitude of 3,750 feet (1,143 m). Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock.
At 240,519 mi² (622,984 km²), the Central African Republic is the world's 43rd-largest country (after Somalia). The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known It is comparable in size to Ukraine, and is somewhat smaller than the US state of Texas. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.
Much of the southern border is formed by tributaries of the Congo River, with the Mbomou River in the east merging with the Uele River to form the Ubangi River. The Congo River (for a time known as the Zaire River) is the largest River in Western Central Africa. The Mbomou River or Bomu (also spelled M'bomou in French forms part of the boundary between the Central African Republic (CAR and the Democratic The Uele River is a River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Ubangi River, also spelled Oubangi, (juːˈbæŋɡi or /uːˈbæŋɡi/ is a major Tributary of the Congo River in Central Africa. In the west, the Sangha River flows through part of the country. The Sangha River, a River in central Africa, is a Tributary of the Congo River. The eastern border lies along the edge of the Nile river watershed. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River,
Estimates of the amount of the country covered by forest ranges up to 8%, with the densest parts in the south. The forest is highly diverse, and includes commercially important species of Ayous, Sapelli and Sipo. Triplochiton scleroxylon is a tropical Tree of Africa. This Timber is also known as Abachi, under the Nigerian name Entandrophragma is a genus of eleven species of Deciduous Trees in the mahogany family Meliaceae, restricted to tropical Africa  The current deforestation rate is 0. 4% per annum, and lumber poaching is commonplace.
The climate of the C. A. R. is generally tropical. The northern areas are subject to harmattan winds, which are hot, dry, and carry dust. The Harmattan is a dry and dusty West African Trade wind. It blows south from Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea between the end of November and the The northern regions have been subject to desertification, and the northeast is desert. Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting primarily from human activities and influenced by climatic variations The remainder of the country is prone to flooding from nearby rivers.
The economy of the CAR is dominated by the cultivation and sale of food crops such as cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame and plantains. The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native The peanut, or Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the Legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder Sesame ( Sesamum indicum) is a Flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. The plantain is a crop in the genus Musa and is generally used for cooking in contrast to the soft sweet Banana (which is sometimes called the The current annual real GDP growth rate is just above 3%. The importance of foodcrops over exported cash crops is indicated by the fact that the total production of cassava, the staple food of most Central Africans, ranges between 200,000 and 300,000 tons a year, while the production of cotton, the principal exported cash crop, ranges from 25,000 to 45,000 tons a year. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money. Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Foodcrops are not exported in large quantities but they still constitute the principal cash crops of the country because Central Africans derive far more income from the periodic sale of surplus foodcrops than from exported cash crops such as cotton or coffee. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Many rural and urban women also transform some foodcrops into alcoholic drinks such as sorghum beer or hard liquor and derive considerable income from the sale of these drinks. Much of the income derived from the sale of foods and alcohol is not "on the books" and thus is not considered in calculating per capita income, which is one reason why official figures for per capita income are not accurate in the case of the CAR. The per capita income of the CAR is often listed as being around $300 a year, said to be one of the lowest in the world, but this figure is based mostly on reported sales of exports and largely ignores the more important but unregistered sale of foods, locally-produced alcohol, diamonds, ivory, bushmeat, and traditional medicine, for example. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, Bushmeat ( Calque from the French viande de brousse) is the term commonly used for Meat of terrestrial wild animals killed for The term traditional medicine ( Indigenous medicine or folk medicine) describes medical knowledge systems which developed over centuries within various societies The informal economy of the CAR is more important than the formal economy for most Central Africans. In Economics, the term informal economy (or second economy in the South African context refers to all economic activities that fall outside the formal
Diamonds constitute the most important export of the CAR, frequently accounting for 40-55% of export revenues, but an estimated 30-50% of the diamonds produced each year leave the country clandestinely.
Export trade is hindered by poor economic development, and the location of this country far from the coast.
The natural wilderness regions of this country had good potential as ecotourist destinations. Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of Tourism that appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals The country is noted for its population of forest elephants. The African Forest Elephant ( Loxodonta cyclotis) was until recently considered a Subspecies of the African Bush Elephant ( Loxodonta africana In the southwest, the Dzanga-Sangha National Park is a rain forest area. To the north, the Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park has been well-populated with wildlife, including leopards, lions, and rhinos. Manovo-Gounda StFloris National Park is a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Central African Republic prefecture Bamingui-Bangoran The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. Rhinoceros (raɪˈnɒsərəs often colloquially abbreviated rhino, is a name used to group five extant species of Odd-toed ungulates in the family To the northeast the Bamingui-Bangoran National Park. However the population of wildlife in these parks has severely diminished over the past 20 years due to poaching, particularly from the neighboring Sudan. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa.
The population has tripled since independence. There are more than 80 ethnic groups in the Central African Republic (CAR each with its own language In 1960 the population was 1,232,000. The current population is at 4,302,360. (February 2008 est. ) Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
The United Nations estimates that approximately 11% of the population ages 15 - 49 is HIV positive. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  Only 3% of the country has antiretroviral therapy available, compared to 17% coverage in neighbouring countries of Chad and the Republic of the Congo. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó) also known as Congo-Brazzaville 
The nation is divided into over 80 ethnic groups, each having its own language. The largest ethnic groups are the Baya 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%, Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, M'Baka 4%, and Yakoma 4%, with 2% others, including Europeans. The Baya (also called Baya-Mandjia or Gbaya) are the largest ethnic group in the Central African Republic. Banda is an ethnic group of the Central African Republic, some of whom also live in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cameroon and possibly The Mandja (also Mandjia Mandija Manja are an ethnic group in the Central African Republic. The Sara are an Ethnic group in Central Africa, who reside mostly in Chad, making up approximatively 30% of its southern population The M'baka are a minority tribe in the Central African Republic and northwest Democratic Republic of Congo. Yakoma are an ethnic group in the Central African Republic who make up 4% of the population of the country or 160000 people Religiously, about 35% of the population follows indigenous beliefs, 25% is Protestant, 25% is Roman Catholic, and 15% is Muslim. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion