Callisthenes of Olynthus (in Greek Καλλισθένης; ca. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 360-328 BC) was a Greek historian. Events By place Egypt With the help of King Agesilaus II of Sparta, Nectanebo II deposes Teos and becomes Events By place Macedonian Empire At Maracanda Alexander murders Clitus, one of his most trusted commanders friend and foster-brother The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it He was the son of Hero and Proxenus of Atarneus, which made him the great nephew of Aristotle by his sister Arimneste. A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and Proxenus of Atarneus is most famous for being Aristotle 's guardian after the death of his parents Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Arimneste was the daughter of Nicomachus and Phaestis, and Aristotle 's older sister They first met when Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Through his great-uncle's influence, he was later appointed to attend Alexander the Great on his Asiatic expedition as a professional historian. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ'
During the first years of Alexander's campaign in Asia, Callisthenes showered praises upon the Macedonian conqueror. As the king and army penetrated further into Asia, however, Callisthenes' tone began to change. He began to sharply criticize Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, with special scorn for Alexander's growing desire that those who presented themselves before him perform the servile ceremony of proskynesis. Proskynesis, ( Greek) formed from the Ancient Greek words pros and kuneo literally means "kissing towards" and refers Having thereby greatly offended the king, Callisthenes was accused of being privy to a treasonable conspiracy and thrown into prison, where he died from torture or disease. His melancholic end was commemorated in a special treatise (Callisthenes or a Treatise on Grief) by his friend Theophrastus, whose acquaintance he made during a visit to Athens. Theophrastus ( Greek:; 371 – c 287 BC a Greek native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's
Callisthenes wrote an account of Alexander's expedition up to the time of his own execution, a history of Greece from the Peace of Antalcidas (387) to the Phocian war (357), a history of the Phocian war, and other works, all of which have perished. The Peace of Antalcidas ( 387 BC) also known as the King's Peace, was a Peace treaty that ended the Corinthian War in Ancient Greece However, his account of Alexander's expedition was preserved long enough to be mined as a direct or indirect source for other histories that have survived.
A quantity of the more legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance, the basis of all the Alexander legends of the Middle Ages, originated during the time of the Ptolemies, but in its present form belongs to the 3rd century AD. Alexander romance is any of several collections of legends concerning the mythical exploits of Alexander the Great. The Ptolemaic dynasty (sometimes also known as the Lagids, from the name of Ptolemy I's father Lagus) was a Hellenistic Macedonian royal family The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Its author is usually known as pseudo-Callisthenes, although in the Latin translation by Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century For others with this name see Arrianus (disambiguation. Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' (ca
There are also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the Middle Ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 1897, p. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Karl Krumbacher ( September 23, 1856 - December 12, 1909) German scholar an expert on Byzantine culture 849). Valerius's translation was completely superseded by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the so-called Historia de Preliis. Valerius originally was a Roman Nomen of the Gens Valeria, one of the oldest patrician families of the city