Cannabis, also known as marijuana or ganja (from Hindi/Sanskrit: गांजा gānjā), is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family It is a Herb that has been used throughout recorded history by humans for various purposes The herbal form of the drug consists of dried mature flowers and subtending leaves of pistillate ("female") plants. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also The resinous form, known as hashish, consists primarily of glandular trichomes collected from the same plant material. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed Trichomes, from the Greek meaning "growth of Hair " are fine outgrowths or appendages on Plants and certain Protists These are of diverse
The major biologically active chemical compound in cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), commonly referred to as THC. A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by Mass.
Humans have been consuming cannabis since prehistory, although in the 20th century there was a rise in its use for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes. Recreational drug use is the use of Psychoactive drugs for Recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos This article is about cannabis used as an Entheogenic drug in a spiritual or Religious context It is estimated that about four percent  of the world's adult population use cannabis annually and 0. 6 percent daily. The possession, use, or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in most parts of the world in the early 20th century. Since the 20th century most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation use possession or transfer of cannabis for recreational Since then, some countries have intensified the enforcement of cannabis prohibition while others have reduced the priority of enforcement. The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the
Evidence of the inhalation of cannabis smoke can be found as far back as the Neolithic age, as indicated by charred cannabis seeds found in a ritual brazier at an ancient burial site in present day Romania. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos A brazier is a container for fire generally taking the form of an upright standing or hanging metal bowl or box Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania  The most famous users of cannabis were the ancient Hindus of India and Nepal. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The herb was called ganjika in Sanskrit (गांजा/গাঁজা ganja in modern Indic languages). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family  The ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas as a sacred intoxicating hallucinogen, was sometimes associated with cannabis. Soma ( Sanskrit: सोम) or Haoma ( Avestan) from Proto-Indo-Iranian * sauma-, was a ritual drink of importance "Veda" redirects here For other uses see Veda (disambiguation. The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives 
Cannabis was also known to the Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Aryans. The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable"  Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word 'Cannabis'.  Cannabis was also introduced by the Aryans to the Scythians and Thracians/Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai—“those who walk on smoke/clouds”) burned cannabis flowers to induce a state of trance. In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity Dacia, in ancient geography was the land of the Dacians. It was named by the ancient Hellenes ( Greeks) " Getae " Trance denotes a variety of processes techniques modalities and states of mind awareness and consciousness  Members of the cult of Dionysus, believed to have originated in Thrace, are also thought to have inhaled cannabis smoke. In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe In 2003, a leather basket filled with cannabis leaf fragments and seeds was found next to a 2,500- to 2,800-year-old mummified shaman in the northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National 
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis) is a Genus of Flowering plants that includes three putative species Cannabis sativa subsp Many Religions have beliefs about drug use these vary greatly with some traditions placing the ritual use of Entheogens at the center of religious activity while others prohibit Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. The Pazyryk (Пазарык is the name of an ancient Nomadic people who lived in the Altai Mountains lying in Siberian Russia south of the modern city The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash  Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews and early Christians. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth  It was also used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Qalandar (قلندر is a title given to Sufi mystics especially in South Asia.  In India and Nepal, it has been used by some of the wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries, and in modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced it as a sacrament. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an Ascetic or practitioner of Yoga ( Yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament  Elders of the modern religious movement known as the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ, even though the movement was founded in the United States in 1975 and has no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church is a New religious movement which incorporated in Florida in 1975 The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that cannabis is the Tree of Life. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems See also Tree of life for other cultural interpretations of the term and Tree of life (disambiguation for other meanings of the term  Other organized religions founded in the past century that treat cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry, the Way of Infinite Harmony, Cantheism, the Cannabis Assembly and the Church of Cognizance. The world's principal Religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups or world religions'. The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church is a Religion[http //www The Way of Infinite Harmony is a Taoist sect that worships Her Holiness Princess Ma Gu, Goddess of Hemp (Immortal Xu Miao Cantheism, also Kantheism, is a modern term for Religions based on the inherent goodness of the cannabis plant The Church of Cognizance ( COC) was founded in 1991 by Danuel & Mary Quaintance in Graham County (Pima Arizona, United States.
The production of cannabis for drug use remains illegal throughout most of the world through for ex. International Opium Convention of 1925, the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and the 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, while simple possession of small quantities is either legal, or treated as an addiction rather than a criminal offense in a few countries. The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912, was the first international drug control treaty The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international Treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally Narcotic) Drugs and of drugs The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force
A synthetic form of one chemical in marijuana, Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is a controversial treatment for medical use. Medical cannabis refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended Herbal therapy as well as synthetic THC and Cannabinoids The American Marijuana Policy Project, a pro-cannabis organization, claims that cannabis is an ideal therapeutic drug for cancer and AIDS patients, who often suffer from clinical depression, and from nausea and resulting weight loss due to chemotherapy and other aggressive treatments. The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States whose stated aim is to minimize the harm associated with cannabis MPP advocates Chemotherapy, in its most general sense refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells specifically those of micro-organisms or Cancer.  Other medical uses may included fighting cancer, according to an isolated study by scientists in Italy. This study states that cannabidiol (CBD), a chemical found in marijuana, inhibits growth of cancer cells in animals. Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in Cannabis. 
The FDA and comparable authorities in Western Europe, including the Netherlands, have not approved smoked marijuana for any condition or disease. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The current view of the United States Food and Drug Administration is that if there is any future of marijuana as a medicine, it lies in its isolated components, the cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. 
A synthetic version of the cannabinoid THC named Dronabinol has been shown to relieve symptoms of anorexia and reduce agitation in elderly Alzheimer's patients.  Dronabinol has been approved for use with anorexia in patients with HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy-related nausea. This drug, while demonstrating the effectiveness of cannabis at combating several disorders, is more expensive and less available than "pot" and has not been shown to be effective or safe. 
Glaucoma, a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball causing gradual loss of sight, can be treated with medical marijuana to decrease this intraocular pressure. There has been debate for 25 years on the subject. Some data exist, showing a reduction of IOP in glaucoma patients who smoke marijuana, but the effects are short-lived, and the frequency of doses needed to sustain a decreased IOP can cause systemic toxicity. There is also some concern over its use since it can also decrease blood flow to the optic nerve. Marijuana lowers IOP by acting on a cannabinoid receptor on the ciliary body called the CB receptor.  Although marijuana is not a good therapeutic choice for glaucoma patients, it may lead researchers to more effective, safer treatments. A promising study shows that agents targeted to ocular CB receptors can reduce IOP in glaucoma patients who have failed other therapies. 
Medical marijuana is used for analgesia, or pain relief. “Marijuana is used for analgesia only in the context of a handful of illnesses (e. g. , headache, dysentery, menstrual cramps, and depression) that are often cited by marijuana advocates as medical reasons to justify the drug being available as a prescription medication. ” It is also reported to be beneficial for treating certain neurological illnesses such as epilepsy, and bipolar disorder.  Case reports have found that cannabis can relieve tics in people with obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome. A tic is a sudden repetitive nonrhythmic stereotyped motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a Chronic Anxiety disorder most commonly characterized by obsessive Distressing Intrusive thoughts Tourette syndrome (also called Tourette's syndrome, Tourette's disorder, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, GTS or more commonly simply Tourette's Patients treated with tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive chemical found in cannabis, reported a significant decrease in both motor and vocal tics, some of 50% or more.  Some decrease in obsessive-compulsive behavior was also found.  A recent study has also concluded that cannabinoids found in cannabis might have the ability to prevent Alzheimer's disease.  THC has been shown to reduce arterial blockages. 
Another use for medical marijuana is movement disorders. Marijuana is frequently reported to reduce the muscle spasms associated with multiple sclerosis; this has been acknowledged by the Institute of Medicine, but it noted that these abundant anecdotal reports are not well-supported by clinical data. Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune condition in which the The Institute of Medicine (IOM is one of the United States National Academies, and is a not-for-profit non-governmental American organization chartered in 1970 as a part of the United Evidence from animal studies suggests that there is a possible role for cannabinoids in the treatment of certain types of epileptic seizures.  Marijuana "numbs" the nervous system slightly, possibly preventing shock. A synthetic version of the major active compound in cannabis, THC, is available in capsule form as the prescription drug dronabinol (Marinol) in many countries. The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. 
It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early '70s, when delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol was discovered and understood. Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article However, potent seedless marijuana such as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time. A Thai stick is a form of cannabis from Thailand that was popular during the late ’60s and early ’70s. In fact, the sinsemilla technique of producing high-potency marijuana has been practiced in India for centuries. Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky. Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article Legal issues of cannabis article The matter has been discussed to death and does not belong in this article These intensive horticultural techniques have led to fewer seeds being present in cannabis and a general increase in potency over the past 20 years. The average levels of THC in marijuana sold in United States rose from 3. 5% in 1988 to 7% in 2003 and 8. 5% in 2006. 
"Skunk" cannabis is a potent strain of cannabis, grown through selective breeding and usually hydroponics, that is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. indica. Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The average THC level in coffeehouses in the Netherlands is about 18–19%. A cannabis Coffeeshop is a place where the sale of cannabis and Hashish for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands 
The average THC content of Skunk #1 is 8. 2%; it is a 4-way combination of the cannabis strains Afghani indica, Mexican Gold, Colombian Gold, and Thai: 75% sativa, 25% indica. This was done via extensive breeding by cultivators in California in the 1970s using the traditional outdoor cropping methods used for centuries.
In proposed revisions to cannabis rescheduling in the UK, the government is considering rescheduling cannabis back from C to B. Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom refers to the transfer of cannabis to a different Class of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. One of the reasons is the high-potency marijuana. 
A Dutch double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study examining male volunteers aged 18–45 years with a self-reported history of regular cannabis use concluded that smoking of cannabis with high THC levels (marijuana with 9–23% THC), as currently sold in coffee shops in the Netherlands, may lead to higher THC blood-serum concentrations. This is reflected by an increase of the occurrence of impaired psychomotor skills, particularly among younger or inexperienced cannabis smokers, who do not adapt their smoking-style to the higher THC content.  High THC concentrations in cannabis was associated with a dose-related increase of physical effects (such as increase of heart rate, and decrease of blood pressure) and psychomotor effects (such as reacting more slowly, being less concentrated, making more mistakes during performance testing, having less motor control, and experiencing drowsiness). It was also observed during the study that the effects from a single joint lasted for more than eight hours. Joint is slang for a Cigarette rolled using cannabis. Usually Rolling papers (mostly made by subsidiaries of major tobacco Reaction times remained impaired five hours after smoking, when the THC serum concentrations were significantly reduced, but still present. When subjects smoke on several occasions per day, accumulation of THC in blood-serum may occur.
Another study showed that consumption of 15 mg of Delta(9)-THC resulted in no learning whatsoever occurring over a three-trial selective reminding task after two hours. In several tasks, delta(9)-THC increased both speed and error rates, reflecting “riskier” speed–accuracy trade-offs. 
Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. Since the 20th century most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation use possession or transfer of cannabis for recreational The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing Drug prohibition laws The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary Legislation or Religious law is a common means of attempting to control Drug use and the These laws have impacted adversely on the cannabis plant's cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where, under certain circumstances, handling of cannabis is legal or licensed. Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation or a fine, rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who traffic the drug on the black market. Confiscation, from the Latin confiscatio 'joining to the fiscus i FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs There are also changes in a more restrictive direction such as the closing of coffee shops in the Netherlands, the closing of the open drug market in Christiania, Copenhagen, the Gonzales v. Raich rule in 2005 that the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution allow the federal government to ban the use of marijuana, including medical use anywhere in the United States. A cannabis Coffeeshop is a place where the sale of cannabis and Hashish for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania (Danish Fristaden Christiania) is a partially self-governing neighbourhood of about 850 residents covering 34 hectares Copenhagen (ˌkəʊpənˈheɪgən ˌkəʊpənˈhɑːgən ˈkəʊpənˌheɪgən ˈkəʊpənˌhɑːgən kʰøb̥ənˈhɑʊ̯ˀn kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn is the capital and largest city Gonzales v Raich (previously Ashcroft v Raich) 545 US 1 (2005 was a case in which the United States Supreme Court ruled on The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Some jurisdictions use free voluntary treatment programs and/or mandatory treatment programs for frequent known users. Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime often for most Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed, usually by smoking or ingestion. A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a Chemical substance that acts primarily upon the Central nervous system where it alters Brain Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical The minimum amount of THC required to have a perceptible psychoactive effect is about 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight (which, in practical terms, is a varying amount, dependent upon potency). A related compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as THCV, is produced in appreciable amounts by certain drug strains. Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant This cannabinoid has been described in the popular literature as having shorter-acting, flashier effects than THC, but recent studies suggest that it may actually inhibit the effects of THC. Cannabinoids ( are a group of terpeno[[phenol]]ic compounds present in Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L Relatively high levels of THCV are common in African dagga (marijuana), and in hashish from the northwest Himalayas.
A recent study by the Canadian government found cannabis contained more toxic substances than tobacco smoke.  The study determined that marijuana smoke contained 20 times more ammonia, and five times more hydrogen cyanide and nitrous oxides than tobacco smoke. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Hydrogen cyanide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula HCN Nitrous oxide, commonly known as " laughing gas," is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula N 2 O. In spite of this, a recent large-scale study found no correlation between heavy marijuana use and lung cancer, despite noting that cannabis contains the same carcinogens as tobacco. The same study found a 20-fold increase in lung-cancer rates of smokers who consumed two or more packs of cigarettes per day.  These researchers postulated that the THC present may have a "protective effect" by causing aging cells to die before they become cancerous.  Other recent research suggest the cannabinoid CBD may stop certain cancers from spreading, although not in concentrations consumed during smoking. 
In contrast, a study published in the January 2008 edition of the journal Respirology found that "regular" cannabis smokers who developed bullous lung disease did so on average 24 years sooner than tobacco smoking counterparts. Respiratory Disease is the term for Diseases of the Respiratory system.  Researchers attributed this to the inhalation of a larger volume of smoke, and typically holding it for four times longer than tobacco smokers. Bullous lung disease is considered an uncommon cause of respiratory distress.  In general, habitual inhalation of any kind of smoke is detrimental to lung health. 
Cannabis use has been linked to exacerbating the effects of depression, psychosis, schizophrenia, bronchitis, and emphysema by several peer-reviewed studies for those who are vulnerable to such illnesses based on personal or family history. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή "psyche" for mind or soul and -οσις "-osis" for abnormal condition with adjective psychotic Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn Bronchitis is an Inflammation of the Bronchi. More specifically it may refer to Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting Emphysema is a chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease ( COPD) formerly termed a chronic obstructive Lung disease (COLD Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are  More recently, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study published research showing an increased risk of psychosis for cannabis users with a certain genetic predisposition, held by 25% of the population. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (often referred to as the Dunedin Longitudinal Study) is a long-running Cohort study of 1037 people born  Studies have also shown links between heavy long-term use (over five joints daily over several years) and incidence of heart attacks, strokes, as well as abnormalities in the amygdala and hippocampus regions of the brain. The la amygdalae ( Latin, also la corpus amygdaloideum, singular la amygdala, from Greek el αμυγδαλή grc-Latn amygdalē, 'almond' The hippocampus is a part of the Forebrain, located in the medial Temporal lobe. 
In July 2007, British medical journal The Lancet published a study that indicates that cannabis users have, on average, a 41% greater risk of developing psychosis than non-users. This article is about the journal For other uses of the term "lancet" see Lancet (disambiguation. The risk was most pronounced in cases with an existing risk of psychotic disorder, and was said to grow up to 200% for the most-frequent users. 
Since its origin in the 1950s, the "gateway drug" hypothesis has been one of the central pillars of cannabis drug policy in the United States. The gateway drug theory (also called variously gateway theory, gateway hypothesis and gateway effect) is the hypothesis that the use of soft drugs leads One variant is that people, upon trying cannabis for the first time and not finding it dangerous, are then tempted to try other, harder drugs. These models of cause and effect has been debated.  A 2005 comprehensive review of the literature on the cannabis gateway hypothesis found that pre-existing traits may predispose users to addiction in general, the availability of multiple drugs in a given setting confounds predictive patterns in their usage, and drug sub-cultures are more influential than cannabis itself. The study called for further research on "social context, individual characteristics, and drug effects" to discover the actual relationships between cannabis and the use of other drugs. 
Some argue that the purported relationship between marijuana and more illicit drugs, as proposed by the "gateway theory", is methodologically flawed. A common argument is that a new user of cannabis who doesn't find it dangerous will see the difference between public information regarding the drug and their own experiences, and apply this distrust to public knowledge of other, more powerful drugs. Some studies support the "gateway drug" model.  An example from 2007: A stratified, random sample of 1943 adolescents was recruited from secondary schools across Victoria, Australia, at age 14–15 years. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. This cohort was interviewed on eight occasions until the age of 24–25 years. At age 24 years, 12% of the sample had used amphetamines in the past year, with 1–2% using at least weekly. Young adult amphetamine use was predicted strongly by adolescent drug use and was associated robustly with other drug use and dependence in young adulthood. Associations were stronger for more frequent users. Among young adults who had not been using amphetamines at age 20 years, the strongest predictor of use at age 24 years was the use of other drugs, particularly cannabis, at 20 years.  Those who were smoking cannabis at the age of 15 were as much as 15 times more likely to be using amphetamines in their early 20s. 
Analysts have hypothesized that the illegal status of cannabis is a possible cause of a gateway drug effect, reasoning that cannabis users are likely to become acquainted with people who use and sell other illegal drugs in order to acquire cannabis. But it is said that Marijuana is not as harmful or addicting as any other drug.  Some contend that by this argument, alcohol and tobacco may also be regarded as gateway drugs. Studies have shown that tobacco smoking is a better predictor of concurrent illicit hard drug use than smoking cannabis. 
A current doctoral thesis from Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, on the neurobiological effects of early life cannabis exposure, gives support for the cannabis gateway hypothesis in relation to adult opiate abuse. This article is about the journal For other uses of the term "lancet" see Lancet (disambiguation. THC exposed rats showed increased motivation for opiate drug use under conditions of stress. However, the cannabis exposure did not correlate to amphetamine use. 
A study published in The Lancet on 24 March 2007 was twenty drugs were assigned a risk from zero to three. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Dr. David Nutt et al. asked medical, scientific and legal experts to rate 20 different drugs on nine parameters:
Cannabis was ranked seventeenth of twenty for mean physical harm score and eleventh for mean dependence score. Not shown is the mean social harm score, which rated ninth, in a tie with Amphetamine.
Poly drug use is not unusual among established users; statistics from Spain show that cannabis users aged 15 -34 also used amphetamine (9%), ecstasy (11%) or cocaine (18%) the same year. Poly drug use refers to the use two or more Psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect Amphetamine, and related drugs such as Methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Dopamine MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant 
While many drugs clearly fall into the category of either Stimulant, Depressant, Hallucinogen, or Antipsychotic, cannabis, containing both THC and CBD, exhibits a mix of all sections, leaning towards the Hallucinogen section due to THC being the primary constituent. Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a cannabinoid found in Cannabis. 
Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in several forms:
These forms are not exclusive, and mixtures of two or more different forms of cannabis are frequently consumed. Between the many different strains of cannabis and the various ways that it is prepared, there are innumerable variations similar to the wide variety of mixed alcoholic beverages that are consumed.
Cannabis can be smoked in a variety of ways, some of which are more popular than others. MidwakhJPG|thumb|A screened single-toke utensil such as the Midwakh (shown here or Kiseru, permits 25-mg The most common methods of smoking cannabis involve the use of implements such as bongs and smoking pipes, or rolling joints or blunts. These methods differ by: the preparation of the cannabis plant before use; the parts of the cannabis plant which are used; and the treatment of the smoke before inhalation.
A vaporizer heats herbal cannabis to 365–410 °F (185–210 °C), which turns the active ingredients into gas without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 392 °F (200°C) at 0. A vaporizer (or vaporiser) is a device used to release the active ingredients of Plant material commonly cannabis, Tobacco, and many This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter 02 mm Hg pressure, and somewhat higher at standard atmospheric pressure).  A lower proportion of toxic chemicals are released than by smoking, although this may vary depending on the design of the vaporizer and the temperature at which it is set. A MAPS-NORML study using a Volcano vaporizer reported 95% THC and no toxins delivered in the vapor. The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies ( MAPS) is a U The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws ( NORML, ˈnɔrməl is a Washington D  However, an older study using less sophisticated vaporizers found more toxins.  The effects from a vaporizer are noticeably different to that of smoking cannabis. Users have reported a more euphoric hallucinogen type high, because the vapor contains more pure THC.
As an alternative to smoking, cannabis may be consumed orally.
Although hashish is sometimes eaten raw or mixed with water, THC and other cannabinoids are more efficiently absorbed into the bloodstream when dissolved in ethanol, or combined with butter or other lipids. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed Lipids are broadly defined as any fat- Soluble ( lipophilic) naturally-occurring Molecule, such as fats oils waxes cholesterol sterols fat-soluble The time to onset of effects is usually about an hour and may continue for a considerable length of time, whereas the effects of smoking herbal cannabis are almost immediate.
Smoking cannabis results in a significant loss of THC and other cannabinoids in the exhaled smoke, by decomposition on burning, and in smoke that is not inhaled. In contrast, all of the active constituents enter the body when cannabis is ingested. It has been shown that the primary active component of cannabis, Δ9-THC, is converted to the more psychoactive 11-hydroxy-THC by the liver.  Titration to the desired effect by ingestion is much more difficult than through inhalation. Titration is a common laboratory method of Quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown Concentration of a known Reactant
Cannabis material can be leached in high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create “Green Dragon”. Herbalism is a traditional Medicinal or Folk medicine practice based on the use of Plants and Plant extracts Herbalism is also known as Neutral grain spirit (aka grain neutral spirit ( GNS) pure grain alcohol, or corn liquor) is a clear colorless flammable liquid that Green Dragon is an Alcoholic beverage made by Leaching the leaves of the Cannabis plant in a high-proof alcohol most commonly Vodka This process is often employed to make use of low-potency stems and leaves.
Cannabis can also be consumed as a tea. Herbalism is a traditional Medicinal or Folk medicine practice based on the use of Plants and Plant extracts Herbalism is also known as Although THC is lipophilic and only slightly water soluble (with a solubility of 2. Lipophilicity, fat-liking, refers to the ability of a Chemical compound to dissolve in fats oils lipids and non-polar solvents such as Hexane or Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. 8 grams per liter), enough THC can be dissolved to make a mildly psychoactive tea. However, water-based infusions are generally considered to be an inefficient use of the herb.
There are multiple drug subcultures based on the use of different drugs - the culture surrounding cannabis, for example, is very different from that of heroin, due to the different sort of experiences, sentiment amongst the crowd attracted to the drug in question, as well as the problems the users encounter. Heroin ( INN: diacetylmorphine, BAN: diamorphine) is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from Morphine, a derivative