Carniola (Slovenian: Kranjska; German: Krain) is a traditional and historical region of Slovenia. Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. There are many historical Regions of Central Europe. For the purpose of this list Central Europe is defined as the area contained roughly within the south coast of Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west As part of Austria-Hungary, the region was a crown land officially known as the Duchy of Carniola (Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) until 1918. Crown land is a designated area belonging to The Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the Monarchy and could not be The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The region is subdivided into Upper Carniola, Lower Carniola (with White Carniola), and Inner Carniola. Upper Carniola (Gorenjska Oberkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia. Lower Carniola ( Slovenian: Dolenjska; Unterkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia. White Carniola (Bela Krajina Weißkrain Weiße Mark) is a traditional Region in southeastern Slovenia on the border with Croatia. Inner Carniola ( Slovenian: Notranjska; Innerkrain is a traditional region of Slovenia.
|March of Carniola|
|Kingdom of Illyria|
|Duchy of Carniola|
|Province of Ljubljana|
|Socialist Republic of Slovenia|
|Republic of Slovenia|
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Lombards settled in Carniola, followed by Slavs around the 6th century AD. The history of Slovenia chronicles the period from the 5th Century BC to the present times Samo (died 658 was a Frankish merchant from the "Senonian country" ( Senonago) probably modern Sens, France. Carantania, also known as Carentania (Karantanija Karantanien in old Slovene Onomastics Korotan) was a Slavic Principality The March (or Margraviate) of Carniola (Stara Kranjska Krain was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire and predecessor estate of the The Windic march or marca Vindica (Slovenska krajina, Slovenska marka Windische Mark was a province of the Holy Roman Empire The Illyrian Provinces (Provinces illyriennes Ilirske province Ilirske pokrajne Province Illiriche were lands on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea which were The Kingdom of Illyria was an administrative unit of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849 The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 The Drava Banovina or Drava Banate (Dravska banovina was a province ( banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941 Province of Ljubljana ( Italian: Provincia di Lubiana, Slovenian: Ljubljanska pokrajina, German: Provinz Laibach) was a The Socialist Republic of Slovenia ( Slovene: Socialistična republika Slovenija) was a Socialist state that was a Constituent country of the Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Following periods of Bavarian, Frankish and local rule, the Austrian Habsburgs controlled the territory almost continuously from 1335 to 1918, but many Ottoman raids and rebellions by local residents against Habsburg rule occurred from the 15th to the 17th centuries. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar From about 900 AD until the 20th century, Carniola's ruling classes spoke German but most of the people spoke Slovenian. Events By place Asia Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Kavi script inscribed in Luzon, Philippines, The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Slovene or Slovenian ( slovenski jezik or slovenščina, not to be confused with Slovenčina) is a South Slavic language
The capital of Carniola, originally situated at Kranj (Krainburg), was briefly moved to Kamnik (Stein) and finally to the current capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Laibach). (Krainburg is the third largest municipality and fourth largest city in Slovenia, with a population of 53000 (2007 Kamnik (Stein in Oberkrain is the name of a municipality in Slovenia as well as the town that serves as its administrative cultural economic and educational center Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants
Before the coming of the Romans (c. 200 BC), the Taurisci dwelt in the north of Carniola, the Pannonians in the south-east, the Iapodes or Carni, a Celtic tribe, in the south-west. Illyrian tribes or possibly or partly Illyrian tribes or tribes inhabiting lands known as Illyria. The Iapydes (or Iapodes, Japodes) were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians, off the Adriatic coast and eastwards of the
Carniola formed part of the Roman province of Pannonia; the northern part was joined to Noricum, the south-western and south-eastern parts and the city of Aemona to Venice and Istria. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Noricum, in ancient Geography, was a Celtic kingdom (perhaps better described as a federation of by tradition twelve tribes stretching over the area of Emona or Aemona, short for Colonia Iulia (Aemona was a Roman Castrum founded in 14/15 AD possibly by the XV Legio Apollinaris This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea In the time of Augustus all the region from Aemona to the Kolpa river (Culpa) belonged to the province of Savia. Emona or Aemona, short for Colonia Iulia (Aemona was a Roman Castrum founded in 14/15 AD possibly by the XV Legio Apollinaris The Kupa ( Croatian) or Kolpa ( Slovene) river forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476), Carniola was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, and (493) under Theodoric it formed part of the Ostrogothic kingdom. The Ostrogothic Kingdom established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas lasted from 493 to 553. Between the upper Sava and the Soča rivers lived the Carni, and towards the end of the sixth century Slavs settled the region called by Latin writers Carnia, or Carniola meaning 'little Carnia', i. The Sava ( Bosnian, Croatian, Slovene: Sava; Serbian: Сава, Sava) is a river in The Soča (in Slovene) or e. part of greater Carnia. Later on the name was changed to Slavic Krajina, Kranjska or, in German, Chrainmark, Krain. The new inhabitants were subjected to the Avars, but threw off their yoke, and joined the great Slavic state of Samo. The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. Samo (died 658 was a Frankish merchant from the "Senonian country" ( Senonago) probably modern Sens, France.
Carniola was governed by the Franks about the year 788. When Charlemagne established the margraviate of Friuli, he added to it a part of Carniola. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The March of Friuli was a Carolingian frontier march against the Slavs and Avars in the ninth and tenth centuries After the division of Friuli, it became an independent margraviate, having its own Slavic margrave residing at Kranj, subject to the governor of Bavaria at first, and after 976 to the Dukes of Carinthia. Friuli ( Friulian: The March (or Margraviate) of Carniola (Stara Kranjska Krain was an imperial estate of the Holy Roman Empire and predecessor estate of the (Krainburg is the third largest municipality and fourth largest city in Slovenia, with a population of 53000 (2007 Henry IV gave it to the Patriarch of Aquileia (1071). List of the Bishops and Archbishops of Aquileia. For the ecclesiastical history of the see Patriarchate of Aquileia From 533 until the 7th century
In the Middle Ages the Church held much property in Carniola, thus in Upper and Lower Carniola the Bishop of Freising became in 974 a feudal lord of the city of Škofja Loka, the Bishop of Brixen held Bled and possessions in the valley of Bohinj, and the Bishop of Lavant got Mokronog. Škofja Loka is a town and a municipality in Slovenia. History The town history began in 973 when German emperor Otto II The Bishopric of Brixen (modern Brixen (Bressanone) in what is now the province of Bolzano-Bozen) is a former Roman Catholic Diocese and also Bled (Veldes is a Municipality in northwestern Slovenia in the region of Upper Carniola. Bohinj (German Wochein) is an alpine Valley and a Municipality in the north-west of Slovenia, in the Julian Alps. Lavant (in Latin Lavantina) was a Prince-bishopric Suffragan of the Prince-archbishop of Salzburg, then in the southern part of imperial
Among secular potentates the Dukes of Merano, Gorizia, Babenberg, and Zilli held possessions given to them in fief by the patriarchs of Aquileia. Merano ( Italian, now most common in English German: Meran, also used in English Ladin: Meran; Archaic (857 AD Mairania The County of Gorizia (German Grafschaft Görz; Italian Contea di Gorizia; Slovenian Goriška grofija; Friulian Contee di Gurize) was a county Celje ( Cilli Cille is the third largest City in Slovenia. Exhibiting the typical characteristics of a Central European city it is the The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an historical state and Episcopal see in northeastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head The dukes governed the province nearly half a century.
Finally Carniola was given in fief with the consent of the patriarch to Frederick II of Austria, who obtained the title of duke in 1245. Frederick II, known as the Quarrelsome or the Warlike ( German: Friedrich der Streitbare; 25 April 1211 &ndash Frederick was succeeded by Ulrich III, Duke of Carinthia, who married Agnes of Andech a relative of the patriarch and endowed the churches and monasteries, established the government mint at the city of Kostanjevica, and finally (1268) willed to Ottokar II, King of Bohemia, all his possessions and the government of Carinthia and Carniola. The House of Andechs was a feudal line of princes in 12th and 13th century Ottokar II (Přemysl II Otakar c 1230 &ndash August 26, 1278) called The Iron and Golden King, was the King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278 This is a list of rulers of Bohemia. Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia are territories which are or have
Ottokar was defeated by Rudolph I of Germany, and at the meeting at Augsburg in 1282, he gave in fief to his sons Albrecht and Rudolf the province of Carniola, but it was leased to Meinhard, count of Gorizia-Tirol. The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 Rudolph I, also known as Rudolph of Habsburg ( German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Latin Rudolfus) May 1, 1218 &ndash Augsburg is an independent City in the south-west of Bavaria. Meinhard II (c 1238 - end of October 1295 was Count of Tirol, Duke of Carinthia and Carniola, and Count of Gorizia (as Meinhard Duke Henry of Carinthia claimed Carniola; and the Dukes of Austria asserted their claim as successors to the Bohemian kingdom. Henry VI of Carinthia (circa 1265 – 2 April, 1335) was Count of Tyrol and Duke of Carinthia and Carniola from When Henry died 1335 Jan, King of Bohemia, renounced his claims, and Albrecht, Duke of Austria, received Carniola; it was proclaimed a duchy by Rudolf IV, in 1364. Rudolf IV der Stifter (the Founder ( November 1 1339 &ndash July 27 1365) was a member of the House of Habsburg and Emperor Frederick III united Upper, Lower, and Central Carniola as Metlika and Pivka into one duchy. Frederick III of Habsburg ( September 21 1415 &ndash August 19, 1493) was elected as German King as the successor of The union of the dismembered parts was completed by 1607.
The French revolutionary troops occupied Carniola in 1797, and from 1805 to 1806. Under the Treaty of Vienna, Carniola became part of the Illyrian provinces of France (1809–1814), with Ljubljana as its capital, and Carniola formed a part of the new territory from 1809 to 1813. The Illyrian Provinces (Provinces illyriennes Ilirske province Ilirske pokrajne Province Illiriche were lands on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea which were This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants The defeat of Napoleon restored Carniola to Austrian Emperor Francis I, with larger boundaries, but at the extinction of the Illyrian Kingdom Carniola was confined to the limits outlined at the Congress of Vienna, 1815. Francis II (Franz II Heiliger Römischer Kaiser ( 12 February 1768 &ndash 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich From 1816 to 1849 Carniola was part of the Austrian Kingdom of Illyria with capital in Ljubljana. The Kingdom of Illyria was an administrative unit of the Austrian Empire from 1816 to 1849
The Austrian Empire reorganized the territory in 1849 as a duchy and a Cisleithanian crownland in Austria-Hungary known as the Duchy of Carniola. The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Cisleithania (Cisleithanien Předlitavsko was the name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918 Crown land is a designated area belonging to The Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the Monarchy and could not be The Duchy of Carniola ( Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain) was an administrative unit of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1849 to 1918 It was bounded on the north by Carinthia, on the north-east by Styria, on the south-east and south by Croatia, and on the west by Trieste, Goritza, and Istria; with area of 3,857 square miles (9,990 km²) and population of 510,000. The capital, Ljubljana, was the see of a prince-bishop, population, 40,000; it was known to the Romans as Aemona, and was destroyed by Obri in the sixth century. Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants A Prince-Bishop is a Bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more Secular principalities usually pre-existent titles of nobility Carniola was divided into Upper Carniola (Slovenian name: Gorenjska), Lower Carniola (Slovenian: Dolenjska), and Inner Carniola (Slovenian: Notranjska). Politically the province was divided into eleven districts consisting of 359 municipalities; the provincial capital was the residence of the imperial governor. The districts were: Kamnik, Kranj, Radovljica, the neighbourhood of Ljubljana, Logatec, Postojna, Litija, Krsko, Novo Mesto, Crnomelj, and Gotschee or Kocevje. There were 31 judicial circuits.
The duchy was constituted by rescript of 20 December 1860, and by imperial patent of 26 February 1861, modified by legislation of 21 December 1867, granting power to the home parliament to enact all laws not reserved to the imperial diet, at which it was represented by eleven delegates, of whom two elected by the landowners, three by the cities, towns, commercial and industrial boards, five by the village communes, and one by a fifth curia by secret ballot, every duly registered male twenty-four years of age has the right to vote. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The home legislature consisted of a single chamber of thirty-seven members, among whom the prince-bishop sits ex-officio. The emperor convened the legislature, and it is presided over by the governor. The landed interests elected ten members, the cities and towns eight, the commercial and industrial boards two, the village communes sixteen. The business of the chamber was restricted to legislating on agriculture, public and charitable institutions, administration of communes, church and school affairs, the transportation and housing of soldiers in war and during manoeuvres, and other local matters. The land budget of 1901 amounted to 3,573,280 crowns ($714,656).
In 1918, the duchy ceased to exist and its territory became part of the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and subsequently part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy after its dissolution at the end of The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The western part of the duchy, with the towns of Postojna, Ilirska Bistrica, Idrija and Šturje was annexed to Italy in 1920, but was subsequently also included into Yugoslavia in 1945. Postojna (Adelsberg Postumia Grotte is a town and a municipality in the province of Carniola, 35 kilometers (22 miles from Trieste in southwestern Slovenia Ilirska Bistrica (Illyrisch Feistritz Villa del Nevoso is a town and a municipality in Slovenia. Idrija (Italian Idria) is a small town and municipality with the same name in Slovenia. Ajdovščina (Aidussina Haidenschaft is a small town and a municipality with the same name and a population of 7000 located in the Vipava Valley ( Vipavska The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Since 1991, the region is part of an independent Slovenia. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west
In early Christian times the duchy was under the jurisdiction of the metropolitans of Aquileia (who became Patriarchs), Syrmium, and Salona. The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an historical state and Episcopal see in northeastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head In consequence of the immigration of the pagan Slovenes, this arrangement was not a lasting one. After they had embraced Christianity in the seventh and eighth centuries Charlemagne conferred the major part of Carniola on the Patriarchate of Aquileia, and the remainder on the Diocese of Trieste. The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an historical state and Episcopal see in northeastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head In 1100 that patriarchate was divided into five archdeaconries, of which Krain was one.
The diocese of Ljubljana or Laibach was established by Emperor Frederick III on 6 December 1461. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev It was directly subject to the pope. This was confirmed by a Bull of Pope Pius II, 10 September 1462. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. The new diocese consisted of part of Upper Carniola, two parishes in Lower Carniola, and a portion of Lower Styria and Carinthia; the remaining portion of Carniola was attached to Aquileia, later on to Gorizia and Trieste. Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is Gorizia (Gurize Gorica Görz is a town in northeastern Italy, at the foot of the Alps and bordering Slovenia. Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to At the redistribution of dioceses (1787 to 1791) not all the parishes in Carniola were included in the Diocese of Ljubljana, but this was accomplished in 1833, by taking two deaneries from the Diocese of Trieste, one from Gorizia, and one parish from the Diocese of Lavant, so as to include all the territory within the political boundaries of the crownland.