Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Events By place Greece The Epirote Alliance is replaced by the Epirote League which is a federal state with its own parliament (or synedrion For other uses of Tusculum see Tusculum (disambiguation. Tusculum is the classical Roman name of a major ancient Alban Hills city in Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder
He came of an ancient Plebeian family who all were noted for some military service but not for the discharge of the higher civil offices. Plebs were the general body of landowners of Roman Citizens in Ancient Rome. He was bred, after the manner of his Latin forefathers, to agriculture, to which he devoted himself when not engaged in military service. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture But, having attracted the notice of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome, and successively held the offices of Cursus Honorum: Tribune (214 BC), Quaestor (204 BC), Aedile (199 BC), Praetor (198 BC), Consul (195 BC) together with his old patron, and finally Censor (184 BC). This article deals with the Roman consul who was co-consul and co-censor with Cato the Elder. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The cursus honorum ( Latin: "course of honors" or "honors race" was the sequential order of Public offices held by aspiring Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic.
Cato the Elder was born in Tusculum, a municipal town of Latium, to which his ancestors had belonged for some generations. For other uses of Tusculum see Tusculum (disambiguation. Tusculum is the classical Roman name of a major ancient Alban Hills city in Latium was a region of ancient Italy, home to the original Latin people. His father had earned the reputation of a brave soldier, and his great-grandfather had received a reward from the state for five horses killed under him in battle. However the Tusculan Porcii had never obtained the privileges of the Roman magistracy. Porcius (fem Porcia) was the Nomen of the gens Porcii, who apparently originated in Tusculum. Cato the Elder, their famous descendant, at the beginning of his career in Rome, was regarded as a novus homo, and the feeling of his unsatisfactory position, working along with the belief of his inherent superiority, contributed to exasperate and stimulate his ambition. The History of the city of Rome spans 2800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center Novus homo (or homo novus, Latin for "new man" plural novi homines) was the term in Ancient Rome for a Early in life, he so far exceeded the previous deeds of his predecessors that he is frequently spoken of, not only as the leader, but as the founder, of the Porcia Gens.
His ancestors for three generations had been named Marcus Porcius, and it is said by Plutarch that at first he was known by the additional cognomen Priscus, but was afterwards called Cato—a word indicating that practical wisdom which is the result of natural sagacity, combined with experience of civil and political affairs. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c The cognomen (plural cognomina) was originally the third name of an Ancient Roman in the Roman naming convention. However, it may well be doubted whether Priscus, like Major, were not merely an epithet used to distinguish him from the later Cato of Utica, and there is no precise information as to the date when he first received the title of Cato, which may have been given in childhood as a symbol of distinction. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder The qualities implied in the word Cato were acknowledged by the plainer and less outdated title of Sapiens, by which he was so well known in his old age, that Cicero says, it became his virtual cognomen. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman From the number and eloquence of his speeches, he was styled orator, but Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), and Cato the Elder are now his most common, as well as his most characteristic names, since he carried out the office of Censor with extraordinary standing, and was the only Cato who ever accomplished it.
In order to determine the date of Cato's birth, we consider the records as to his age at the time of his death, which is known to have happened 149 BC. According to the coherent chronology of Cicero Cato was born in 234 BC, in the year before the first Consulship of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, and died at the age of 85, in the consulship of Lucius Marcius Censorinus and Manius Manilius. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (ca 280 BC-203 BC called Cunctator ( the Delayer) was a Roman politician and General born in Rome around 280 BC and Pliny agrees with Cicero. Other authors exaggerate the age of Cato. According to Valerius Maximus he survived his 86th year; according to Livy and Plutarch he was 90 years old when he died. The exaggerated age, however, is inconsistent with a statement recorded by Plutarch on the asserted authority of Cato himself.
Cato is represented to have said, that he served his first campaign in his 17th year, when Hannibal was overrunning Italy. Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Plutarch, who had the works of Cato before him, but was careless in dates, did not observe that the estimation of Livy would take back Cato's 17th year to 222, when there was not a Carthaginian in Italy, whereas the computation of Cicero would make the truth of Cato's statement in harmony with the date of Hannibal's first invasion. Events By place Roman Republic Mediolanum (modern Milan) stronghold of the Gallic tribe of the Insubres Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers
When Cato was a very young man, the death of his father put him in possession of a small hereditary property in the Sabine territory, at a distance from his native town. The Sabines ( Latin Sabini, Singular Sabinus) were an Italic tribe that lived in ancient Italy, inhabiting It was here that he passed the greater part of his childhood, hardening his body by healthful exercise, overseeing and sharing the operations of the farm, learning the way in which business was conducted, and studying the rules of rural economy. Near his lands was a modest hut which had been inhabited, after three triumphs, by its owner Manius Curius Dentatus, whose military feats and rigidly simple character were fresh in the memory of the old, and were often talked of with admiration in the neighborhood. Manius Curius Dentatus (d 270 BC son of Manius was a Plebeian hero of Ancient Rome, notable for ending the Samnite War. The memory of this hero inspired Cato, who decided to imitate the character, and hoped to match the glory of, Dentatus. Soon an opportunity came for a military campaign in 217 BC, during the Second Punic War against Hannibal Barca. Events By place Roman Republic Gaius Flaminius Nepos is re-elected Consul with Gnaeus Servilius Geminus, in what is The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash There is some discrepancy among experts as to the events of Cato's early military life. In 214 BC he served at Capua, and the historian Wilhelm Drumann imagines that already, at the age of 20, he was a military tribune. Events By place Carthage Carthage persuades Syracuse to revolt against Rome and ally itself with Carthage instead Capua is a city in the Province of Caserta, Campania, Italy situated 25 km (16 mi north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus had the command in Campania, during the year of his fourth consulship, and admitted the young soldier to the honour of intimate friendship. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (ca 280 BC-203 BC called Cunctator ( the Delayer) was a Roman politician and General born in Rome around 280 BC and Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 While Fabius communicated the valued results of military experience, he omitted not to inculcate his own personal and political partialities and dislikes into the ear of his attached follower. At the siege of Tarentum, 209 BC, Cato was again at the side of Fabius. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Events By place Roman Republic The Romans under Fabius Maximus Cunctator capture Tarentum (modern Taranto Two years later, Cato was one of the select group who went with the consul Claudius Nero on his northern march from Lucania to check the progress of Hasdrubal Barca. Lucania was an ancient district of southern Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. Hasdrubal son of Hamilcar Barca, (d 207 BC short form Hasdrubal) was Hamilcar's second son and a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War It is recorded that the services of Cato contributed not a little to the decisive victory of Sena on the Metaurus, where Hasdrubal was slain. The Metauro (in Latin Metaurus or Mataurus, in Ancient greek Mètauros, Μεταυρος) is a River of
In the pauses between campaigns, Cato returned to his Sabine farm, using a simple dress, and working and behaving like his laborers. Young as he was, the neighboring farmers liked his tough mode of living, enjoyed his old-fashioned and concise proverbs, and had a high regard for his abilities. His own active personality made him willing and eager to employ his powers in the service of his neighbors. He was selected to act, sometimes as an arbitrator of disputes, and sometimes as a supporter, in local causes, which were probably tried in front of recuperatores (the judges for causes of great public interest). Consequently he was enabled to strengthen by practice his oratorical abilities, to gain self-confidence, to observe the manners of men, to analyze the diversity of human nature, to apply the rules of law, and practically to investigate the principles of justice.
In the surrounding area of Cato's Sabine farm were the lands of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, a young nobleman of significant influence, and high patrician family. This article deals with the Roman consul who was co-consul and co-censor with Cato the Elder. Flaccus could not help remarking the energy of Cato, his military talent, his eloquence, his frugal and simple life, and his traditional principles. Flaccus himself was member of that purist faction who displayed their adherence to the stricter virtues of the ancient Roman character. Within the Roman society there was a transition in progress: from Samnite rusticity to Grecian civilization and oriental voluptuousness. The chief magistracies of the state had become almost the patrimony of a few distinguished families, whose wealth was correspondent with their upper-class birth. The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. Popular by acts of graceful but corrupting generosity, by charming manners, and by the appeal of hereditary honors, they collected the material power granted by multitude of clients and followers, and the intellectual power provided by the monopoly of philosophical education, their taste in the fine arts, and their knowledge of stylish literature. Nevertheless, the reaction to them was strong. The less fortunate nobles, jealous of this exclusive oligarchy, and openly watchful of the decadence and disorder associated with luxury, placed themselves at the head of a party which showed its determination to rely on purer models and to attach much importance to the ancient ways. In their eyes, rusticity, austerity, and asceticism were the marks of Sabine robustness and religion, and of the old Roman inflexible integrity and love of order. Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Scipio Africanus and his family, and Titus Quinctius Flamininus, may be taken as instances of the new civilization; Cato's friends, Fabius and Flaccus, were the leading men in the faction defending the old plainness. Marcus Claudius Marcellus (ca 268 BC-208 BC was a Roman general one of the commanders of the Roman Army during the Second Punic War and the conqueror of Syracuse Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 Scipio (plural Scipiones) is a Roman cognomen representing the Cornelii Scipiones, a branch of the Cornelii family Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c 228 BC &ndash 174 BC was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.
Flaccus was a perceptive politician who looked for young and emergent men to support them. The white marble Arch of Septimius Severus at the northeast end of the Roman Forum is a Triumphal arch dedicated in AD 203 to commemorate the He had observed Cato's martial spirit and eloquent tongue. He knew how much courage and persuasiveness were valued at Rome. He also knew that the merits of the battlefield opened the way to achievements in the higher civil offices. Finally, Flaccus knew too that for a stranger like Cato, the only way to the magisterial honors was success in the Roman Forum. This page refers to the main forum in the center of Rome See Imperial forums or Other forums in Rome (below for other forums in Rome and  For that reason, he suggested to Cato that he shift his ambition to the fruitful field of Roman politics. The advice was keenly followed. Invited to the town-house of Flaccus, and ratified by his support, Cato began to distinguish himself in the forum, and became a candidate for assuming a post in the magistracy. The Forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city It had a great social importance and was often the scene of diverse activities including political discussions
In 205 BC, Cato was appointed Quaestor, and in the next year (204 BC) he entered upon the duties of his place of work, following Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major to Sicily. Events By place Seleucid Empire Returning via the Persian provinces of Arachosia, Drangiana, and Carmania Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Events By place Carthage Having lost his alliance with the Numidian chief Masinissa, the Carthaginian general Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 When Scipio, acting on the consent which, after much opposition, he had obtained from the senate, transported the armed forces from Sicily into Africa, Cato and Gaius Laelius were appointed to escort the baggage ships. The Roman province of Africa was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War. Gaius Laelius, general and statesman was a friend of Scipio Africanus, whom he accompanied on his Iberian campaign ( 210 BC - 206 BC; the Roman There was not that friendliness of cooperation between Cato and Scipio which ought to exist between a quaestor and his proconsul. Ancient Rome In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was a Promagistrate (like a Propraetor) who after serving as Consul, spent a year
Fabius had opposed the permission given to Scipio to carry out the attack into the enemy's home, and Cato, whose appointment was intended to monitor Scipio's behavior, adopted the views of his friend. It is reported by Plutarch, that the lenient discipline of the troops under Scipio's command, and the exaggerated expense incurred by the general, provoked the protest of Cato; that Scipio immediately afterwards replied angrily, saying he would give an account of victories, not of money; that Cato left his place of duty after the dispute with Scipio about his alleged extravagance, and returning to Rome, condemned the uneconomical activities of his general to the senate; and that, at the joint request of Cato and Fabius, a commission of tribunes was sent to Sicily to examine the behavior of Scipio, who was found not guilty upon the view of his extensive and careful arrangements for the transport of the troops.  This version is barely consistent with the narrative of Livy, and would seem to attribute to Cato the wrongdoing of quitting his post before his time. If Livy be correct, the commission was sent because of the complaints of the inhabitants of Locri, who had been harshly oppressed by Quintus Pleminius, the legate of Scipio. Quintus Pleminius was a Roman Propraetor who in 205 BC took Locris from the Carthaginians by the order of Scipio Africanus. Livy says not a word of Cato's interference in this matter, but mentions the bitterness with which Fabius blamed Scipio of corrupting military discipline and of having illegally left his province to take the town of Locri. Locri is a town and Comune (municipality in the Province of Reggio Calabria, 
The author of the abridged life of Cato which is commonly considered as the work of Cornelius Nepos, asserts that Cato, after his return from Africa, put in at Sardinia, and brought the poet Quintus Ennius in his own ship from the island to Italy; but Sardinia was rather out of the line of the trip to Rome, and it is more likely that the first contact of Ennius and Cato happened at a later date, when the latter was Praetor in Sardinia. Cornelius Nepos (Κορνήλιος Νέπως in Ancient Greek literature (c Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman Poetry. Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before 
In 199 BC Cato was chosen aedile, and with his colleague Helvius, restored the Plebeian Games, and gave upon that occasion a banquet in honor of Jupiter. Events By place Roman Republic The Roman general Gnaeus Baebius Tamphilus attacks the Insubres in Gaul, but loses Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. In 198 BC he was made praetor, and obtained Sardinia as his province, with the command of 3,000 infantry and 200 cavalry. Events By place Roman Republic After his election to the Consulship Titus Quinctius Flamininus is chosen to replace Publius Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before Here he took the earliest opportunity of demonstrating his main beliefs by the practice of his strict public morality. He reduced official operating costs, walked his trips with a single assistant, and, by the studied lack of ceremony, placed his own frugality in striking contrast with the oppressive magnificence of ordinary provincial magistrates. The rites of religion were celebrated with reasonable thrift; justice was administered with strict impartiality; usury was controlled with deep severity, and the usurers were banished. Impartiality is a principle of Justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of Bias, Prejudice Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest" Sardinia had been for some time completely calmed, but if we are to believe the improbable and unsupported testimony of Aurelius Victor, a revolt in the island was subdued by Cato, during his Praetorship.
In 195 BC he was elected Consul with his old friend and patron Flaccus. Events By place Carthage Because of his administrative and constitutional reforms in Carthage, Hannibal becomes unpopular with Flaccus gave Cato his wife as a gift for his creation of money. Cato was thirty-nine years old. During his Consulship an odd scene took place, noticeably expounding of Roman manners. In 215 BC, at the height of the Second Punic War, a law —the Oppian Law, (Lex Oppia)— had been passed at the request of the Tribune of the People Gaius Oppius, to restrict luxury and extravagance on the part of women. Events By place Carthage The Carthaginians fail to recapture Sardinia. The Lex Oppia was a law established in Ancient Rome in 215 BC at the height of the Second Punic War during the days of national catastrophe after the Battle The law specified that no woman should own more than half an ounce of gold, nor wear a garment of several colours, nor drive a carriage with horses at less distance than a mile from the city, except for the purpose of attending the public celebration of religious rites. With Hannibal defeated and Rome resplendent with Carthaginian wealth, there was no longer any need for women to contribute towards the exigencies of an impoverished treasury the savings spared from their ornaments and pleasures. Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Consequently, the Tribunes Marcus Fundanius and Lucius Valerius thought it was time to propose the abolition of the Oppian law; but they were opposed by their colleagues, Tribunes Marcus Junius Brutus and Titus Junius Brutus. Curiously, this particular challenge spawned far more interest than the most important affairs of state. The middle-aged married women of Rome crowded the streets, denied access to every avenue to the forum, and intercepted their husbands as they approached, demanding them to restore the ancient ornaments of the Roman matrons. Even more, they had the boldness to approach and beg the Praetors, Consuls and other magistrates. Even Flaccus hesitated, but his colleague Cato was inflexible, and made an impolite and characteristic speech, the substance of which, remodelled and modernized, is given by Livy.  Finally, the women got what they wanted. Tired of the women's persistent demanding, the dissenting tribunes withdrew their opposition. The hated law was repealed by the vote of all the tribes, and the women made clear their joy and success by going in procession through the streets and the forum, dressed up with their then legitimate finery. 
Just had this important affair been concluded when Cato, who had maintained during its progress a severe and determined firmness without, perhaps, any very serious damage to his popularity, set sail for his appointed province, Hispania Citerior. the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior (English Hither Spain) was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro
In his campaign in Hispania, Cato behaved in keeping with his reputation of untiring hard work and alertness. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar He lived soberly, sharing the food and the labours of the common soldier. Wherever it was possible, he personally superintended the execution of his requisite orders. His movements were reported as bold and rapid, and he never was negligent in pushing the advantages of victory. The sequence of his operations and their combination in agreement with the schemes of other generals in other parts of Hispania appear to have been carefully designed. His stratagems and maneuovers were accounted as original, talented, and successful; and the plans of his battles were arranged with expert skill. He managed to set tribe against tribe, benefited himself of native deceitfulness, and took native mercenaries into his pay.
The details of the campaign, as related by Livy, and illustrated by the incidental anecdotes of Plutarch, are full of horror and they make clear that Cato reduced Hispania Citerior to subjection with great speed and little mercy. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior (English Hither Spain) was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro We read of multitudes who, after they had been stripped of all their arms, put themselves to death because of the dishonour; of extensive massacre of surrendered victims, and the frequent execution of harsh plunders. His proceedings in Spain were not at discrepancy with the received idea of the fine old Roman soldier, or with his own firm and over-assertive temper. He claimed of having destroyed more towns in Hispania than he had spent days in that country.
When he had reduced the whole area of land between the River Iberus and the Pyrenees to a hollow, resentful, and temporary obedience, he turned his attention to administrative reforms, and increased the revenues of the province by improvements in the working of the iron and silver mines. The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria) The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés On account of his achievements in Spain, the senate decreed a thanksgiving ceremony of three days. In the course of the year, 194 BC, he returned to Rome, and was rewarded with the honor of a Roman triumph, at which he exhibited an extraordinary quantity of captured brass, silver, and gold, both coin and ingots. Events By place Greece After checking the ambitions of the Spartan Tyrant, Nabis, the Roman forces under A Roman triumph ( la [[wikttriumphus triumphus]], Old Latin la triumpus, attested as the exclamation la TRIVMPE in the Carmen Arvale; via In the distribution of the monetary prize to his soldiery, he was more liberal than might have been expected from him, a so vigorous professor of parsimonious economy. 
The return of Cato seems to have been accelerated by the enmity of Scipio Africanus, who was Consul, 194 BC and is said to have desired the command of the province in which Cato was harvesting notoriety. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 Events By place Greece After checking the ambitions of the Spartan Tyrant, Nabis, the Roman forces under There is some disagreement between Nepos (or the pseudo-Nepos), and Plutarch, in their accounts of this topic. The former asserts that Scipio was unsuccessful in his effort to obtain the province, and, offended by the rejection, remained after the end of his consulship, in a private capacity at Rome. The latter relates that Scipio, who was disgusted by Cato's severity, was actually appointed to succeed him, but, not being able to secure from the senate a vote of censure upon the administration of his rival, passed the time of his command in total inactivity. From the statement in Livy, that in 194 BC, Sextus Digitius was appointed to the province of Hispania Citerior, it is probable that Plutarch was mistaken in assigning that province to Scipio Africanus. Events By place Greece After checking the ambitions of the Spartan Tyrant, Nabis, the Roman forces under The notion that Africanus was appointed successor to Cato in Spain may have arisen from a double confusion of name and place, due to the fact that Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was chosen, 194 BC, to the province of Hispania Ulterior. For other individuals named Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, see Scipio Nasica. Events By place Greece After checking the ambitions of the Spartan Tyrant, Nabis, the Roman forces under During the Roman Republic, Hispania Ulterior (English Further Spain) was a region of Hispania roughly located
However the true facts may be, Cato successfully proved himself by his eloquence, and by the production of detailed financial accounts, against the attacks made on his behavior while consul; and the existing fragments of the speeches, (or the same speech under different names), made after his return, attest the strength and boldness of his arguments.
Plutarch  affirms that, after his Consulship, Cato accompanied Tiberius Sempronius Longus as legatus to Thrace, but here there seems to be a mistake, for though Scipio Africanus was of opinion that one of the Consuls should have Macedonia, we soon find Sempronius in Cisalpine Gaul, and in 193 BC, we find Cato at Rome dedicating to Victoria Virgo a small temple which he had vowed two years before. Tiberius Sempronius Longus was a Roman Consul in 194 BCE, and a contemporary of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most Cisalpine Gaul ( Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning " Gaul on this side of the Alps " was the Roman name for a geographical area (later Events By place Greece Eumenes II of Pergamum appeals to Rome for help against the Seleucid king Antiochus In Roman mythology, Victoria was the personification/Goddess of victory 
The military career of Cato was not yet ended. In 191 BC, he was appointed Military Tribune (some affirm legatus), under the Consul Manius Acilius Glabrio, who was dispatched to Greece to oppose the invasion of Antiochus III the Great, King of the Seleucid Empire. Events By place Roman Republic The Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio and Cato the Elder cut the Seleucid A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer Manius Acilius Glabrio, Roman statesman and general grandson of the famous jurist P The Hellenistic period of European history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon in 323 BC and the annexation Antiochus III the Great, ( Greek; ca 241&ndash187 BC ruled 222&ndash187 BC younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i In the decisive Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), which led to the downfall of Antiochus, Cato behaved with his usual valor, and enjoyed good fortune. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King By a daring and difficult advance, he surprised and removed a body of the enemy's Aetolian auxiliaries, who were posted upon the Callidromus, the highest peak of the range of Mount Oeta. Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania The term auxiliaries comes from the Latin auxilia (help It is generally used to describe people employed in an organisation often pre-existing as a Reserve Mount Oeta ( Όρος Οίτη) is a mountain to the south of Central Greece, in Greece, forming a boundary between the valleys of the Spercheius He then began a sudden descent from the hills above the royal camp, and the panic caused by this unexpected movement promptly turned the day in favor of the Romans, and signaled the end of the Seleucid invasion of Greece. After the action, the General hugged Cato with the greatest warmness, and attributed to him the whole credit of the victory. This fact rests on the authority of Cato himself, who, like Cicero, often indulged in the habit, offensive to modern taste, of sounding his own praises. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman After an interval spent in the pursuit of Antiochus and the pacification of Greece, Cato was sent to Rome by the Consul Glabrio to announce the successful outcome of the campaign, and he performed his journey with such celerity that he had started his report in the senate before the arrival of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, the later conqueror of Antiochus, who had been sent off from Greece a few days before him. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC-aft 183 BC was a Roman general and statesman 
It was during the campaign in Greece under Glabrio, and, as it would appear from the account of Plutarch, (rejected by the historian Wilhelm Drumann) before the Battle of Thermopylae, that Cato was chosen to keep Corinth, Patrae, and Aegium, from siding with Antiochus. Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. Patras ( Demotic Greek: Πάτρα, Pátra, ˈpatra Classical Greek: Πάτραι, Pátrai, Patrae is Greece Aigio ( Greek: Modern Αίγιο Ancient/Katharevousa -on Latin: Aegium also Egio or Egion is a town in northeast Achaea It was then too that he visited Athens, and, to prevent the Athenians from listening to the propositions of the Seleucid king, addressed them in a Latin speech, which was explained to them by an interpreter. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Already perhaps he had a basic knowledge of Greek, for, it is said by Plutarch, that, while at Tarentum in his youth, he became in close friendship with Nearchus, a Greek philosopher, and it is said by Aurelius Victor that while praetor in Sardinia, he received instruction in Greek from Ennius. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca 320-ca 390 was an historian and politician of the Roman Empire. It was not so much, possibly, taking into account his still confessed disdain for everything Greek. Nevertheless because his speech was an affair of state, it is probable that he used the Latin language, in compliance with the Roman norm, which was observed as a diplomatic mark of Roman dignity. Dignitas is a Latin word referring to a unique social concept in the ancient Roman mindset 
His reputation as a soldier was now established; henceforth he preferred to serve the state at home, scrutinizing the conduct of the candidates for public honours and of generals in the field. If he was not personally engaged in the prosecution of the Scipiones (Africanus and Asiaticus) for corruption, it was his spirit that animated the attack upon them. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC-aft 183 BC was a Roman general and statesman Even Scipio Africanus, who refused to reply to the charge, saying only, "Romans, this is the day on which I conquered Hannibal," and was absolved by acclamation, found it necessary to retire, self-banished, to his villa at Liternum. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 Liternum was an ancient town of Campania, Italy, on the low sandy coast between Cumae and the mouth of the Volturnus Cato's enmity dated from the African campaign when he quarrelled with Scipio for his lavish distribution of the spoil amongst the troops, and his general luxury and extravagance.
Cato was also opposed to the spread of Hellenic culture, which he believed threatened to destroy the rugged simplicity of the conventional Roman type. It was in the discharge of the censorship that this determination was most strongly exhibited, and hence that he derived the title (the Censor) by which he is most generally distinguished. He revised with unsparing severity the lists of Senators and Knights, ejecting from either order the men whom he judged unworthy of it, either on moral grounds or from their want of the prescribed means. The expulsion of L. Quinctius Flamininus for wanton cruelty was an example of his rigid justice. Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, the brother of the great Titus Quinctius Flamininus, was a Roman Consul in 192 BC
His regulations against luxury were very stringent. He imposed a heavy tax upon dress and personal adornment, especially of women, and upon young slaves purchased as favourites. In 181 BC he supported the lex Orchia (according to others, he first opposed its introduction, and subsequently its repeal), which prescribed a limit to the number of guests at an entertainment, and in 169 BC the lex Voconia, one of the provisions of which was intended to check the accumulation of an undue proportion of wealth in the hands of women. Events By place Egypt Ptolemy V is poisoned after a reign of 24 years in which the Egyptian kingdom has declined in power and
Amongst other things he repaired the aqueducts, cleansed the sewers, prevented private persons drawing off public water for their own use, ordered the demolition of houses which encroached on the public way, and built the first basilica in the Forum near the Curia (Livy, History, 39. An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman This page refers to the main forum in the center of Rome See Imperial forums or Other forums in Rome (below for other forums in Rome and A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people i 44; Plutarch, Marcus Cato, 19). He raised the amount paid by the publicani for the right of farming the taxes, and at the same time diminished the contract prices for the construction of public works. In antiquity, publicans ( Latin publicanus (singular publicani (plural were public contractors in which role they often supplied the
From the date of his Censorship (184) to his death in 149 BC, Cato held no public office, but continued to distinguish himself in the senate as the persistent opponent of the new ideas. He was struck with horror, along with many other Romans of the graver stamp, at the licence of the Bacchanalian mysteries, which he attributed to the influence of Greek manners; and he vehemently urged the dismissal of the philosophers (Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus), who came as ambassadors from Athens, on account of the dangerous nature of the views expressed by them. The bacchanalia were wild and mystic festivals of the Roman and Greek god Bacchus. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Carneades (Καρνεάδης (c 214 – 129 BC) was a radical Skeptic born in Cyrene and the first of the Philosophers to pronounce Diogenes of Babylon, also known as Diogenes of Seleucia, or Diogenes the Stoic, was a Stoic philosopher lived c Critolaus of Phaselis, (c 200-c 118 BC was a Greek philosopher of the Peripatetic school Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's
He had a horror of physicians, who were chiefly Greeks. He procured the release of Polybius, the historian, and his fellow prisoners, contemptuously asking whether the Senate had nothing more important to do than discuss whether a few Greeks should die at Rome or in their own land. Polybius (ca 203 &ndash 120 BC, Greek) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories It was not till his eightieth year that he made his first acquaintance with Greek literature, though some think after examining his writings that he may have had a knowledge of Greek works for much of his life.
In his last years he was known for strenuously urging his countrymen to the Third Punic War and the destruction of Carthage. The Third Punic War ( 149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers In 157 BC he was one of the deputies sent to Carthage to arbitrate between the Carthaginians and Massinissa, king of Numidia. Masinissa or Massinissa (c 240 or 238 BC - c 148 BC was the first King of Numidia, an ancient North African nation of Ancient Libyan tribes Numidia (202 BC – 46 BC was an ancient Berber kingdom in present-day Algeria and part of Tunisia ( North Africa) that later alternated The mission was unsuccessful and the commissioners returned home. But Cato was so struck by the evidences of Carthaginian prosperity that he was convinced that the security of Rome depended on the annihilation of Carthage. From this time, in season and out of season, he kept repeating the cry: "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam. Carthago delenda est ( English: " Carthage must be destroyed" or the fuller Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam or also Ceterum autem " (Moreover, I advise that Carthage must be destroyed. ) He was known for saying this at the conclusion of each of his speeches, no matter what he had previously been talking about.
To Cato the individual life was a continual discipline, and public life was the discipline of the many. He regarded the individual householder as the germ of the family, the family as the germ of the state. By strict economy of time he accomplished an immense amount of work; he exacted similar application from his dependents, and proved himself a hard husband, a strict father, a severe and cruel master. There was little difference apparently, in the esteem in which he held his wife and his slaves; his pride alone induced him to take a warmer interest in his sons, Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus and Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus. Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus or Cato Licinianus (?&ndashca 152 BC was son of Cato the Elder by his first wife Licinia and thence called Licinianus Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus refers to a son and a grandson of Cato the Elder by his much younger second wife Salonia Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus or
To the Romans themselves there was little in this behaviour which seemed worthy of censure; it was respected rather as a traditional example of the old Roman manners. In the remarkable passage (xxxix. 40) in which Livy describes the character of Cato, there is no word of blame for the rigid discipline of his household. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome
Cato is famous not only as statesman or soldier, but also as author. He was a historian, the first Latin prose writer of any importance, and the first author of a history of Italy in Latin. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Some have argued that if it were not for the impact of Cato's writing, Latin might have been supplanted by Greek as the literary language of Rome. He was also one of the very few early Latin authors who could claim Latin as a native language. 
|“||In due course, my son Marcus, I shall explain what I found out in Athens about these Greeks, and demonstrate what advantage there may be in looking into their writings (while not taking them too seriously). They are a worthless and unruly tribe. Take this as a prophecy: when those folk give us their writings they will corrupt everything. All the more if they send their doctors here. They have sworn to kill all barbarians with medicine—and they charge a fee for doing it, in order to be trusted and to work more easily. They call us barbarians, too, of course, and Opici, a dirtier name than the rest. The Osci, which may also be referred to by the names of Opici Opsci (for the fertility goddess Ops) and Obsci (Oscans or Opicans in English were historic inhabitants I have forbidden you to deal with doctors.||”|
The two surviving collections of proverbs known as Distichs of Cato and Monosticha Catonis, in hexameter verse, probably belong to the 4th century AD. The Distichs of Cato ( Latin: Catonis Disticha, most famously known simply as Cato) is a Latin collection of proverbial wisdom and morality by Hexameter is a literary and poetic form consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century They are not really by Cato.
The wrinkle ridge system Dorsa Cato on the Moon is named after him. A wrinkle-ridge is a type of feature commonly found on Lunar maria. Dorsa Cato is a Wrinkle ridge at on the Moon. It is 140 km long and was named after Cato the Elder in 1976
Lucius Furius Purpureo and Marcus Claudius Marcellus
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
with Lucius Valerius Flaccus
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Tiberius Sempronius Longus
Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works Marcus Claudius Marcellus was a Roman Republican Consul for the year 196 BC, together with Lucius Furius Purpureo. This is a list of Roman consuls Key Abbreviations Imp = Imperator suff The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the This article deals with the Roman consul who was co-consul and co-censor with Cato the Elder. Events By place Carthage Because of his administrative and constitutional reforms in Carthage, Hannibal becomes unpopular with Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 Tiberius Sempronius Longus was a Roman Consul in 194 BCE, and a contemporary of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus.