Carmina Burana is a scenic cantata composed by Carl Orff between 1935 and 1936. A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often Carl Orff ( &ndash) was a 20th-century German Composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937 It is based on 24 of the poems found in the medieval collection Carmina Burana. Carmina Burana (ˈkarmɪna buˈraːna also known as the Burana Codex, is a Manuscript collection found in 1803 in the Bavarian monastery of Its full Latin title is Carmina Burana: Cantiones profanae cantoribus et choris cantandae comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis ("Songs of Beuern: Secular songs for singers and choruses to be sung together with instruments and magic images. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Benediktbeuern is a municipality in the district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen in Bavaria, Germany. For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers ") Carmina Burana is part of Trionfi, the musical triptych that also includes the cantata Catulli Carmina and Trionfo di Afrodite. Trionfi is the Trilogy of Cantatas by German Composer Carl Orff: Carmina Burana A triptych (pronounced "trip-tick" trip'tik (or US: 'tɹʷɪp Catulli Carmina ( Ludi Scaenici) is a Cantata by Carl Orff dating from 1930-1933 Trionfo di Afrodite is a musical piece written by the German Composer Carl Orff. The best-known movement is "O Fortuna" that opens and closes the piece. O Fortuna is a poem from Carmina Burana, a collection of Latin poems written in early 13th century.
Orff first encountered the text in John Addington Symonds's 1884 publication, Wine, Women, and Song, which included English translations of 46 poems from the collection. Carmina Burana (ˈkarmɪna buˈraːna also known as the Burana Codex, is a Manuscript collection found in 1803 in the Bavarian monastery of John Addington Symonds ( October 5 1840 - April 19, 1893) was an English poet and literary critic Michel Hofmann, a young law student and Latin and Greek enthusiast, assisted Orff in the selection and organization of 24 of these poems into a libretto, mostly in Latin verse, with a small amount of Middle High German and Old Provençal. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Middle High German (MHG German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350 Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France The selection covers a wide range of secular topics, as familiar in the 13th century as they are in the 21st century: the fickleness of fortune and wealth, the ephemeral nature of life, the joy of the return of Spring, and the pleasures and perils of drinking, gluttony, gambling and lust. Luck (also called fortunity) is a chance happening, or that which happens beyond a person's control. Wealth derives from the old English word "weal" which means "well-being Drinking is the act of consuming a liquid through the mouth Water, for example is required for many of life's physiological processes and excess or decreased water intake Derived from the Latin gluttire, meaning to gulp down or swallow gluttony is the over-indulgence and Over-consumption of food drink or intoxicants Literature In Dante's Inferno, the first Canticle of the Divine Comedy, the lustful are punished by being continuously
Carmina Burana is scored for 3 flutes (two doubling piccolo), 3 oboes (one doubling English horn), 3 clarinets in B♭ and A (one doubling E♭ clarinet, one doubling bass clarinet), 2 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 horns in F, 3 trumpets in B♭ and C, 3 trombones, tuba, 2 pianos, celesta, a large percussion section and strings. The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its The piccolo is a small Flute. Like the flute the piccolo is normally pitched in the key of C one octave above the concert flute (making it effectively a sopranino "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. The cor anglais, or English horn, is a Double reed Woodwind Musical instrument in the Oboe family The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The E-flat clarinet is a member of the Clarinet family It is usually classed as a Soprano clarinet, although some authors describe it as a "sopranino" The bass clarinet is a Musical instrument of the Clarinet family The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally The contrabassoon is a larger version of the Bassoon sounding an octave lower The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s Mediatubaogg -->The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched Brass instrument. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers The celesta (pronounced /səˈlɛstə/ or celeste (pronounced /səˈlɛst/ is a struck Idiophone operated by a keyboard. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs
The percussion section consists of 8 timpani (one piccolo), 2 snare drums, bass drum, triangle, antique cymbals, crash cymbals, suspended cymbals, ratchet, castanets, sleigh bells, tam-tam, tambourine, tubular bells, 3 bells, 3 glockenspiels and xylophone. Timpani (also known colloquially as kettledrums or kettle drums) are Musical instruments in the percussion family The snare drum is a Drum with strands of snares made of curled metal wire metal cable plastic cable or gut cords stretched across the a drumhead typically A bass drum is a large Drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. The triangle is an Idiophone type of Musical instrument in the percussion family Crotales (pronounced "kro-tah'-les" sometimes called antique cymbals, are Percussion instruments consisting of small tuned bronze or brass disks A crash cymbal is a type of Cymbal that produces a loud sharp "crash" and is used mainly for occasional accents as opposed to in Ostinato. A suspended cymbal is any single Cymbal played with a stick or beater rather than struck against another cymbal A ratchet, also called a noisemaker (or when used in Judaism, a gragger or ra'ashan) is an orchestral Musical instrument Castanets are Percussion instrument ( Idiophone) much used in Moorish, Ottoman, Ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish A jingle bell is a type of bell which produces a distinctive 'jingle' sound especially in large numbers This article is about the Internet Protocol Television channel The tambourine or Marine is a Musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a frame often of wood or plastic with pairs of small metal jingles Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are Musical instruments in the percussion family A bell is a simple Sound -making device The bell is a Percussion instrument and an Idiophone. The glockenspiel ( German, "set of bells quot or "play-bells" also known as orchestra bells and in its portable The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον - xylon, "wood" + φωνή - phone, "voice" meaning "wooden
The vocal parts include soprano solo, tenor solo, baritone solo, soli of 3 tenors, baritone, and 2 basses, a large mixed choir (soprano, alto, tenor, bass), a chamber choir (soprano, alto, tenor, bass) and a children's choir (ragazzi). This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers Alto is a musical term derived from the Latin word altus, meaning "high" that has several possible interpretations
A reduced version for soloists, mixed choir, children's choir, 2 pianos and percussion was prepared by Orff's disciple Wilhelm Killmayer in 1956 and authorised by Orff himself, to afford smaller ensembles the opportunity of performing the piece. Wilhelm Killmayer (born 1927 in Munich, Germany) is a twentieth century Composer of classical music.
An arrangement for wind ensemble was prepared by Juan Vicente Mas Quiles (b. 1921), who wanted to both to give wind bands a chance to perform the work and to facilitate performances in cities that have a high quality choral union and wind band but lack a symphony orchestra. A performance of this arrangement was recorded by the North Texas Wind Symphony under Eugene Corporon. Eugene Migliaro Corporon is a highly regarded North American Wind Ensemble conductor and as a Wind band Pedagogue, is considered an authority In writing this transcription, Quiles maintained the original chorus, percussion, and piano parts. 
Carmina Burana is structured into five major sections, containing thirteen movements total. A movement is a self-contained part of a Musical composition or Musical form. Orff indicates attacca markings between all the movements within each scene. This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores
Much of the compositional structure is based on the idea of the turning Fortuna Wheel. This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy For other uses see Helen (disambiguation and Helen of Troy (disambiguation. The drawing of the wheel found on the first page of the Burana Codex includes four phrases around the outside of the wheel:
Within each scene, and sometimes within a single movement, the wheel of fortune turns, joy turning to bitterness, and hope turning to grief. O Fortuna, the first poem in the Schmeller edition, completes this circle, forming a compositional frame for the work through being both the opening and closing movements. Johann Andreas Schmeller ( 6 August 1785, Tirschenreuth - 27 September 1852 in Munich) was a German scholar
Orff's style demonstrates a desire for directness of speech and of access. Carmina Burana contains little or no development in the classical sense, and polyphony is also conspicuously absent. In European classical music, musical development is a process by which a musical Idea is communicated in the course of a composition. In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony Carmina Burana avoids overt harmonic complexities, a fact which many musicians and critics have pointed out, such as Ann Powers of the New York Times. Ann Powers (born 4 February, 1964) has been writing about popular music and society since the early 1980s Considering the complicated compositional techniques favored by almost all other renowned composers of the day, such as Edgard Varèse, the work may be considered in this respect extremely bold. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varèse
Orff was influenced melodically by late Renaissance and early Baroque models including William Byrd and Claudio Monteverdi. William Byrd (c 1540 &ndash 4 July 1623 was an English Composer of the Renaissance. It is a common misconception that Orff based the melodies of Carmina Burana on neumeatic melodies: while many of the lyrics in the Burana Codex are enhanced with neumes, almost none of these melodies had been deciphered at the time of Orff's composition, and none of them had served Orff as a melodic model. Neumes are the basic elements of Western and Eastern systems of Musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation  His shimmering orchestration shows a deference to Stravinsky. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to In particular, Orff's music is very reminiscent of Stravinsky's earlier work, Les Noces (The Wedding). Les noces ( English: The Wedding; Russian: Свадебка ( Svadebka) by Igor Stravinsky
Rhythm for Orff, as for Stravinsky, is often the primary musical element. Overall, it sounds rhythmically straightforward and simple, but the metre will change freely from one measure to the next. While the rhythmic arc in a section is taken as a whole, a measure of five may be followed by one of seven, to one of four, and so on, often with caesura marked between them. In meter, caesura (alternative spellings are cæsura or cesura) is a term to denote an audible pause that breaks up a line of verse These constant rhythmic changes combined with the caesura create a very "conversational" feel — so much so that the rhythmic complexities of the piece are often overlooked.
Some of the solo arias pose bold challenges for singers: the only solo tenor aria, Olim lacus colueram, must be sung almost completely in falsetto to demonstrate the suffering of the character (in this case, a burning swan). The baritone arias often demand high notes not commonly found in baritone repertoire, and parts of the baritone aria Dies nox et omnia must be sung in falsetto: a unique example in baritone repertoire. Also noted is the solo soprano aria, Dulcissima which demands extremely high notes. Orff intended this aria for a regular soprano, not a coloratura one, so that the musical strain would be obvious.
Orff developed a dramatic concept he called "Theatrum Mundi" in which music, movement, and speech were inseparable. Babcock writes that "Orff's artistic formula limited the music in that every musical moment was to be connected with an action on stage. It is here that modern performances of Carmina Burana fall short of Orff's intentions. " Although Carmina Burana was intended as a staged work involving dance, choreography, visual design and other stage action, the piece is now usually performed in concert halls as a cantata.
Carmina Burana was first staged in Frankfurt by the Frankfurt Opera on June 8, 1937 (Conductor: Bertil Wetzelsberger, Choir Cäcilienchor, staging by Otto Wälterlin and sets and costumes by Ludwig Sievert). The Alte Oper ( Old Opera) is a major Concert hall and former Opera house in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shortly after the greatly successful premiere, Orff wrote the following letter to his publisher, Schott Music:
Several performances were repeated elsewhere in Germany, and though the Nazi bureaucracy was at first nervous about the erotic tone of some of the poems, they eventually embraced it and it became the most famous piece of music composed in Nazi Germany. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers  The popularity of the work continued to rise after the war, and by the 1960s Carmina Burana was well established as part of the international classic repertory.
Alex Ross writes: "[Although Orff had collaborated with the Nazis] the music itself commits no sins simply by being and remaining popular. Alex Ross (born 1968 is an American music critic He has been on the staff of The New Yorker magazine since 1996 and published an important book on 20th-century classical That 'Carmina Burana' has appeared in hundreds of films and television commercials is proof that it contains no diabolical message, indeed that it contains no message whatsoever. "
In retrospect the desire he expressed in the letter to his publisher has by and large been fulfilled: No other composition of his approaches its renown, as evidenced in both pop culture's appropriation of O Fortuna and the classical world's persistent programming and recording of the work. In the United States, Carmina Burana represents one of the few box office certainties in 20th-century music.