Cannibalism in Brazil
in 1557 as alleged by Hans Staden
. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Hans Staden (c 1525 in Homberg (Efze — c 1579 Wolfhagen or Korbach) was a German soldier and mariner who made two voyages to
The spread of Cannibalism in the late 19th century
A Woman-Cannibal, by Leonardo Kern, 1650
Cannibalism (from Spanish caníbal, in connection with alleged cannibalism among the Caribs), also called anthropophagy (from Greek: ἄνθρωπος, anthropos, "human being"; and φαγειν, phagein, "to consume") is the act or practice of humans consuming other humans. Cariban languages Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people after whom the Caribbean Sea was named live in the Lesser Antilles islands Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus In zoology, the term cannibalism is extended to refer to any species consuming members of its own kind (see cannibalism (zoology)). Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food
Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from  Among modern humans it has been practiced by various groups in the past in Prehistoric Europe, Kingdom of Judah, Africa, South America, New Zealand, North America, Australia, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, India, Sumatra, and Fiji, usually in rituals connected to tribal warfare. Prehistoric Europe refers to prehistorical period of the History of Europe. Judea is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य Endemic warfare is the state of continual low-threshold Warfare in a tribal Warrior society Fiji was once known as the 'Cannibal Isles'. Evidence of cannibalism has been found in the Chaco Canyon ruins of the Anasazi culture. Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park and it is a portion of a UNESCO World Heritage Site hosting the densest "Anasazi" directs here For the X-Files episode see Anasazi (The X-Files. 
Cannibalism, as sanctioned by a cultural norm is often distinguished from cannibalism by necessity occurring in extreme situations of famine or under a plea of insanity. Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Traditionally insanity or madness is the behaviour whereby a person flouts societal norms and may become a danger to himself and others There are fundamentally two kinds of cannibalistic social behavior; endocannibalism (eating humans from the same community) and exocannibalism (eating humans from other communities). Endocannibalism (from Greek Endo- "internal" or "from within" and Cannibalism) is the term which describes the practice of eating dead Exocannibalism (from Greek Exo-, "from outside" and Cannibalism 'to eat humans' as opposed to Endocannibalism, is the practice of eating human
There is little evidence that cannibalism was ever practiced as a routine source of nutrition. It is generally agreed the practice usually carried a special meaning for its practitioners.
Eating another person is a way to express a relationship of naked power over them. The social stigma against cannibalism has been used as an aspect of propaganda against an enemy by accusing them of acts of cannibalism to separate them from their humanity. Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or Beliefs that are against cultural norms. Humanity or mankind is the Human species Human nature (eg Compassion, Altruism) and the Human condition (the totality The Carib tribe in the Lesser Antilles, for example, acquired a longstanding reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends by Fr. Cariban languages Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people after whom the Caribbean Sea was named live in the Lesser Antilles islands The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees, are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the Breton in the 17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture.
According to a decree by Queen Isabella of Castile and also later under British colonial rule, slavery was considered to be illegal unless the people involved were so depraved that their conditions as slaves would be better than as free men. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another This legal requirement may have led to conquerors exaggerating the extent of cannibalistic practices, or inventing them altogether, as demonstrations of cannibalistic tendencies were considered evidence of such depravity. 
The Korowai tribe of southeastern Papua could be one of the last surviving tribes in the world engaging in cannibalism. This article is about the ethnic group in New Guinea For the Māori cloak see Māori traditional textiles. Papua is the largest province of Indonesia, comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also Marvin Harris has analyzed cannibalism and other food taboos. Marvin Harris ( August 18, 1927 &ndash October 25, 2001) was an American Anthropologist. Taboo food and drinks are food and drink which people abstain from consuming for religious or cultural reasons He argued that it was common when humans lived in small bands, but disappeared in the transition to states, the Aztecs being an exception. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political
A well known case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guinea which resulted in the spread of the prion disease Kuru. The Fore live in the Okapa District of the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known A prion (ˈpriːɒn is thought to be an infectious agent that according to current scientific consensus is comprised entirely of a propagated, mis-folded Kuru is a disease which affects the Brain. It was endemic among the Fore tribe of Papua New Guinea and was universally fatal It is often believed to be well-documented, although no eyewitnesses have ever been at hand. Some scholars argue that although postmortem dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not. Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite. Marvin Harris ( August 18, 1927 &ndash October 25, 2001) was an American Anthropologist.
In pre-modern medicine, an explanation for cannibalism stated that it came about within a black acrimonious humour, which, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the voracity for human flesh. Humorism, or humoralism, was a theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers In the Heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects Blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle and 
Some now challenged research received a large amount of press attention when scientists suggested that early man may have practiced cannibalism. Later reanalysis of the data found serious problems with this hypothesis. According to the original research, genetic markers commonly found in modern humans all over the world suggest that today many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against brain diseases that can be spread by consuming human brains. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies' ( TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the Brain and  Later reanalysis of the data claims to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous conclusion: that in some cases blame for incidents claimed as evidence has been given to 'primitive' local cultures, where in fact the cannibalism was practiced by explorers, stranded sea-farers or escaped convicts, see Cannibalism - Some Hidden Truths for an example documenting escaped convicts in Australia who initially blamed natives, but later confessed to conducting the practice themselves out of desperate hunger. In some cases, it logically follows that local tribes may have been credited as cannibals, and the historical record never truly established after the tribe has been eradicated or culturally destroyed with no adequate discourse ever occurring in which the members could have set the record straight.
Early history era
- Some anthropologists such as Tim White suggest that cannibalism was common in human societies prior to the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic based on the large amount of “butchered human" bones found in Neanderthal and other Lower/Middle Paleolithic sites. Tim White (born August 24 1950 in Los Angeles California is an American Paleoanthropologist and Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California Berkeley  Cannibalism in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic may have occurred because of food shortages. 
- In Germany some experts have observed 1,891 signs of cannibalism in the caves at the Hönne (BC 1000 - 700). Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter The Hönne is a left tributary river to the Ruhr, flowing through the northern Sauerland hills in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
- Cannibalism is reported in the Bible during the siege of Samaria (2 Kings 6:25-30). Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Samaria, or the Shomron ( שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Šoməron Tiberian Šōmərôn Two women made a pact to eat their children; after the first mother cooked her child the second mother ate it but refused to reciprocate by cooking her own child. A similar story is reported by Flavius Josephus during the siege of Jerusalem by Rome in 70AD. Josephus (AD 37 – c 100 also known as Yosef Ben Matityahu (Joseph son of Matthias and after he became a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus
- Cannibalism was documented in Egypt during a famine caused by the failure of the Nile to flood for eight years (BC 1073-1064). This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River
- St. Jerome, in his letter Against Jovinianus, discusses how people come to their present condition as a result of their heritage, and then lists several examples of peoples and their customs. Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος Against Jovinianus is a two-volume Treatise by the Church Father Saint Jerome. He says that he has heard that Atticoti eat human flesh; that Persians, Medes, Indians have intercourse with their mothers and grandmothers; that Massagetae and Derbices (a people on the borders of India) kill and eat old people; that Tibareni crucify loved ones before they grow old; and that several other peoples engage in similar customs. Attacotti (variously spelled refers to a people who despoiled Roman Britain between 364 and 368 along with Scotti, Picts, Saxons, Roman military layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Massageteans ( Massagetai; Massagetae or Massagetaeans were an Iranian people of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus Tabal (Bib Tubal, Gk Τιβαρηνοί Tibarenoi, Lat Tibareni, Thobeles in Josephus was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite The tenor of St. Jerome's writing does not imply that any of this should be taken literally. 
- In 2001, archaeologists at the University of Bristol found evidence of Iron Age cannibalism in Gloucestershire. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. 
- While there is universal agreement that some Mesoamerican people practiced human sacrifice, there is a lack of scholarly consensus as to whether cannibalism in pre-Columbian America was widespread. Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined Human sacrifice is the act of Homicide (the Killing of one or several Human beings in the context of a Religious ritual ( ritual killing While there is universal agreement that some Mesoamerican people practiced Human sacrifice, there is a lack of scholarly consensus as to whether Cannibalism in At one extreme anthropologist Marvin Harris, author of Cannibals and Kings, has suggested that the flesh of the victims was a part of an aristocratic diet as a reward, since the Aztec diet was lacking in proteins. Cannibals and Kings ( 1977, ISBN 0-394-40765-2 is a book written by anthropologist Marvin Harris. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl While most pre-Columbian historians believe that there was ritual cannibalism related to human sacrifices, they do not support Harris's thesis that human flesh was ever a significant portion of the Aztec diet. 
- Reports of cannibalism were recorded during the First Crusade, as famished Crusaders reportedly fed on the bodies of their dead opponents following the Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing The Siege of Maarat, or Ma'arra, occurred in 1098 in the city of Ma'arrat al-Numan, in what is modern-day Syria, during the First Crusade Amin Maalouf also discusses further cannibalism incidents on the march to Jerusalem, and to the efforts made to delete mention of these from western history. Amin Maalouf ( أمين معلوف) born 25 February, 1949 in Beirut, is a Lebanese Author. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the 
- During Europe's Great Famine of 1315–1317 there were many reports of cannibalism among the starving populations. The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315-1322 was the first of a series of large scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century, causing
- The canto 33 of Dante's Inferno ambiguously refers to Ugolino della Gherardesca eating his own sons while starving in prison. The Divine Comedy Ugolino della Gherardesca (c 1220 &ndash March 1289 count of Donoratico was an Italian noble and naval commander head of the powerful family of della
- Among the Aztecs, cannibalism was a ritual activity and not one driven by nutritional needs.  In the siege of Tenochtitlan, there was a severe hunger in the city; the Aztecs reportedly ate lizards, grass, insects, and mud from the lake, but there are no reports of cannibalism. San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán
- The friar Diego de Landa reported about Yucatán instances, Yucatan before and after the Conquest, translated from Relación de las cosas de Yucatan, 1566 (New York: Dover Publications, 1978: 4), and there have been similar reports by Purchas from Popayán, Colombia, and from the Marquesas Islands of Polynesia, where human flesh was called long-pig (Alanna King, ed. Diego de Landa Calderón ( 12 November, 1524 &ndash 1579 was Bishop of Yucatán. Yucatán is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over , Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas, London: Luzac Paragon House, 1987: 45-50). It is recorded about the natives of the captaincy of Sergipe in Brazil, They eat human flesh when they can get it, and if a woman miscarries devour the abortive immediately. Sergipe (sɛxˈʒipi (originally Sergipe D'El-Rey) is the smallest state of Brazil, located on the northeastern Atlantic coast of the |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld If she goes her time out, she herself cuts the navel-string with a shell, which she boils along with the secondine, and eats them both. In placental Mammals the umbilical cord (also called the birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis) is the connecting cord from the developing Embryo A seashell, also known as a sea shell, is the Common name for a hard protective outer layer a shell or in some cases a " test " that was created (See E. Bowen, 1747: 532. )
- In the Middle Ages, in Europe, "thousands of Egyptian mummies preserved in bitumen were ground up and sold as medicine". A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme Bitumen is a mixture of organic Liquids that are highly Viscous, black sticky entirely soluble in Carbon disulfide, and composed primarily  The practice developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late 16th century. This "fad" ended because the mummies were revealed to actually be recently killed slaves. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties against bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form (see human mummy confection). Mellified Man, or human mummy confection, refers to a legendary medicinal substance created by steeping a Cadaver in Honey. 
- In North Africa, and in Europe, there are references to cannibalism as a last, horrible, resort in times of famine. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation 
Early modern era
- The German adventurer Hans Staden describes his nine-month captivity in 1550 among the Tupi Indians of Brazil, whom he accuses of cannibalism. Hans Staden (c 1525 in Homberg (Efze — c 1579 Wolfhagen or Korbach) was a German soldier and mariner who made two voyages to |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld His True History is an important document for historians and anthropologists debating the existence of cannibalism among South American tribes.
- In the Dutch rampjaar (disaster year) of 1672, when France and England attacked the republic during the Franco-Dutch War/Third Anglo-Dutch War, Johan de Witt (a significant Dutch political figure) was killed by a shot in the neck; his naked body was hung and mutilated and the heart was carved out to be exhibited. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The rampjaar ("disaster year" was the year 1672 in Dutch history. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Franco-Dutch War (1672&ndash1678 was a War fought between the Kingdom of France, Münster-->, Cologne--> and Kingdom of England The Third Anglo-Dutch War or Third Dutch War ( Dutch: Derde Engelse Oorlog or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog) was a military conflict between Johan de Witt ( Dordrecht, Netherlands, 24 September 1625 &ndash The Hague, Netherlands, 20 August The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person His brother was shot, stabbed, eviscerated alive, hanged naked, brained and partly eaten. Disembowelment ( evisceration) is the removing of some or all of the vital organs usually from the Abdomen.
- Howard Zinn describes cannibalism by early Jamestown settlers in his book A People's History of the United States. Howard Zinn (born August 24 1922 is an American Historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and Playwright, best known Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 A People's History of the United States is a 1980 Nonfiction book by American Historian and Political scientist Howard Zinn
- An event occurring in the western New York territory ("Seneca Country") U. S. A. , during 1687 was later described in this letter sent to France: “On the 13th (of July) about four o’clock in the afternoon, having passed through two dangerous defiles (narrow gorges), we arrived at the third where we were vigorously attacked by 800 Senecas, 200 of whom fired, wishing to attack our rear whilst the remainder of their force would attack our front, but the resistance they met produced such a great consternation that they soon resolved to fly. Defile is a geographic term for a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills The Seneca are a group of indigenous people native to North America. All our troops were so overpowered by the extreme heat and the long journey we had made that we were obliged to bivouac (camp) on the field until the morrow. We witnessed the painful Sight of the usual cruelties of the savages who cut the dead into quarters, as in slaughter houses, in order to put them into the pot (dinner); the greater number were opened while still warm that their blood might be drank. our rascally outaouais (Ottawa Indians) distinguished themselves particularly by these barbarities and by their poltroonery (cowardice), for they withdrew from the combat;. . . " -- Canadian Governor, the Marquis de Denonville. Jacques-Rene de Brisay de Denonville Marquis de Denonville ( 10 December 1637 &ndash 22 September 1710) was Governor of New France
- In 1729 Jonathan Swift wrote A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, a satirical pamphlet in which he proposed that poor Irish families sell their children to be eaten, thereby earning income for the family. Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 A Modest Proposal For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public, Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A pamphlet is an unbound Booklet (that is without a hard cover or binding) Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world It was written as an attack on the indifference of landlords to the state of their tenants and on the political economists with their calculations on the schemes to raise income.
- In New Zealand in 1809, 66 passengers and crew of the ship the Boyd were killed and eaten by Māori on the Whangaroa peninsula, Northland. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island This was utu (revenge) for the whipping of a Māori who refused to work while traveling on the ship from Australia. This remains the bloodiest mass-murder in New Zealand history, and perhaps the largest death-toll from a cannibalistic act in modern times. See the Boyd massacre. The Boyd massacre took place in 1809 when local Maori killed 66 people at Whangaroa, a northern New Zealand harbour as revenge for the crew of the ship The Boyd
- Māori warriors fighting the New Zealand Government in Titokowaru's War in New Zealand's North Island in 1868-69 revived ancient rites of cannibalism as part of the radical Hauhau movement of the Pai Marire religion. This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. Titokowaru's War was a military conflict that took place in the South Taranaki region of New Zealand 's North Island from June The Pai Mārire movement was a syncretic Māori religion that flourished in New Zealand from about 1863 to 1874 The bodies of slain soldiers were cut up, cooked, and eaten in his forest camps, while the hearts of others were cut from their bodies to propitiate Māori war gods. 
- The survivors of the sinking of the French ship Medusa in 1816 resorted to cannibalism after four days adrift on a raft. The Medusa (original French name La Méduse was a French Frigate that gained notoriety when it struck the Bank of Arguin
- After the sinking of the Whaleship Essex of Nantucket by a whale, on November 20, 1820, (an important source event for Herman Melville's Moby-Dick) the survivors, in three small boats, resorted, by common consent, to cannibalism in order for some to survive. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1820 ( MDCCCXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet Moby-Dick is an 1851 Novel by Herman Melville. The story tells the adventures of the wandering sailor Ishmael and his voyage on the whaleship  See The Custom of the Sea. The Custom of the Sea was a maritime custom in which stranded survivors drew lots to see who would be killed and eaten so that the others might survive
- David Whippey, an English sailor, deserted his ship in 1820 and lived among the cannibal Fijis for the rest of his life. The Fijis would sometimes capture the crew of a stranded ship for ransom, and eat them if they resisted or violated a tribal taboo. Whippey would try to rescue them but sometimes found only roasted bones. Ultimately he became British Consul to Fiji, and left many descendants among the islands. 
- In 1822 eight convicts escaped from Macquarie Harbour in South-West Tasmania, Australia and set out overland toward Hobart. Macquarie Harbour is a large shallow inlet on the West Coast of Tasmania, Australia. Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. Lack of supplies led to the group killing one of their number within days of the initial escape, and over the following week all but one of the group died or were killed, leaving one survivor, Alexander Pearce. Alexander Pearce (1790 - 1824 was a Convict in Tasmania. Cannibal Alexander Pearce gained a reputation as a Bushranger who had escaped Pearce was recaptured near Table Mountain. His account of the fates of his fellow escapees was not believed (it being assumed that the others were alive and in hiding in the bush). Pearce was returned to Macquarie Harbor. He escaped again, this time with one companion, however was recaptured shortly afterwards with remnants of his companion's body in his pockets. He was then sent to Hobart and hanged. . The band Weddings, Parties, Anything included a song 'A tale they won't believe' on their 1989 album The Big Don't Argue about the incident. Weddings Parties Anything, often known as WPA and Weddoes were an Australian Folk rock band formed in 1984 in Melbourne and continuing until The Big Don't Argue is the third studio album released by Australian rock band Weddings Parties Anything.
- The Acadian Recorder (a newspaper published out of Halifax, Nova Scotia in the early 1800s) published an article in its May 27, 1826, issue telling of the wreck of the ship 'Francis Mary', en route from New Brunswick to Liverpool, England, with a load of timber. The Acadian Recorder was a Weekly newspaper published during the 1800s in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The City of Halifax (est 1841 is the capital of the province of Nova Scotia and shire town of Halifax County Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's The article describes how the survivors sustained themselves by eating those who perished. 
- Sir John Franklin's lost polar expedition is another examples of human cannibalism from the 1840s. Sir John Franklin, FRGS ( April 16, 1786 &ndash June 11, 1847) was a British Royal Navy officer and There is some dispute whether the Donner Party experienced cannibalism on their ill fated and incomplete trek to California. The Donner Party was a group of California -bound American settlers caught up in the "westering fever" of the 1840s
- The case of R v. Dudley and Stephens (1884) 14 QBD 273 (QB) is an English case which is said to be one of the origins of the defense of necessity in modern common law. R v Dudley and Stephens ( 14 QBD 273 DC is a leading English criminal case that established a Precedent, throughout the Common law England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In Criminal law, necessity may be either a possible justification or an exculpation for breaking the Law. The case dealt with four crew members of an English yacht, the Mignonette, which were cast away in a storm some 1,600 miles (2,600 km) from the Cape of Good Hope. The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک After several days one of the crew fell unconscious due to a combination of the famine and drinking sea-water. The others (one possibly objecting) decided then to kill him and eat him. They were picked up four days later. Lack of unanimous consent to draw lots contravened The Custom of the Sea and was held to be murder. The Custom of the Sea was a maritime custom in which stranded survivors drew lots to see who would be killed and eaten so that the others might survive
- In the 1870s, a man named Alferd Packer was accused of killing and eating his traveling companions while crossing the Rocky Mountains (in what is now the state of Colorado. Alfred G "Alferd" Packer (January 21 1842 – April 23 1907 was an American prospector who was convicted of Cannibalism First tried for The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. ) He served fourteen years in prison before being paroled on the basis of the Grandfather clause, as the alleged cannibalism happened 6 years before Colorado became a state on Ute tribal land. A grandfather clause is a term used in US English for an exception that allows an old rule to continue to apply to some existing situations when a new rule will apply to all future situations The Utes (/juːts/ " yoots " are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. Throughout his life he maintained that he was innocent of the murders. The story of Alferd Packer was satirically told in the Trey Parker comedy/horror/musical student film, Cannibal! The Musical. Randolph Severn "Trey" Parker III (born October 19, 1969) is an American Animator, Screenwriter, Film director Cannibal! The Musical is a Student film directed by future creator of South Park, Trey Parker, while studying at the University The main food court at the University of Colorado at Boulder is named the Alferd Packer Grill. The University of Colorado at Boulder ( CU-Boulder, UCB officially Colorado and CU colloquially is the Flagship University
- In parts of Melanesia, cannibalism was still practiced in the early 20th century, for a variety of reasons - including retaliation, to insult an enemy people, or to absorb the dead person's qualities. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people"
soldiers displaying the skins of the Soviet
soldiers who were eaten by their fellow soldiers at Maaselkä in 1942. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
- The Aghoris of northern India consume the flesh of the dead floated in the Ganges in pursuit of immortality and supernatural powers. The Aghori are a Hindu sect believed to have split off from the Kapalika order (which dates from 1000 AD) in the fourteenth century India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an Infinite length of Time. 
- During the 1930s, multiple acts of cannibalism were reported from Ukraine during the Holodomor. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The Holodomor (Голодомор is the famine that took place in Soviet Ukraine during the 1932-1933 agricultural season 
- A well-documented case occurred in Chichijima in February 1945, when Japanese soldiers killed and consumed five American airmen. ChichijimaportJPG|right|250px|thumb|Futami Harbor the port at Chichi-jima]] formerly known as Peel Island, is the largest Island in the Ogasawara archipelago This case was investigated in 1947 in a war crimes trial, and of 30 Japanese soldiers prosecuted, five (Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii, and Dr. Teraki) were found guilty and hanged. 
- During the 872-day Siege of Leningrad during World War II, reports of cannibalism began to appear in the winter of 1941-1942, after all birds, rats and pets were eaten by survivors. The Siege of Leningrad, also known as The Leningrad Blockade ( Russian: блокада Ленинграда ( transliteration: blokada Leningrada World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including People were murdered for their flesh and Leningrad police had to form a special division to combat cannibalism. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries 
- Cannibalism is proved to have occurred in China during the Great Leap Forward, when rural China was hit hard by drought and famine . The Great Leap Forward ( of the People's Republic of China (PRC was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China 's vast population A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Reports of cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution in China have also emerged. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES These reports show that cannibalism was practiced for ideological purposes. 
- During his service in World War II, John F. Kennedy believed that a boy from the Solomon Islands bragged of eating a Japanese soldier. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands Native islanders in their historical culture also practiced headhunting. Headhunting is the practice of taking a person's head after killing him or her 
- Prior to 1931, New York Times reporter William Buehler Seabrook, allegedly in the interests of research, obtained from a hospital intern at the Sorbonne a chunk of human meat from the body of a healthy human killed by accident, and cooked and ate it. William Buehler Seabrook ( February 22 1884 &ndash September 20, 1945) was an American Lost Generation Occultist He reported that, "It was like good, fully developed veal, not young, but not yet beef. It was very definitely like that, and it was not like any other meat I had ever tasted. It was so nearly like good, fully developed veal that I think no person with a palate of ordinary, normal sensitiveness could distinguish it from veal. It was mild, good meat with no other sharply defined or highly characteristic taste such as for instance, goat, high game, and pork have. The steak was slightly tougher than prime veal, a little stringy, but not too tough or stringy to be agreeably edible. The roast, from which I cut and ate a central slice, was tender, and in color, texture, smell as well as taste, strengthened my certainty that of all the meats we habitually know, veal is the one meat to which this meat is accurately comparable. "
- References to cannibalizing the enemy has also been seen in poetry written when China was repressed in the Song Dynasty, though the cannibalizing sounds more like poetic symbolism to express the hatred towards the enemy. The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (See Man Jiang Hong) The Chinese hate-cannibalism was reported during World War II also. Mǎn Jīang Hóng) is the title of a set of lyrical poems sharing the same pattern (Key Ray Chong:Cannibalism in China, 1990)
- In his book Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, James Bradley details several instances of cannibalism of World War II Allied prisoners by their Japanese captors. Flyboys A True Story of Courage is a non-fiction book by writer James Bradley, and a national Bestseller in the U The author claims that this included not only ritual cannibalization of the livers of freshly-killed prisoners, but also the cannibalization-for-sustenance of living prisoners over the course of several days, amputating limbs only as needed to keep the meat fresh. 
- The Soviet writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, in his novel The Gulag Archipelago, describes cases of cannibalism in the twentieth-century USSR. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn ( Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын) (December 11 1918 – August 3 2008 was a Russian Novelist The Gulag Archipelago ( Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) is a book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on the Soviet forced labor and concentration camp system The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Of the famine in Povolzhie (1921-1922) he writes: "That horrible famine was up to cannibalism, up to consuming children by their own parents - the famine, which Russia had never known even in Time of Troubles [in 1601-1603]. The Russian famine of 1921, better known as Povolzhye famine, which began in the early spring of that year and lasted through 1922, was a severe Famine For the Dungeons & Dragons plotline see Time of Troubles (Forgotten Realms. . . ". He says of the Siege of Leningrad (1941-1944): "Those who consumed human flesh, or dealt with the human liver trading from dissecting rooms… were accounted as the political criminals…". The Siege of Leningrad, also known as The Leningrad Blockade ( Russian: блокада Ленинграда ( transliteration: blokada Leningrada  And of the building of Northern Railway Prisoners Camp ("SevZhelDorLag") Solzhenitsyn writes: "An ordinary hard working political prisoner almost could not survive at that penal camp. In the camp SevZhelDorLag (chief: colonel Klyuchkin) in 1946-47 there were many cases of cannibalism: they cut human bodies, cooked and ate. "
- The Soviet journalist Yevgenia Ginzburg, former long-term political prisoner, who spent time in the Soviet prisons, Gulag camps and settlements from 1938 to 1955, describes in her memoir book "Harsh Route" (or "Steep Route") the case, which she was directly involved in late 1940s, after she had been moved to the prisoners' hospital. Yevgenia Ginzburg ( November 20, 1904 Communist Party]] member Ginzburg continued her successful career as educator journalist and administrator The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union.  ". . . The chief warder shows me the black smoked pot, filled with some food: 'I need your medical expertize regarding this meat. ' I look into the pot, and hardly hold vomiting. The fibers of that meat are very small, and don't resemble me anything I have seen before. The skin on some pieces bristles with black hair (. . . ) A former smith from Poltava, Kulesh worked together with Centurashvili. At this time, Centurashvili was only one month away from being discharged from the camp (. . . ) And suddenly he surprisingly disappeared. The wardens looked around the hills, stated Kulesh's evidence, that last time Kulesh had seen his workmate near the fireplace, Kulesh went out to work and Centurashvili left to warm himself more; but when Kulesh returned to the fireplace, Centurashvili had vanished; who knows, maybe he got frozen somewhere in snow, he was a weak guy (. . . ) The wardens searched for two more days, and then assumed that it was an escape case, though they wondered why, since his imprisonment period was almost over (. . . ) The crime was there. Approaching the fireplace, Kulesh killed Centurashvili with an axe, burned his clothes, then dismembered him and hid the pieces in snow, in different places, putting specific marks on each burial place. (. . . ) Just yesterday, one body part was found under two crossed logs. "
- Cannibalism was reported by the journalist Neil Davis during the South East Asian wars of the 1960s and 1970s. Davis reported that Cambodian troops ritually ate portions of the slain enemy, typically the liver. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals However he, and many refugees, also report that cannibalism was practiced non-ritually when there was no food to be found. This usually occurred when towns and villages were under Khmer Rouge control, and food was strictly rationed, leading to widespread starvation. The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed Any civilian caught participating in cannibalism would have been immediately executed. 
- Cannibalism has been reported in several recent African conflicts, including the Second Congo War, and the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The Second Congo War, also known as Africa's World War and the Great War of Africa, began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. A U.N. human rights expert reported in July 2007 that sexual atrocities against Congolese women go 'far beyond rape' and include sexual slavery, forced incest, and cannibalism. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Sexual slavery refers to the organised coercion of persons into various different sexual practices forced Prostitution single-owner sexual slavery Incest refers to any sexual activity between closely related persons (often within the immediate family that is illegal or socially Taboo.  Typically, this is apparently done in desperation, as during peacetime cannibalism is much less frequent. Even so, it is sometimes directed at certain groups believed to be relatively helpless, such as Congo Pygmies. Pygmies (singular Pygmy) refers to a member of any human group whose adult males grow to less than 150 cm (4 feet 11 inches in average height or less than 155 cm  It is also reported by some that witch doctors sometimes use the body parts of children in their medicine. A witch doctor often refers to Healers in Third world regions who use traditional healing rather than Science or developed Medicine. In the 1970s the Ugandan dictator Idi Amin was reputed to practice cannibalism. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Idi Amin Dada (mid 1920s &ndash 16 August 2003 commonly known as Idi Amin, was a Ugandan military dictator and the President of Uganda 
- It has been reported by defectors and refugees that, at the height of the famine in 1996, cannibalism was sometimes practiced in North Korea. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, 
- Médecins Sans Frontières, the international medical charity, supplied photographic and other documentary evidence of ritualized cannibal feasts among the participants in Liberia's internecine strife in the 1980s to representatives of Amnesty International who were on a fact-finding mission to the neighboring state of Guinea. Médecins Sans Frontières (pronounced) or Doctors Without Borders, is a secular humanitarian-aid Non-governmental organization best known Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Guinea, officially Republic of Guinea (pronounced /ˈgɪni/ République de Guinée is a country in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea However, Amnesty International declined to publicize this material; the Secretary-General of the organization, Pierre Sane, said at the time in an internal communication that "what they do with the bodies after human rights violations are committed is not part of our mandate or concern". Pierre Sané is UNESCO ’s Assistant Director-General for Social and Human Sciences The existence of cannibalism on a wide scale in Liberia was subsequently verified in video documentaries by Journeyman Pictures of London. Journeyman Pictures is a London -based independent distributor of topical news features documentaries and footage London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. 
- In March 2001 in Germany, Armin Meiwes posted an Internet ad asking for "a well built 18 to 30 year old to be slaughtered and consumed". March 2001: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September Armin Meiwes (born December 1 1961) is a German man who achieved international notoriety for killing and eating a voluntary Victim he had found The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks The ad was answered by Bernd Jürgen Brandes. After killing and eating Brandes, Meiwes was convicted of manslaughter and later, murder. Manslaughter is a legal term for the killing of a human being in a manner considered by law as less culpable than Murder. The song "Mein Teil" by Rammstein is based on this. Rammstein (ˈʀamʃtaɪ̯n is a German Industrial metal band founded in Berlin, and consisting of Till Lindemann ( lead vocals
- In September 2006, Australian television crews from 60 Minutes and Today Tonight attempted to rescue a six-year-old boy who they believed would be ritually cannibalized by his tribe, the Korowai, from West Papua, Indonesia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. 60 Minutes premiered 11 February 1979. It airs on Sunday nights on the Nine Network. Today Tonight is an Australian tabloid current affairs program produced by the Seven Network and shown weeknightly at 6 This article is about the ethnic group in New Guinea For the Māori cloak see Māori traditional textiles. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. 
- On January 13, 2007, Danish artist Marco Evaristti hosted a dinner party for his most intimate friends. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Marco Evaristti (born 1963 in Santiago, Chile) is an Artist who has lived in Denmark since the 1980s The main meal was agnolotti pasta, which was topped with a meatball made with the artist's own fat, removed earlier in the year in a liposuction operation. Agnolotti ('priest hats' in Italian is a kind of Ravioli made with small pieces of flattened Pasta dough folded over with a meat and/or vegetable stuffing Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty ("fat modeling" liposculpture or suction lipectomy ("suction-assisted fat removal" is 
- On September 4, 2007 Police stated that they had identified 26-year-old Danijel Jakupek Zak. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. He killed a 5 year old boy and his uncle (26), who was Jakupek's schoolmate and also the son of Jakupek's school teacher. Police reported that Jakupek rehearsed several cannibalistic acts on approximately 20 cats which were buried in his backyard and that 10 live cats were also found in his apartment, probably awaiting future experiments. He stated that he had to try the practice on a human being. As stated, he obviously enjoyed the massacre of his alleged victims, drank their blood and even tried their meat. In his apartment police found a stack of cannibalistic and satanic literature. He also claimed that in the prosecution of his two victims "He entered his body". Jakupek was questioned regarding the aforementioned unnamed person who only goes by the name "He" and he replied that "He" is a "superior mighty lord" but not pointing out any specific icon. Neighbors described him as being very strange, having a "sparkly look" and he obviously indicated that he is mentally distorted. 
- On September 14, 2007, a man named Özgür Dengiz was captured in Ankara, the Turkish capital, after killing and eating a man. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Özgür Dengiz (born 1980 is a Turkish Serial killer and cannibal. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. Dengiz in his initial testimony said he "enjoyed" eating human flesh. He frequently burst into long laughing sessions during the testimony, police officers said. In 1997, he was jailed for murder of a friend, when he was 17, but he got out of jail on parole after serving three years. Parole may have different meanings depending on the field and judiciary system Dengiz said he did not know Cafer Er, his 55 year old victim, who worked as a garbage collector. Dengiz shot Er in the head with a firearm, because he felt Er was making the area "too crowded. " After cutting slices of flesh from his victim's body, Dengiz distributed the rest to stray dogs on the street, according to his own testimony. He ate some of Er's flesh raw on his way home. Dengiz, who lived with his parents arrived at the family house and placed the remaining parts of Er's body in the fridge without saying a word to his parents. Also in his testimony he said, "I have no regrets, my conscience is free. I constantly thought of killing. I had dreams where I was being sacrificed. I decided to kill, to sacrifice others in place of me. "
- In January, 2008, Milton Blahyi, 37, confessed being part of human sacrifices which "included the killing of an innocent child and plucking out the heart, which was divided into pieces for us to eat. Joshua Milton Blahyi (born ca 1970 also known as General Butt Naked, is a Liberian Warlord -turned- Preacher. Human sacrifice is the act of Homicide (the Killing of one or several Human beings in the context of a Religious ritual ( ritual killing The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic " He fought versus Liberian president Charles Taylor's militia. Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Charles McArthur Ghankay Taylor (born January 28, 1948) served as President of Liberia from August 2, 1997 to August 11 The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service 
- During Charles Taylor's war crimes trial on March 13, 2008, Joseph Marzah, Taylor's chief of operations and head of Taylor's alleged "death squad", accused Taylor of ordering his soldiers to commit acts of cannibalism against enemies, including peacekeepers and United Nations personnel. War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
Cannibalism has been occasionally practiced as a last resort by people suffering from famine. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation In the US, the group of settlers known as the Donner party resorted to cannibalism while snowbound in the mountains for the winter. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Donner Party was a group of California -bound American settlers caught up in the "westering fever" of the 1840s The last survivors of Sir John Franklin's Expedition were found to have resorted to cannibalism in their final push across King William Island towards the Back River. Sir John Franklin, FRGS ( April 16, 1786 &ndash June 11, 1847) was a British Royal Navy officer and  There are disputed claims that cannibalism was widespread during the famine of Ukraine in the 1930s, during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II, and during the Chinese Civil War and the Great Leap Forward in the People's Republic of China. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The Siege of Leningrad, also known as The Leningrad Blockade ( Russian: блокада Ленинграда ( transliteration: blokada Leningrada World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Great Leap Forward ( of the People's Republic of China (PRC was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China 's vast population Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES There were also rumors of several cannibalism outbreaks during World War II in the concentration camps where the Jews were malnourished. Cannibalism was also practiced by Japanese troops as recently as World War II in the Pacific theater.  A more recent example is of leaked stories from North Korean refugees of cannibalism practiced during and after a famine that occurred sometime between 1995 and 1997. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, 
Lowell Thomas records the cannibalisation of some of the surviving crew members of the Dumaru after the ship exploded and sank during the First World War in his book, The Wreck of the Dumaru (1930). Lowell Jackson Thomas ( April 6, 1892 &ndash August 29, 1981) was an American Writer, broadcaster, and The Dumaru was a Hough-type wooden steam ship launched on April 17 1918, in Portland Oregon, as part of the United States Shipping Board Merchant World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Documentary and forensic evidence supports eyewitness accounts of cannibalism by Japanese troops during World War II. This practice was resorted to when food ran out, with Japanese soldiers killing and eating each other when enemy civilians were not available. A well-documented case occurred in Chichi Jima in 1945, when Japanese soldiers killed and ate eight downed American airmen. This case was investigated in 1947 in a war-crimes trial, and of 30 Japanese soldiers prosecuted, five (Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii and Dr. Teraki) were found guilty and hanged.
When Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashed into the Andes on October 13, 1972, the survivors resorted to eating the deceased during their 72 days in the mountains. Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, also known less formally as the Andes flight disaster, was an airline flight carrying 45 people that crashed in the The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Their story was later recounted in the books Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors and Miracle in the Andes as well as the film Alive, by Frank Marshall, and the documentary Alive: 20 Years Later. Alive The Story of the Andes Survivors is a 1974 book by the British writer Piers Paul Read documenting the events of Uruguayan Air Force Flight Miracle in the Andes 72 Days on the Mountain and My Long Trek Home is a 2006 book by Nando Parrado and Vince Rause. Alive is a 1993 film by the husband and wife team director Frank Marshall and producer Kathleen Kennedy. Frank James Marshall ( August 10 1877 &ndash November 9 1944) was the U Alive 20 Years Later is a 1993 Documentary film produced directed and written by Jill Fullerton-Smith and narrated by Martin Sheen
As cultural libel
- See also: Blood libel
Unsubstantiated reports of cannibalism disproportionately relate cases of cannibalism among cultures that are already otherwise despised, feared, or are little known. Blood libels are sensationalized allegations that a person or group engages in Human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim that the Blood of victims is used in In antiquity, Greek reports of anthropophagy were related to distant, non-Hellenic barbarians, or else relegated in myth to the 'primitive' chthonic world that preceded the coming of the Olympian gods: see the explicit rejection of human sacrifice in the cannibal feast prepared for the Olympians by Tantalus of his son Pelops. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance In Greek mythology Tantalus ( Greek Τάνταλος was a son of Zeus and the Nymph Plouto. In Greek mythology, Pelops ( Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark and ops: face eye king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus was venerated
According to ABC Whipple in Yankee Whalers in the South Seas (Doubleday, New York, 1954), all South Sea Islanders were cannibals so far as their enemies were concerned. When the whaleship Essex was rammed and sunk by a whale in 1820, the captain opted to sail 3000 miles upwind to Chile rather than 1400 miles downwind to the Marquesas because feared the Marquesans were cannibals. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common In Typee Herman Melville happily lived with the Marquesan Typees after the other two tribes on the island told him they were cannibale. Typee ( 1846; in full: Typee A Peep at Polynesian Life) is American writer Herman Melville's first book
William Arens, author of The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy (New York : Oxford University Press, 1979; ISBN 0-19-502793-0), questions the credibility of reports of cannibalism and argues that the description by one group of people of another people as cannibals is a consistent and demonstrable ideological and rhetorical device to establish perceived cultural superiority. Arens bases his thesis on a detailed analysis of numerous "classic" cases of cultural cannibalism cited by explorers, missionaries, and anthropologists. His findings were that many were steeped in racism, unsubstantiated, or based on second-hand or hearsay evidence. In combing the literature he could not find a single credible eye-witness account. And, as he points out, the hallmark of ethnography is the observation of a practice prior to description. In the end he concluded that cannibalism was not the widespread prehistoric practice it was claimed to be; that anthropologists were too quick to pin the cannibal label on a group based not on responsible research but on our own culturally-determined pre-conceived notions, often motivated by a need to exoticize. He wrote:
"Anthropologists have made no serious attempt to disabuse the public of the widespread notion of the ubiquity of anthropophagists. … in the deft hands and fertile imaginations of anthropologists, former or contemporary anthropophagists have multiplied with the advance of civilization and fieldwork in formerly unstudied culture areas. …The existence of man-eating peoples just beyond the pale of civilization is a common ethnographic suggestion. "
Aren's findings are controversial, and have been cited as an example of postcolonial revisionism . Postcolonialism ( postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is an intellectual discourse that holds together a set of theories found among the texts and For the denial and distortion of well-established historical facts see Historical revisionism (negationism. His argument is often mischaracterized as "cannibals do not and never did exist," when in the end the book is actually a call for a more responsible and reflexive approach to anthropological research. At any rate, the book ushered in an era of rigorous combing of the cannibalism literature. By Aren's later admission, some cannibalism claims came up short, others were reinforced.
Conversely, Michel de Montaigne's essay "Of cannibals" introduced a new multicultural note in European civilization. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ ( February 28 1533 &ndash September 13 1592) was one of the most influential writers Montaigne wrote that "one calls 'barbarism' whatever he is not accustomed to. " By using a title like that and describing a fair indigean society, Montaigne may have wished to provoke a surprise in the reader of his Essays.
Themes in mythology and religion
Cannibalism features in many mythologies. Examples are the witch in Hansel and Gretel and Baba Yaga of Slavic folklore. Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers Hansel and Gretel ( Hänsel und Gretel) is a Fairy tale of Germanic origin adapted by the Brothers Grimm and earlier by Giambattista Baba Yaga (Ба́ба-Яга́ Баба Рога Баба Яга Баба Рога Polish, Czech, Baba Jaga Baba Roga is in Slavic folklore, a witch-like Slavic mythology is the Mythological aspect of the Religion that was practised by the ancient Slavs.
A number of stories in Greek mythology involve cannibalism, in particular cannibalism of close family members, for example the stories of Thyestes, Tereus and especially Cronus, who was Saturn in the Roman pantheon. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance In Greek mythology, Thyestes (Θυέστης was the son of Pelops, King of Olympia, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and In Greek mythology, Tereus (Τηρεύς was a son of Ares and husband of Procne. Cronus or Kronos, ( Ancient Greek Κρόνος Krónos) was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants Saturn ( Latin: Saturnus) was a major Roman God of agriculture and harvest The story of Tantalus also parallels this. In Greek mythology Tantalus ( Greek Τάνταλος was a son of Zeus and the Nymph Plouto. These mythologies inspired Shakespeare's cannibalism scene in Titus Andronicus. Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeare's earliest Tragedy; it is believed to have been written sometime between 1584 and the early 1590s
Hindu mythology describes evil beings called "asura" or "rakshasa" that dwell in the forests and practice extreme violence including of devouring their own kind, and possess many evil supernatural powers. These are however the Hindu equivalent of "demons" and do not relate to actual tribes of forest-dwelling people.
- ^ Neanderthals Were Cannibals, Bones Show
- ^ Archaeologists Rediscover Cannibals
- ^ Cannibalism Normal For Early Humans?
- ^ The edible dead
- ^ Suelzle, B: Review of "The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory", Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit.
- ^ Ezekiel 5:10
- ^ Cannibalism - LoveToKnow 1911
- ^ Hans Staden Among the Tupinambas
- ^ Maori Cannibalism. Androphagi (Greek for "man-eaters" was an ancient nation of cannibals north of Scythia (according to Herodotus) probably in the forests between The Asmat are an Ethnic group of New Guinea, residing in the Papua province of Indonesia. The Manifesto Antropófago ( Cannibal Manifesto in English was published in 1928 by the Brazilian Poet and Polemicist Oswald de Andrade Placentophagy (from 'placenta' + Greek φαγειν, to eat is the act of Mammals Eating the Placenta Self-cannibalism is the practice of eating oneself also called autocannibalism, or autosarcophagy. Soylent Green " in popular culture the section "Cultural impact" was created as a "catch-all" of the cultural references to Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies' ( TSEs, also known as prion diseases) are a group of progressive conditions that affect the Brain and The Wendigo (also Windigo, Weendigo, Windago, Windiga, Witiko, Wihtikow, and numerous other variants is a mythical creature Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
- ^ Lab tests show evidence of cannibalism among ancient Indians
- ^ Endocannibalism (ritual). Encyclopedia Britannica. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Retrieved on 2008-02-13. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed
- ^ King of the Cannibal Isles
- ^ cannibalism, or anthropophagy (human) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ Sleeping with Cannibals
- ^ Indian doc focuses on Hindu cannibal sect
- ^ cannibalism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ^ Fijians find chutney in bad taste
- ^ Anasazi Cannibalism?
- ^ Brief history of cannibal controversies; David F. Salisbury, August 15, 2001
- ^ This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. Cyclopaedia or A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences ( folio, 2 vols The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone Anthropophagy.
- ^ "Cannibalism Normal?". "National Geographic".
- ^ "No cannibalism signature in human gene". "New Scientist".
- ^ Tim D white. Once were Cannibals. Evolution: A Scientific American Reader. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German
- ^ James Owen. Neandertals Turned to Cannibalism, Bone Cave Suggests. National Geographic News. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states
- ^ “Against Jovinianus—Book II”, A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol. 6, 2nd, New York: The Christian Literature Company, c. 393 (published 1893), pp. 394, <http://www.archive.org/details/selectlibraryofn06schauoft>. Retrieved on 3 April 2008
- ^ Cannibalistic Celts discovered in South Gloucestershire 7 March 2001
- ^ To Aztecs, Cannibalism Was a Status Symbol, New York Times
- ^ Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological Necessity?
- ^ Maalouf, Amin (1984). The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. New York: Schocken Books. Schocken Books ( Schocken Verlag) is a Publishing company that was established in Berlin with a publishing office in Prague in 1931 by the ISBN 0-8052-0898-4.
- ^ Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano. "Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological necessity?" Science 200:611=617. 1978
- ^ Medieval Doctors and Their Patients, mummytombs. com, <http://www.mummytombs.com/dummy/doctors.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-12-03
- ^ Quotes from John Sanderson's Travels (1586) in That Obscure Object of Desire: Victorian Commodity Culture and Fictions of the Mummy, Nicholas Daly, NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, Vol. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French 28, No. 1 (Autumn, 1994), pp. 24-51. doi:10. 2307/1345912
- ^ Cannibalism in Early Modern North Africa, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
- ^ [http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Cow02NewZ-c20.html James Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Volume II, 1922.
- ^ The Wreck of the Whaleship Essex
- ^ ABC Whipple, Yankee Whalers in the South Pacific, Doubleday, New York, p 151
- ^ Martin, Stephen 1993 A new land: European perceptions of Australia 1788-1850 (Allen & Unwin: St Leonards, Australia) pp. 105-109
- ^ The Acadian Recorder, Saturday, May 27, 1826
- ^ Keenleyside, Anne. The final days of the Franklin expedition: new skeletal evidence Arctic 50(1) 36-36 1997. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France.
- ^ "Melanesia Historical and Geographical: the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides", Southern Cross n°1, London: 1950
- ^ "Indian cannibal sect eats human corpses, believing it give them supernatural powers", Pravda, 2005-10-25. Pravda (Правда "The Truth" was a leading Newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Retrieved on 2008-02-13. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed
- ^ Ukraine marks great famine anniversary (2003-11-22). Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. , see also The Black Deeds of the Kremlin - Volume 2 The great famine in Ukraine in 1932-1933 (Federation of Ukraine Prisoners, ed. DOBRUS, 1955), Harvest of sorrow (Robert Conquest)
- ^ Welch, JM (April 2002). "Without a Hangman, Without a Rope: Navy War Crimes Trials After World War II" (pdf). International Journal of Naval History 1 (1).
- ^ 900-Day Siege of Leningrad
- ^ This Day in History 1941: Siege of Leningrad begins
- ^ The black book of communism (Stephane Courtis, Nicolas Werth and others, Harvard U. Press), Wild swans: three daughters of China (Jung Chang, Touchstone Press), Daughter of the river: an autobiography (Hong Ying, Grove Press), Hungry ghosts: Mao's secret famine (Jasper Becker, Holt Press), Mao Tze Tung video of History Channel
- ^ Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, China Wakes: the Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power (Times Books, 1994) p. Nicholas Donabet Kristof (born April 27, 1959 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American Journalist, Author, op-ed Sheryl WuDunn ( born 1959) is a Chinese American private wealth advisor with Goldman Sachs and was previously a Journalist and editor China Wakes the struggle for the soul of a rising power (ISBN 0-679-76393-7 1994, by husband and wife reporters Nicholas D 73-75. ISBN #0-8129-2252-2, Scarlet Memorial: Tales Of Cannibalism In Modern China (Zheng Yi, Westview Press)
- ^ PT 109 by Donovan (book)
- ^ William Bueller Seabrook. Jungle Ways London, Bombay, Sydney: George G. Harrap and Company, 1931
- ^ Bradley, James . This article describes the English astronomer for other people sharing the name see James Bradley (disambiguation James Bradley (March 1693 Flyboys: A True Story of Courage (softcover), first (in English), Boston, MA: Back Bay Books, 404. ISBN 0316159433. Retrieved on 2007-12-26. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. “pg 229:"This document is curious, not just because it approved cannibalism of gaizin, but because it had to be written at all. ", pg 230:"US and Australian WWII archives hold many files detailing numerous acts of Japanese army cannibalism. ", pg 311:"We had suspected beheadings, of course, but never cannibalism!"”
- ^ A. Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part I, chapter 9
- ^ A. The Gulag Archipelago ( Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) is a book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on the Soviet forced labor and concentration camp system Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part I, comments to chapter 5
- ^ A. The Gulag Archipelago ( Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) is a book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on the Soviet forced labor and concentration camp system Solzhenitsyn "The Gulag Archipelago" part III, chapter 15
- ^ Yevgenia Ginzburg "Harsh Route", part 2, chapter 23 "The Paradise On A Microscope View"
- ^ Tim Bowden. The Gulag Archipelago ( Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) is a book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on the Soviet forced labor and concentration camp system One Crowded Hour. ISBN 0-00-217496-0
- ^ Congo's Sexual Violence Goes 'Far Beyond Rape', July 31, 2007. The Washington Post.
- ^ Cannibals massacring pygmies: claim
- ^ "2003: 'War criminal' Idi Amin dies", BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song.
- ^ Orizio, Riccardo. "Idi Amin's Exile Dream", New York Times, 2003-08-21. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1192 - Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the De facto ruler of Japan. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song.
- ^ Opening a Window on North Korea's Horrors: Defectors Haunted by Guilt Over the Loved Ones Left Behind (2003-10-04). Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
- ^ Gillison, Gillian (2006-11-13). "From Cannibalism to Genocide: The Work of Denial". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 37 (3): 395-414. MIT Press Journals. doi:10.1162/jinh.2007.37.3.395. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
- ^ "Why 7 Ate 9 OR Wawa's TV Dinner", ABC TV Mediawatch. Retrieved on 2007-10-03. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's
- ^ Artist Cooks meal in own Body Fat, January 13, 2007
- ^ Serbia: Police arrest man suspected of killing two in satanic ritual. International Herald Tribune (2007-09-01). The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international Newspaper Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian
- ^ Newspaper Today's Zaman September 17, 2007
- ^ Newspaper Milliyet September 16, 2007 (Turkish)
- ^ news.bbc.co.uk, I ate children's hearts, ex-rebel says
- ^ AP:Top Aide testifies Taylor ordered soldiers to eat victims, CNN. com, March 13, 2008 (accessed same date)
- ^ Beattie, Owen and Geiger, John (2004). Frozen in Time. ISBN 1-55365-060-3.
- ^ Orchestral manoeuvres (part one) (2001-11-25). Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
- ^ Building the Blockade: New Truths in Survival Narratives From Leningrad, Autum 1995. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
- ^ Tanaka, Toshiyuki (1996). Hidden horrors: Japanese war crimes in World War II. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-2717-2.
- ^ Opening a Window on North Korea's Horrors: Defectors Haunted by Guilt Over the Loved Ones Left Behind (2003-10-04). Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
- ^ Timothy Taylor, 'The Buried Soul: How Humans Invented Death', Pages 58-60, Fourth Estate 2002
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- The act of eating another of one's own species.
- In speech, the occurrence of one word "eating" part or all of the next word, because the syllables ar the same. For example, "Look, an MIT shirt" for "Look, an MIT T-shirt".
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