Carchemish (called Europus by the Greco-Romans) was an important ancient city of the Mitanni and Hittite empires, now on the frontier between Turkey and Syria. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform) The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية It was the location of an important battle between the Babylonians and Egyptians, mentioned in the Bible. The Battle of Carchemish was fought about 605 BC between the allied armies of Egypt and Assyria against Babylonia. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The city is said to be known locally as Jarablos (also Jarâblos)  , linking it to the Biblical city of Jerablus; a corrupted form of the name is Djerabis. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Indeed, just to the south of the Turkish-Syrian border lies the town of Carablus; the other side of the border hosts the Turkish town of Karkamis. Carablus is a town in Syria lying on the western bank of the River Euphrates. Kargamış is a district of Gaziantep Province of Turkey.
Carchemish is now an extensive set of ruins, located on the West bank of Euphrates River, about 60 km southeast of Gaziantep, Turkey and 100 km northeast of Aleppo, Syria. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The site lies in Turkish territory near the frontier between the two countries. A Turkish military base has been built on the Carchemish acropolis, and access to the site is presently restricted. Acropolis (Gr akros akron edge extremity + polis city pl acropoleis Part of the location of the city may also lie on Syrian territory.
In ancient times, the city commanded the main ford across the Euphrates, a situation which must have contributed greatly to its historical and strategic importance. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת
The site has been occupied since the Neolithic period, with pottery finds from ca. 3000 BC and tombs from ca. The 30th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC 2300 BC (Early Bronze Age). The 23rd century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2300 BC to 2201 BC The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The city is mentioned in documents found in the Ebla archives of the 3rd millennium BC. Ebla ( Arabic: عبيل، إيبلا modern Tell Mardikh, Syria) was an ancient city about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. It represents a period of time in which Imperialism, or the desire to conquer grew to prominence According to documents from the archives of Mari and Alalakh, dated from ca. Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria) was an ancient Sumerian and Amorite city located 11 kilometers north-west of the modern town of Alalakh (or Alalah, modern Tell Atchana near Antakya (ancient Antioch) Turkey) is the name of an ancient Amorite 1800 BC, Carchemish was then ruled by a king named Aplahanda, and an important center of timber trade. The 18th century BC was the Century which lasted from 1800 BC to 1701 BC It had treaty relationships with Ugarit and Mitanni (Hanilgalbat). Ugarit ( Ugaritic: ʼugrt; Hebrew:; Arabic:) (modern Ras Shamra رأس شمرة ("top/head/cape of the wild Fennel Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform) Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform)
Pharaoh Thutmose I of the Eighteenth Dynasty erected a stela near Carchemish to celebrate his conquest of Syria and other lands beyond the Euphrates. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I) was the third Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. "Amarna period" redirects here For information on Amarna see Amarna The Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1292 BC is perhaps the best known of Around the end of the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten, Carchemish was captured by king Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites (ca. Akhenaten (often alt: Akhnaten, or rarely Ikhnaton) (In English ˌɑkəˡnɑtən or approximately "AHK-en-AHT-en" his royal name Amenhotep Suppiluliuma I was king of the Hittites (ca 1344 – 1322 BC ( Short chronology) The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established 14th century BC), who made it into a kingdom ruled by his son Piyashshili.
The city became one of the most important centres in the Hittite Empire, during the Late Bronze Age, and reached its apogee around the 11th century BC. While the Hittite empire fell to the Sea Peoples during the Bronze Age collapse, Carchemish survived the Sea People's attacks to continue to be the capital of an important "Neo-Hittite" kingdom in the Iron Age, and a trading center. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-Hittite, were Luwian, Aramaic and Phoenician -speaking political entities of This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Although Ramesses III states in an inscription dating to his 8th Year from his Medinet Habu mortuary temple that Carchemish was destroyed by the Sea Peoples, the city evidently survived the onslaught of the Sea Peoples.  King Kuzi-Tesup I is attested in power here and was the son of Talmi-Teshub who was a contemporary of the last surviving Hittite king, Suppiluliuma II. Talmi-Teshub was "the great-great-great-grandson of Suppiluliuma I " and a viceroy at Carchemish in Syria under Suppiluliuma II. Suppiluliuma II, the son of Tudhaliya IV, was the last known king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite Empire, ruling ca  He and his successors ruled a small empire stretching from Southeast Asia Minor to Northern Syria and the West Bend of the Euphrates.  under the title of 'Great Kings. ' This suggests that Kuzi-Tesub saw himself as the true heir of the line of the great Suppiliuma I and that the central dynasty at Hattusa was now defunct.  This Empire lasted from c. 1175 to 990 BC when it lost control of its imperial possessions and became a mere local city state centred around Carchemish. 
The patron of Carchemish under the Hittites was Kubaba, a goddess of apparently Hurrian origins. Kubaba (in the Esagila "Chronicle" Sumerian Kug-Bau) is the only queen on the Sumerian king list. The Hurrians (also Khurrites; cuneiform Ḫu-ur-ri 𒄷𒌨𒊑 were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia She was represented as a dignified woman wearing a long robe, standing or seated, and holding a mirror.
In the 9th century BC, the city paid tribute to Kings Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III of Assyria, and was conquered by Sargon II in 717 BC, in the reign of King Pisiris. The 9th century BC started the first day of 900 BC and ended the last day of 801 BC Ashur-nasir-pal II ( Transliteration: Aššur-nâṣir-apli, meaning " Ashur is guardian of the heir" was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 Shalmaneser III ( Šulmānu-ašarēdu, "the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent" was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC and son of the previous ruler Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Sargon II ( Akkadian Šarru-kinu "legitimate king" reigned 722 – 705 BC was an Assyrian king Events and trends Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria.
In the summer of 605 BC (or 607 BC by some sources), an important battle was fought there by the Babylonian army of Nebuchadrezzar II and that of Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt (Jer. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar (c 630-562 BC was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c Necho II (sometimes Nekau) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 BC - 595 BC and the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal 46:2). The aim of Necho's campaign was to contain the Westward advance of the Babylonian Empire and cut off its trade route across the Euphrates. However, the Egyptians were defeated by the unexpected attack of the Babylonians and were eventually expelled from Syria. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group
Carchemish has always been well-known to scholars because of several references to it in the Bible (Jer. 46:2; 2 Chr. 35:20; Isa. 10:9) and in Egyptian and Assyrian texts. However, its location was identified only in 1876 by George Smith. Year 1876 ( MDCCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year George Smith ( Chelsea London March 26, 1840 &ndash August 19, 1876) was a pioneering English Assyriologist The city had been previously identified, incorrectly, with Circesium at the confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates. The Khabur River (also Habur Habor Kebar Chebar Chaboras; Aramaic: ܚܒܘܪ, Kurdish: Çemê Xabûr, Turkish: Habur It has also been identified with the Hierapolis Bambyce of the Greek, although the modern Pamukkale in Turkey also had that name. Manbij or Hierapolis Bambyce ( منبج) is an ancient city in the Aleppo Governorate, Syria. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site and attraction in south-western Turkey in the Denizli Province.
The site was initially excavated by the British Museum, chiefly between 1911 and 1914, by D. G. Hogarth, R. C. Thompson, C. L. Woolley, and T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"). The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862, in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927, in Oxford Reginald Campbell Thompson (1876-1941 was a British Archaeologist, Assyriologist, and cuneiformist. Sir Charles Leonard Woolley ( 17 April 1880 &ndash 20 February 1960) was a British Archaeologist best known for his Excavations These expeditions uncovered substantial remains of the Assyrian and Neo-Hittite periods, including defensive structures, temples, palaces, and numerous basalt statues and reliefs with Luwian hieroglyphic inscriptions. Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the