In the Canadian province of Ontario, there are three different types of census divisions: single-tier municipalities, upper-tier municipalities (which can be regional municipalities or counties) and districts. The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The term census division or Census Division is officially used for the Census divisions of Canada and the Census divisions of the United States. A Regional Municipality (or Region) is a type of Canadian Municipal Government similar to and at the same municipal government level as A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. They differ primarily in the services that they provide to their residents.
The varying structures of municipal and regional governments in Ontario can sometimes be confusing, as they result from a variety of approaches to local government, implemented at different times by different provincial governments in specific areas to serve specific needs. Due to the vast disparities among Ontario's different regions, it would be extremely difficult for a provincial government to apply a consistent, unified system across the entire province.
In some cases, as well, a census division may retain its historical name even if it changes government type (eg. Oxford County, Haldimand County, Norfolk County and Prince Edward County are no longer counties even though they retain "county" in their name; Oxford is a regional municipality and the others are single-tier municipalities. Oxford County is a Regional municipality and Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Haldimand ( 2006 population 45212 is a single-tier municipality (but called a county on the Niagara Peninsula in Norfolk County ˈnɔrfoʊk is a rural city-status single-tier municipal government on the north shore of Lake Erie in Prince Edward County is a single-tier Municipality and a Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. )
These divisions are used by Statistics Canada to aggregate census data. Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population A smaller municipality within a census division is called a census subdivision. The census geographic units of Canada are the Country subdivisions defined and used by Canada's federal government statistics bureau Statistics Canada to
Several census divisions in Ontario have significantly changed their borders or been discontinued entirely. For more information, see also Historic counties of Ontario. The Canadian province of Ontario has several historic counties, which are past Census divisions that no longer exist today
The following data is based on 2006 Community Profile by Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help 
1. Algoma (pop. 117,461)
26. Middlesex (pop. 422,333)
A single-tier municipality is a census division which is governed by one municipal administration, with neither a county nor regional government above it, nor further municipal subdivisions below it (cf. independent city). An independent city is a City that does not form part of another general-purpose Local government entity A single-tier municipality is either a former regional municipality or a former county, whose municipal governments were amalgamated in the 1990s into a single administration. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 A single-tier municipality should not be confused with a separated municipality, which is a municipality that is administratively separated from its county, but is not considered a separate census division. In the Canadian province of Ontario, municipalities operate in various hierarchies
A single-tier municipality which is predominantly urban in nature may also be informally referred to as a megacity. There are currently 445 municipalities in Ontario. These municipalities are divided into different structural tiers Single-tier municipalities of this type (Toronto, Ottawa, Hamilton and Greater Sudbury) were created where a former regional municipality consisted of a single dominant urban centre and its suburbs.
(* Brant County and the City of Brantford were still considered a single census division by Statistics Canada in 2001, even though they are two separate single-tier municipalities. For the town in England see Chatham Kent. The Municipality of Chatham-Kent ( 2006 Kent County area is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. For the town in England see Chatham Kent. The Municipality of Chatham-Kent ( 2006 Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. The Regional Municipality of Sudbury was a Regional municipality in Ontario, Canada, which existed from 1973 to 2000 Haldimand ( 2006 population 45212 is a single-tier municipality (but called a county on the Niagara Peninsula in Cayuga is a village in the province of Ontario, Canada located at the intersection of Highway 3 and Munsee Street and along the Grand River in Hamilton (ˈhæməltən ( 2006 population 504559 UA population 647634 CMA population The City of Kawartha Lakes ( 2006 population 74561 is a City in east-central Ontario, Canada. Victoria County was a County in the province of Ontario, Canada. Lindsay ( 2001 population 16930 is a community on the Scugog River in the Kawartha Lakes region of southern Ontario, Canada, Norfolk County ˈnɔrfoʊk is a rural city-status single-tier municipal government on the north shore of Lake Erie in Simcoe is an unincorporated town of approximately 16000 people in southwestern Ontario, near Lake Erie, and is the County seat of Norfolk County Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. The Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton was a regional government area and Census division in Ontario Prince Edward County is a single-tier Municipality and a Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Picton is the largest community and the County seat of Prince Edward County in southern central Ontario, Canada. For the defunct provincial electoral district known as "Brant County" see Brant (provincial electoral district. Burford is a Rural Community and is the seat of the County of Brant, in central southwestern Ontario. Brantford is a city located on the Grand River in south-western Ontario, Canada. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was the senior level of Municipal government in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada, area from 1954 to Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing Statistics to help Although Haldimand-Norfolk split in 2001 to become the single-tier municipalities of Haldimand County and Norfolk County, they were still considered a single census division by Statistics Canada in that year's census. This was not the case in 2006. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. )
Regional municipalities (or regions) are upper-tier municipalities that generally have more servicing responsibilities than the counties. They generally provide the following services: maintenance and construction of arterial roads, transit, policing, sewer and water systems, waste disposal, region-wide land use planning and development, as well as health and social services. A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Waste management is the collection Transport, processing, Recycling or disposal of Waste materials Land use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient Social work is a discipline involving the application of Social theory and research methods to study and improve the lives of people groups and societies Regions are typically more urbanized than counties. Regional municipalities are usually implemented in census divisions where an interconnected cluster of urban centres forms the majority of the division's area and population, but no single centre is overwhelmingly dominant over the others.
Current regional municipalities in Ontario, with regional seats listed in brackets:
Although Oxford County and the District Municipality of Muskoka are not called regions, they are defined as regional municipalities under Part 1, Section 1 of the Ontario Municipal Act, 2001. Whitby (2006 population 111184 is a Town in Ontario, Canada. Whitby is located east of Toronto Milton ( 2006 census population 53939 is a town in southern Ontario, Canada, part of the Greater The District Municipality of Muskoka more generally referred to as the District of Muskoka or simply Muskoka is a Regional Municipality located in Central Ontario This article is about Bracebridge in Ontario Canada See Bracebridge Heath for the Bracebridge in Lincolnshire, England. Thorold (2006 population 18244 is a City in Ontario, Canada, located on the Niagara Escarpment Oxford County is a Regional municipality and Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Woodstock (2006 population 35480 is a City and the county seat of Oxford County in southwestern Ontario Brampton (pronounced bramton is the third-largest city in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada and the seat of Peel Region. The City of Kitchener (ˈkɪtʃɨnɚ is a City in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Newmarket ( 2006 Population 74295 is a Town located approximately 45 km north of Toronto, Ontario
Between 1998 and 2001, four regional municipalities that were dominated by a single city were amalgamated. In 1998, the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto became the amalgamated City of Toronto. The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was the senior level of Municipal government in the Toronto, Ontario, Canada, area from 1954 to Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario In 2001, the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton became the City of Ottawa, the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth became the City of Hamilton, and the Regional Municipality of Sudbury became the City of Greater Sudbury. The Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton was a regional government area and Census division in Ontario Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Hamilton (ˈhæməltən ( 2006 population 504559 UA population 647634 CMA population The Regional Municipality of Sudbury was a Regional municipality in Ontario, Canada, which existed from 1973 to 2000 Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. At the same time, the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk was split into Haldimand County and Norfolk County. Haldimand ( 2006 population 45212 is a single-tier municipality (but called a county on the Niagara Peninsula in Norfolk County ˈnɔrfoʊk is a rural city-status single-tier municipal government on the north shore of Lake Erie in
Counties have fewer responsibilities than regions, as the lower-tier municipalities (cities, towns, villages, townships) within the counties typically provide the majority of municipal services to their residents. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. The term Township generally means the district or area associated with a town The responsibilities of county governments are generally limited to the following: maintenance and construction of arterial roads, health and social services, and county land use planning. Counties are only found in Southern Ontario. Southern Ontario is the portion of the Canadian province of Ontario lying south of the French River and Algonquin Park.
Counties may be as large as regional municipalities in population, but their population density is generally lower (although not as low as in a district. ) Counties may include major cities, such as London, Kingston and Windsor, but these cities have generally not evolved into urban agglomerations with other communities, as in regions and "megacities". London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor with a metropolitan area population of 457720 the city proper Kingston Ontario is a Canadian city located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor.
Counties may also include separated municipalities, communities that are considered part of the county for census purposes but are not administratively connected to the county. In the Canadian province of Ontario, municipalities operate in various hierarchies Municipalities are separated when regional or single-tier status is not appropriate for the municipality's population patterns, but their population is still large enough that it may adversely affect the county's ability to provide services to its smaller communities.
County seats in brackets.
(* Frontenac County exists only by name, and was actually abolished in 1998. Bruce County is a County in western Ontario, Canada, and includes the Bruce Peninsula. Walkerton is a Town and is the county seat of Bruce County, Ontario. Dufferin County is a County and Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Orangeville ( 2006 population 26925 UA population 29110 is a Town in south-central Elgin County is a County and Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario with a current population of approximately 46000 St Thomas is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. It is the seat for Elgin County and gaining its city Charter on Essex County is a County and Census division located in Southwestern Ontario and covers an area at the southernmost tip of Canada Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Frontenac County, as defined by Statistics Canada is a Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Kingston Ontario is a Canadian city located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St Grey County is a County and Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Haliburton is a county of Ontario, Canada, known as a Tourist and Cottage industry area for its scenery and for its resident artists Minden Hills is a township in and the County seat of Haliburton County, Ontario, Canada. Hastings County is located in the province of Ontario, Canada. Belleville ( 2006 population 48821 metropolitan population 91518 is a city located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Huron County Ontario is a Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Lambton County Ontario (2006 pop 128204 is a Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Plympton-Wyoming is a Town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in Lambton County immediately east Lanark County is a County located in the Canadian province of Ontario. Perth is a Town in eastern Ontario, Canada (pop 6003 in 2001) The United Counties of Leeds and Grenville are located in Southeastern Ontario, Canada. Lennox and Addington County Ontario is a County and Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Greater Napanee (2001 population 15132 is a Town in Lennox and Addington County in eastern Ontario, Canada and is approximately 40 Middlesex County is a Census division located in Western Ontario. London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor with a metropolitan area population of 457720 the city proper Northumberland County ( 2006 population 80963 is situated on the north shore of Lake Ontario, in east-central Cobourg (2006 population 18210 is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located 110km east of Toronto. Perth County Ontario is a Census division of the Canadian province of Ontario. Stratford is a city on the Avon River in Perth County in Southwestern Ontario, Canada with Peterborough County ( 2006 population 133080 is located in Ontario, Canada. Peterborough is a City on the Otonabee River in central-eastern Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres For the former Ontario electoral district see Prescott and Russell (electoral district The United Counties of Prescott and Russell (Comtés unis de Prescott L'Orignal is a former Village now part of Champlain Township in eastern Ontario. Renfrew is a County in the Canadian province of Ontario. In 2006 the population was 97545 and county covered, giving a Population density Pembroke ( 2006 population 13930 CA population 23195 is a City at the confluence of the Muskrat Simcoe is a County located in central Ontario, originally established as "Simcoe District" in 1843 by the Legislature of Upper Canada Stormont Dundas and Glengarry United Counties is a County and Census division in Ontario, Canada. Cornwall is a City in eastern Ontario, Canada and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry Ontario. Wellington County (population 200425 is a County located in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. While the Frontenac Management Unit does oversee a limited number of services shared by Kingston and the townships, it does not exist as a typical Ontario county. )
Districts are regional areas in Northern Ontario, but these are simply territorial boundaries that do not serve any municipal government purpose. Territorial evolution Those areas which formed part of New France in the pays d'en haut, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River, Many of these districts are composed primarily of unincorporated lands. Some districts may have District Social Service Administration Boards, which are designed to provide certain social services, but they do not serve a governmental function.
In a district, all services are provided either by the municipalities themselves, by local service boards or directly by the provincial government. A local service board, in the Canadian province of Ontario, is an organization which is contracted by the Government of Ontario to provide municipal-level Much of Northern Ontario is sparsely populated, so a county government structure would not be an efficient or cost-effective method of administration. Only one census division in Northern Ontario, the city of Greater Sudbury, has a local government which offers county-type services. Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada.
District seats are in parentheses.