|City of Buffalo|
|Nickname: The City of Good Neighbors, The Queen City, The Nickel City, Queen City of the Lakes, City of Light|
Location of Buffalo in New York State
|- Mayor||Byron Brown (D)|
|- City||52. The municipal flag of Buffalo is the official banner of the city of Buffalo New York. The muicipal seal of Buffalo is the official seal of the City of Buffalo, United States. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The political units and divisions of the United States include The 50 states (four of these being officially styled as Commonwealths) which are typically New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous There are 62 counties in the State of New York. The first twelve counties in New York were created immediately after the British annexation of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam County of Erie, commonly referred to as Erie County, is a county located in the U This is a list of mayors of Buffalo New York. List of mayors Mayoral Elections (winners are in bold) Byron W Brown was elected on November 8, 2005 as the 58th Mayor of Buffalo New York; He is the first African American mayor elected to The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status 5 sq mi (136. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 0 km²)|
|- Land||40. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here areas between 1000 km2 and 10000 km2 6 sq mi (105. 2 km²)|
|- Water||11. 9 sq mi (30. 8 km²)|
|Elevation||600 ft (183 m)|
|- Density||7,206. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 4/sq mi (2,782. 4/km²)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−5)|
|- Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0973345|
|Website: Buffalo, NY|
Buffalo (pronounced /ˈbʌfəloʊ/), is the second largest city in New York State. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during Daylight saving time ( DST The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America UTC−4 is the Time offset used in the Atlantic Standard Time Zone in Canada in winter and the North American Eastern Time Zone during A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks Area code 716 is an area code that used to dominate Western New York until the new area code of 585 was split off for the Rochester Area in 2002 Federal Information Processing Standards ( FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States Federal government for use by all non-military The Geographic Names Information System ( GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River, Buffalo is the principal city of the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area and the seat of Erie County. Western New York refers to the westernmost region of New York State. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties &ndash Erie and A county seat is a term for an Administrative center for a County, primarily used in the United States. County of Erie, commonly referred to as Erie County, is a county located in the U  The city itself has a population of 292,648 (2000 Census), and the metropolitan area 1,170,111 (2000 Census), the 46th largest in the United States. See also Metropolitan Statistical Area, Core Based Statistical Area Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasThe United States Census Bureau has defined
Originating around 1789 as a small trading community near the eponymous Buffalo Creek, Buffalo grew quickly after the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, with the city as its terminus. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes By 1900, Buffalo was the 8th largest city in the country,  and went on to become a major railroad hub, the largest grain-milling center in the country,  and the home of the largest steel-making operation in the world.  The latter part of the 20th Century saw a reversal of fortunes: by the year 2000 the city had fallen back below its 1900 population levels. The rerouting of Great Lakes shipping by the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway was a factor in the decline of the city. The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of Canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes The closing or relocating of many of the steel mills and other heavy industries in the area also contributed to the decline.
The City of Buffalo received its name from the creek that flows through it, and likely dates from the mid-18th century, when the area was first settled by Europeans. History of Buffalo New York Origin of name The City of Buffalo received its name from the creek that flows through it For other rivers with this name see Buffalo River. The Buffalo River is a River that empties into the eastern end of Lake Erie The area was originally settled by a Neutral Nation tribe, the Ongiara. The Neutrals, also known as the Attawandaron, were an Iroquoian nation of North American native people who lived near the shores of Lake Ontario Later, the Senecas of the Iroquois Confederacy won control over this land from the Neutrals. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse In 1804, Joseph Ellicott, a principal agent of the Holland Land Company, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes, and is one of only three radial street patterns in the US. The Holland Land Company was a purchaser of the western two-thirds of the western New York land tract known as the Phelps and Gorham Purchase.  During the War of 1812, on December 30, 1813, the village of Buffalo was burned by British forces. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1813 ( MDCCCXIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On November 4, 1825 the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo being at the western end of the system. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes The population at the time was about 2,400. The Erie Canal brought a surge in population and commerce which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832 with a population of about 10,000 people.
The first mayor of the city of Buffalo was Ebenezer Johnson  The City of Buffalo has been a long time home to the African-American community. An example is the 1828 village directory which listed 59 "Names of Coloured" heads of families.  In 1845, construction was begun on the Macedonia Baptist Church (commonly called the Michigan Street Baptist Church). This African-American church was an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement. On February 12, 1974 the church was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Abolitionist leaders like William Wells Brown also made their home in Buffalo. William Wells Brown ( November 6, 1814 – November 6, 1884) was a prominent Abolitionist Lecturer, Novelist,  Buffalo was also a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitives crossing the Niagara River from Buffalo to Fort Erie, Ontario and freedom. The Underground Railroad was an informal network of secret routes and Safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves in the United States The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. Fort Erie (2006 population 29925 is a Town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada.
During the 1840s, Buffalo continued its growth as a port city. Both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo.  Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor. The one of the first steam powered grain elevators was constructed which led to faster unloading of lake freighters. History Grain elevators are a common sight in the grain-growing areas of the world such as the North American Prairies Larger terminal elevators are Lake freighters, or Lakers, are Cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. 
Abraham Lincoln visited Buffalo on February 16, 1861, on his way to accept the presidency of the United States. He stayed at the American Hotel on Main Street between Eagle Street and Court Street.  The Civil War years saw a great increase in the population of Buffalo it increased from 81,029 to 94,210 in 1865. The Niagara Steam Forge Works manufactured turret parts for the ironclad ship USS Monitor. An ironclad was a steam-propelled Warship of the later 19th century protected by Iron or Steel armor plates Design Monitor was one of three ironclad warships ordered by the U 
At the start of the 20th Century, immigrants from Europe came in to work in the local mills which used hydroelectric power generated from the river. Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by Hydropower, ie the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling water The city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting used.  In 1881, Buffalo had deployed the first electric street lights in the United States. It was also part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builder Seven Little Buffaloes early in the century. The automotive Brass Era is the first period of automotive manufacturing named for the prominent Brass Fittings used during this time for such things as lights and 
President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on Sept. William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last The William McKinley Assassination occurred on September 6, 1901, at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York. The Pan-American Exposition was a World's Fair held in Buffalo New York, United States, from May 1 through November 2, 1901 6, 1901. He died in the city eight days later and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as the 26th President of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T
The link to Fort Erie, known as the Peace Bridge, was opened in 1927. Fort Erie National Historic Site was the first British fort to be constructed as part of a network developed after the Seven Years' War (or in the United States This article is about the Peace Bridge between Canada and USA
With the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1957, which cut the city off from the normal trade routes, loss of manufacturing jobs, and the nation-wide trend of suburbanization, the city's economy and capital began to slide like much of the Rust Belt. The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of Canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes Suburbanization (or suburbanisation) is a term used to describe the process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe The Rust Belt, sometimes called the Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Northeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States, and portions of the The city, which peaked at more than half a million people in the 1950s, has seen its population decline by almost 50 percent as industries shut down and people either left for the suburbs or to other cities.
Like many cities across the country, Buffalo is experiencing new development in the 2000s. Economic development in the city was marked at $4 billion in 2007 compared to a $50 million average for the previous ten years.  New proposals and renovations were numerous, especially in the downtown area. Buffalo ranked 83rd on the Forbes best cities for jobs list, an increase from the previous year and a higher ranking than New York City. Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly The City of New York With the approval of the Buffalo City Tower at 600 feet (180 m), the city will also have a new tallest building in 2010. Buffalo City Tower as approved is a 40-story mixed-use tower aiming to be the tallest in downtown Buffalo being developed
Buffalo is located on the eastern end of Lake Erie, opposite Fort Erie, Ontario in Canada, and at the beginning of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls and into Lake Ontario. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally Fort Erie (2006 population 29925 is a Town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Niagara Falls are massive Waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 5 square miles (136. 0 km²). 105. 2 km² (40. 6 sq mi) of it is land and 30. 8 km² (11. 9 sq mi) of it is water. The total area is 22. 66% water.
Buffalo has the sunniest and driest summers of any major city in the Northeast, but still has enough rain to keep vegetation green and lush. The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants  Summers are marked by plentiful sunshine and moderate humidity and temperature. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. It receives, on average, over 65% of possible sunshine in June, July and August. Obscured by the notoriety of Buffalo's winter snow is the fact that Buffalo benefits from other lake effects such as the cooling southwest breezes off Lake Erie in summer that gently temper the warmest days. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally As a result, the Buffalo station of the National Weather Service has never recorded an official temperature greater than 99 degrees F. Rainfall is moderate but typically occurs at night. The stabilizing effect of Lake Erie continues to inhibit thunderstorms and enhance sunshine in the immediate Buffalo area through most of July. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally August usually has more showers and is hotter and more humid as the warmer lake loses its temperature-stabilizing influence.
Buffalo has a reputation for snowy winters. The region experiences a fairly humid, continental-type climate, but with a definite maritime flavor due to strong modification from the Great Lakes. Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the Climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The transitional seasons are very brief in Buffalo and Western New York.
Winters in Western New York are generally cold and snowy, but are changeable and include frequent thaws and rain as well. A winter storm is an event in which the dominant varieties of precipitation are forms that only occur at cold Temperatures such as Snow or Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to Winters can also be quite long in Western New York, usually spanning from mid-November to early April. Snow covers the ground more often than not from late December into early March, but periods of bare ground are not uncommon. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Over half of the annual snowfall comes from the lake effect process and is very localized. Lake-effect snow is produced in the winter when cold Arctic winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water providing energy and picking up Water vapor which freezes Lake effect snow occurs when cold air crosses the relatively warm lake waters and becomes saturated, creating clouds and precipitation downwind. A cloud is a visible mass of droplets or frozen crystals floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another Planetary body In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Due to the prevailing winds, areas south of Buffalo receive much more lake effect snow than locations to the north. The lake snow machine starts as early as mid-October, peaks in December, then virtually shuts down after Lake Erie freezes in mid to late January. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The most well-known snow storm in Buffalo's history, the Great Lakes Blizzard of 1977, resulted from a combination of lake effect snow and high winds. The Blizzard of ‘77 was a deadly Blizzard that hit Buffalo, New York and the area around it in New York and Ontario (and to a lesser Snow does not typically impair the city's operation, but did cause significant damage as with the October 2006 storm. The October 2006 Buffalo storm was an unusual early-season Lake effect snow storm that hit the Buffalo New York area and other surrounding areas of the United States
|Est. 2006||276,059||−5. 7%|
|Historical Population Figures|
Like most formerly industrial cities of the Great Lakes region, Buffalo has suffered through several decades of population decline brought about by the loss of its industrial base. The city's population peaked in 1950, when it was the 15th largest city in the United States. Its population has declined in every year since, particularly during the late 1970s and early 1980s, when the city lost nearly one-third of its population in only five years. The demographic change and the impact of such change on the industrial cities of the region, including Buffalo, is significant; based on the 2006 US Census estimate, Buffalo's current population is equivalent to its population in the year 1890, reversing nearly 120 years of demographic change.
At that time of the 2000 census there were 292,648 people, 122,720 households, and 67,005 families residing in the city. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many Social, Microeconomic and Government models Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence The population density is 7,205. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 8 people per square mile (2,782. 4/km²). There are 145,574 housing units at an average density of 3,584. House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings. 4/sq mi (1,384. 1/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 54. 43% White, 37. 23% African American, 0. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa 77% Native American, 1. 40% Asian, 0. 04% Pacific Islander, 3. 68% from other races, and 2. 45% from two or more races. 7. 54% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent, which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America The top 5 largest ancestries include German (13. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry 6%), Irish (12. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. 2%), Italian (11. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship 7%), Polish (11. A Polish American is an American citizen of Polish descent There are an estimated 10 million Americans of Polish descent 7%), and English (4. English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo -Americans although this may have a wider cultural meaning are Citizens of the United States whose ancestry 0%). 
There were 122,720 households out of which 28. 6% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 27. 6% are married couples living together, 22. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** 3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 45. 4% are non-families. 37. 7% of all households are made up of individuals and 12. 1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2. 29 and the average family size is 3. 07.
In the city the population included 26. 3% under the age of 18, 11. 3% from 18 to 24, 29. 3% from 25 to 44, 19. 6% from 45 to 64, and 13. 4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 88. 6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 83. 5 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $24,536, and the median income for a family is $30,614. The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of Households earning less Males have a median income of $30,938 versus $23,982 for females. The per capita income for the city is $14,991. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country 26. 6% of the population and 23. 0% of families are below the poverty line. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country Out of the total population, 38. 4% of those under the age of 18 and 14. 0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Buffalo has very sizable populations of Irish, Italian, Polish, German, Jewish, Greek, Arab American and African descent. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship A Polish American is an American citizen of Polish descent There are an estimated 10 million Americans of Polish descent German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry American Jews, or Jewish Americans A Greek American (Ελληνοαμερικανοί Ellinoamerikani) is a citizen of the United States, who is of Greek heritage or origin African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Major ethnic neighborhoods still exist but they changed significantly in the second half of the twentieth century. Traditionally, Polish-Americans were the predominant occupants of the East Side, while Italian-Americans composed a close-knit neighborhood in the west side. A Polish American is an American citizen of Polish descent There are an estimated 10 million Americans of Polish descent An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship The East Side is now a predominantly African American neighborhood, while the West Side has become a melting pot of many ethnicities, with Latino culture being the strongest influence. The melting pot is an analogy for the way in which homogeneous societies develop in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures races and religions are Throughout the history of Buffalo, the neighborhoods collectively called the First Ward, as well as much of South Buffalo, have been comprised almost entirely of people of Irish descent. When the city of Houston was founded in 1836 and incorporated in 1837 its founders&mdash John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman Allen &mdashdivided it into political (latlon South Buffalo is a predominantly Irish American neighborhood which makes up the southern third of Buffalo New York. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate Recently, there has been an influx of inhabitants that are of Arab descent, mainly from Yemen. Since the 1950s and 1960s, the greater portion of the Jewish population has moved to the suburban areas outside of the city. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California.
As of 2006, Erie and Niagara Counties had a combined estimated population of 1,154,378. County of Erie, commonly referred to as Erie County, is a county located in the U Niagara (electoral district Niagara County is a County located in the U  The racial makeup of the area is 82. 2% White, 13% African American, 0. White is a Color, the perception which is evoked by Light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive Cone cells in the Human eye African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa 6% Native American, 1. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States 32% Asian, 3. 3% Hispanic, and 1. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically 4% of all other races. In the metropolitan area, 39. 68% of people are under the age of 18 or over the age of 64, and the median age is 38. Of the total population, 82. 88% have a high school diploma and 23. A high school diploma is a Diploma awarded for the completion of High school. 2% have obtained a Bachelor's degree. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and The median income for a household is $48,400 and the per capita income for the area is just under $39,000. Approximately 8% of the population is below the poverty line.
Like the rest of New York, Buffalo is subject to the state’s benchmark evaluation system. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Buffalo Public Schools curriculum is aligned to state standards set by the Education Department. The Buffalo Public Schools in Buffalo, New York are going through a transitional phase The New York State Education Department is the state Education department in New York State. At the high school level, students are required to pass Regents Examinations for each course upon its completion. High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution Regents High School examinations, or simply The Regents, are exams given to students seeking high school Regents credit through the New York State Education Department Currently, there are 78 public schools in the city including a growing number of charter schools. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and Charter schools are elementary or secondary schools in the United States that receive public money but As of 2006, the total enrollment was 41,089 students with a student-teacher ratio of 13. Student-Teacher ratio refers to the number of teachers in a School or University with respect to the number of students who attend the institution 5 to 1. The dropout rate is just 5. 3%, and 83% of students who graduate go on to college. More than 27% of teachers have a Master's degree or higher and the median amount of experience in the field is 15 years. When considering the entire metropolitan area, there are a total of 292 schools educating 172,854 students.  Buffalo is noted for its model magnet school system attracting students with special interests, which include science, bilingual studies, and Native American studies. A magnet school is a School which offers specialized courses or curricula. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Native American Studies (or American Indian or Indigenous American or First Nations studies is an interdisciplinary academic field that examines the history culture politics issues Specialized facilities include the Buffalo Elementary School of Technology; the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. , Multicultural Institute; the International School; the Dr. An International school is loosely defined as a School that does not require their students to learn the national or local language of the country the school is located in Charles R. Drew Science Magnet School; Build Academy; Leonardo da Vinci High School Buffalo; the Buffalo Academy for the Visual and Performing Arts, BAVPA; the Riverside Institute of Technology; Lafayette High School/Buffalo Academy of Finance; Hutchinson Central Technical High School; South Park High School and the Emerson School of Hospitality. Lafayette High School is the oldest public school in Buffalo that remains in its original building a stone brick and terra-cotta structure in the French Renaissance Revival The City Honors School was recently ranked #8 in the nation by Newsweek magazine. City Honors School at Fosdick-Masten Park (City Honors or CHS is a rigorous college preparatory school in Buffalo, New York. Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. Buffalo is currently in the process of a $1 billion city school rebuilding plan.
The city is home to 47 private schools while the metropolitan region has 150 institutions. For the film of this title see Private School (film. Private schools, or Independent schools are Schools not administered Most private schools have a Roman Catholic affiliation including St. Mary's High School, Bishop Timon - St. Jude High School, St. Francis High School, Canisius High School , Nardin Academy,St. Joseph's Collegiate Institute, and Cardinal O'Hara High School. Bishop Timon - St Jude High School is a Roman Catholic Franciscan private High school for young men located at 601 McKinley Parkway in South Saint Francis High School may refer to St Francis de Sales High School (Toledo Ohio Saint Francis High School (La Cañada Flintridge Canisius High School is a Roman Catholic Jesuit private High school for young men located at 1180 Delaware Avenue in Buffalo New York Nardin Academy was founded by the Daughters of the Heart of Mary in 1857. St Joseph's Collegiate Institute, founded in 1861, is an independent Roman Catholic College preparatory school for young men However, there are schools affiliated with other religions such as Islam and Judaism. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut There are also many nonsectarian options including The Park School of Buffalo, The Buffalo Seminary (the only private, nonsectarian, all-girls school in WNY)  , and The Nichols School. Nonsectarian, in its most literal sense refers to a lack of Sectarianism. The Park School of Buffalo is a private college preparatory school located north of Buffalo, New York. Nichols School is a private Co-educational college- preparatory school located in Buffalo New York, USA.
Complementing its standard function, the Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division provides education and services to adults throughout the community.  In addition, the Career and Technical Education Department offers more than 20 academic programs, and is attended by about 6,000 students each year. 
Buffalo is home to four State University of New York (SUNY) institutions. Buffalo State College, a comprehensive college, and the University at Buffalo, one of the four University Centers in the SUNY system. Buffalo State College, often referred to colloquially as Buff State, is a public Liberal arts college in Buffalo New York and is part of the State University of New York at Buffalo, commonly known as University at Buffalo (UB is a Coeducational public research University, which Each is the largest institution of its type in the system. Combined, they account for roughly 40,000 students in the area. Two smaller SUNY institutions are Niagara County Community College, and Erie Community College, both of which share the #1 and #2 transfer rate of students moving on to larger schools. Niagara County Community College is located in Sanborn New York, USA northeast of the City of Niagara Falls. Erie Community College is a two-year Community college that is part of the 64-campus SUNY system
Other academic institutions in Buffalo or its suburbs include: Bryant & Stratton College, Canisius College, D'Youville College, Daemen College, Empire State College, Hilbert College, Houghton College, Medaille College, Trocaire College, Villa Maria College, Niagara University
The Buffalo area is also home to the The Gow School ,The Gow School is a college prep boarding school for young men, grades 7 to 12, with dyslexia and similar language-based learning disabilities including: central auditory processing disorder, dyscalculia and LD written expression
Buffalo and the surrounding area were long involved in railroad commerce, steel manufacture, automobile production, Great Lakes shipping and grain storage. Bryant & Stratton College is a proprietary college with campuses in New York, Ohio, Virginia and Wisconsin. Canisius College (kəˈniːʃəs is a private Catholic College in the Delaware Park district of north-central Buffalo New York. D'Youville College is a private coeducational College, independent but with a Roman Catholic tradition Daemen College is located on Main Street in Amherst New York. Empire State College, one of the thirteen arts and science colleges of the State University of New York, is a multi-site institution that offers higher education Hilbert College is located in the Town of Hamburg, south of Buffalo New York. Houghton College is a 4-year Christian Liberal arts college affiliated with the Wesleyan Church. Medaille College is a private coeducational four-year college located in central Buffalo, New York. Trocaire College is a Coeducational Junior college specializing in health care training located in Buffalo, New York. Villa Maria College is a College located in Cheektowaga, New York, USA Niagara University is a Roman Catholic university in the Vincentian tradition located in the Town of Lewiston in Niagara County New York The Gow School is an independent boarding school for boys grades 7-12 diagnosed with Dyslexia and other Learning Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Most of these industries have left the city through the years. Major steel production no longer exists in the area, although several smaller steel mills remain in operation. For example, Gibraltar Industries, a leading manufacturer, processor, and distributor of steel products for the building, industrial, and vehicular markets is headquartered in Buffalo.
In addition, Ford maintains operation of its Buffalo Stamping Plant south of the city, and Chevrolet has two plants, a production plant in Tonawanda near the city line, and a tool and die plant in the city. Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following Chevrolet (ˌʃɛvroʊˈleɪ - French origin (also known as Chevy) is a Brand of Automobile, produced by General Motors (GM For other places with a similar name see Tonawanda, New York. A die is a specialized Tool used in Manufacturing industries to cut shape and form a wide variety of products and components The windshield wiper was invented in Buffalo, and the Trico company still operates some facilities there. A windscreen wiper ( windshield wiper in North America) is a device used to wipe Rain and dirt from a Windscreen. Trico is an American company that specializes in windshield wipers For many years, Buffalo was the nation's second largest rail center, with Chicago being the first. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.
The traditional reputation of Buffalo as "blue collar" industrial town really no longer applies however, as much of this industry has left the area. The regional economy can now best be described as a mix of industrial, light manufacturing, high technology and service-oriented private sector companies. Instead of relying on a single industry or sector for its economic future, the region has taken a diversified approach that has created opportunities for growth and expansion in the 21st century.
Overall, employment in Buffalo has shifted as its population has declined and manufacturing has left. Buffalo's 2005 unemployment rate of 6. 6% was 32% higher than New York State's 5. 0% rate.  And from the fourth quarter of 2005 to the fourth quarter of 2006, Erie County had no net job growth, ranking it 271st among the 326 largest counties in the country.  Yet the area has recently seen an upswing in job growth as unemployment has dropped to only 4. 9% in July 2007 from 5. 2% in 2006 and 6. 6% in 2005.  The area's manufacturing jobs have continued to show the largest losses in jobs with over 17,000 fewer than at the start of 2006. Yet other sectors of the economy have outdistanced manufacturing and are seeing large increases. Educational and health services added over 30,400 jobs in 2006 and over 20,500 jobs have been added in the professional and business (mostly finance) arena. 
According to the New York State Department of Labor:
Private sector employment in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metro area increased by 1,700, or 0. 4 percent, to 447,800, over the 12 months ending April 2008. Job gains were centered in professional and business services (+2,000), leisure and hospitality (+1,300), financial activities (+1,100), and trade, transportation and utilities (+700). Losses occurred in natural resources, mining and construction (-1,800) and manufacturing (-1,700).
Buffalo has also increasingly become a center for bioinformatics and human genome research, including work by researchers at the University at Buffalo and the Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the field of molecular biology The human genome is the Genome of Homo sapiens, which is stored on 23 chromosome pairs State University of New York at Buffalo, commonly known as University at Buffalo (UB is a Coeducational public research University, which The Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI is a comprehensive Cancer research and treatment center located in Buffalo New York. This consortium is known as the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus. The Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus is a 100 acre (400000 m² medical campus in downtown Buffalo New York, dedicated to developing clinical research and academic excellence It also includes: Buffalo Hearing & Speech Center, Buffalo Medical Group Foundation, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Kaleida Health, Olmsted Center for the Visually Impaired, and Upstate New York Transplant Services. The Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute (HWI is an independent not-for-profit Biomedical research facility located in the heart of downtown Buffalo New York
Entrepreneurial resources and life science business consultants accelerate the growth and development of emerging companies found within the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus and Upstate New York Region. The Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus is a 100 acre (400000 m² medical campus in downtown Buffalo New York, dedicated to developing clinical research and academic excellence For example, Buffalo BioSciences is a technology commercialization partner to the New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics & Life Sciences and contributed to the launch and early success of Empire Genomics –- a firm based on research conducted at Roswell Park Cancer Institute by Dr. Norma Nowak enabling the delivery of personalized medicine.
Buffalo is the headquarters of M&T Bank, a Fortune 500 company with assets over $65B as of December 31, 2007. Please do not add the complete list of fortune 500 companies The list is copyrighted by Fortune which makes money by selling the content HSBC Bank USA also has major operations in Buffalo (The sports arena, which hosts the Buffalo Sabres NHL franchise, is named HSBC Arena). HSBC Bank USA NA, the United States subsidiary of the HSBC Holdings plc, is a bank with its head office in New York City. The Buffalo Sabres are a professional Ice hockey team based in Buffalo New York. The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America Other banks, such as Bank of America and KeyBank, have corporate operations in Buffalo, and Citigroup has recently announced it will soon follow in Amherst, Buffalo's largest suburb. Banc of America Securities Bank of America () is the largest bank by asset and second largest commercial Bank by deposits and Market capitalization in United KeyBank ( is a Bank headquartered in the Key Tower in Cleveland, Ohio. Amherst is a Town in Erie County, New York, US, directly northeast of the City of Buffalo. Geico also has a regional office in Amherst. The Government Employees Insurance Company, usually known by the Acronym GEICO, is an American Auto insurance company Amherst is a Town in Erie County, New York, US, directly northeast of the City of Buffalo.
Another successful industry in Buffalo is debt collection. There are six major firms located in Buffalo and the surrounding area. New Era Cap Company, the largest sports-licensed headwear company in the United States, is based in Buffalo. The New Era Cap Company (or just New Era) located in Buffalo, New York, is a Headwear manufacturer They opened new headquarters in 2007 in the former Federal Reserve Building in downtown Buffalo.
When it comes to food and beverage industry, Buffalo is home to both Rich Products, one of the world's largest family-owned food manufacturers, and the American headquarters of InBev, the world's largest producer of beer. Rich Products Corporation (also known as Rich's is a privately held international food products corporation headquartered in Buffalo New York. For the proposed merged company see Proposed merger of Anheuser-Busch and InBev. Labatt moved its US headquarters to Buffalo in May 2007. Labatt Brewing Company Ltd is a Canadian beer company founded by John Kinder Labatt in 1847 in London Ontario. This is in large part due to Buffalo's location directly in the middle of the Northeastern Trade Corridor. The city is the heart of the Canadian-American corridor. Over 80% of all U. S. -Canada trade occurs via border crossings in the eastern United States and with five bridges to Canada, the Buffalo area is one of the key eastern border crossing locations.
Top 10 Private Sector Employers in Western New York - 2008
|Kaleida Health||Health Care||10,000|
|HSBC Bank USA N.A.||Commercial Bank||5,848|
|Catholic Health System||Health Care||4,949|
|Employer Services Corp. HSBC Bank USA NA, the United States subsidiary of the HSBC Holdings plc, is a bank with its head office in New York City.||Employment-related services||4,880|
|M&T Bank||Commercial Bank||4,820|
|Tops Markets LLC||Supermarket Retailer||4,673|
|Seneca Gaming Corp. Tops is an American Supermarket chain based in Williamsville, New York, with stores in the western and central regions||Entertainment||4,020|
|Catholic Diocese of Buffalo||Parishes, schools, and institutions||3,700|
|Wegmans Food Markets Inc. Wegmans Food Markets Inc is a 79-store US regional Supermarket chain with stores in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,||Supermarket Retailer||3,288|
|Roswell Park Cancer Institute||Hospital||2,699|
Note: Delphi is no longer included in the list as it employs 2,600 as of June, 2008 Buffalo Business First
At the municipal level, the City of Buffalo has a council made up of the mayor and nine councilmen. The Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI is a comprehensive Cancer research and treatment center located in Buffalo New York. The municipal government of the City of Buffalo consist of an elected council made of a mayor and 9 common councilmembers This is a list of mayors of Buffalo New York. List of mayors Mayoral Elections (winners are in bold) Administrative divisions of New York State differ from those in certain other countries and most U A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government A city council is a form of Local government, usually covering a City or other Urban area, such as a Town. Buffalo also serves as the seat of Erie County with 27 county representatives. County of Erie, commonly referred to as Erie County, is a county located in the U At the state level, there are three state assemblymen and two state senators in the Buffalo area. The New York State Assembly is the Lower house of the New York Legislature, the state legislature of the U The New York State Senate is one of two houses in the New York State Legislature and has members each elected to two-year terms At the federal level, Buffalo is represented by three members of the House of Representatives. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.
In a trend common to Northern "Rust Belt" regions, political activities in Buffalo have been dominated by The Democratic Party for the last half-century, though its longest serving mayor of the past half-century, James Griffin, switched political affiliations several times and most frequently attained electoral victory from socially conservative platforms. The Rust Belt, sometimes called the Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Northeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States, and portions of the The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. This article is about the former politician for other James Griffins or Jimmy Griffins see James Griffin (disambiguation. In 2005, Kevin Helfer, the city's first major conservative mayoral candidate in over 40 years, defeated Byron Brown by a 2-1 margin in the Conservative Party primary. Byron W Brown was elected on November 8, 2005 as the 58th Mayor of Buffalo New York; He is the first African American mayor elected to The Conservative Party of New York is an American Political party active only in the state of New York. Despite this, voters ultimately chose Brown, making him the city's first African-American mayor. Union support bolstered Brown's campaign, ultimately providing a substantial fundraising and volunteer effort. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
Buffalo consists of 32 different neighborhoods: Allentown, Bailey-Lovejoy, Black Rock, Central Park, Cold Springs, Delaware District, Downtown, East Side, Elmwood Village, Fillmore-Leroy, First Ward, Fruit Belt, Hamlin Park, Hospital Hill, Humboldt Park, Kaisertown, Kensington, Kensington Heights, Lower West Side, Masten Park, North Buffalo, North Park, Parkside, Polonia, Riverside, Schiller Park, South Buffalo, University District, University Heights, Vernon Triangle, Upper West Side, and Willert Park. The Allentown district is a neighborhood in Buffalo New York. Black Rock, once an independent community is now a neighborhood of the northwest section of the city of Buffalo New York. North Buffalo is a neighborhood in the city of Buffalo New York. Riverside is a neighborhood of Buffalo New York, located in the northwestern part of the city along the Niagara River. (latlon South Buffalo is a predominantly Irish American neighborhood which makes up the southern third of Buffalo New York. The University Heights District is a neighborhood in Buffalo New York. The Upper West Side is a neighborhood in Buffalo New York. Geography The Upper West Side is bounded on the north by the Scajaquada Expressway and the Buffalo
According to the American Planning Association the Elmwood Village neighborhood in Buffalo is ranked the third best neighborhood in America. The American Planning Association (APA is a professional organization representing the field of city and regional planning in the United States.  Elmwood Village is a mixed use neighborhood with hundreds of small, home grown stores and restaurants.
One of Buffalo's many monikers is the City of Trees, which describes the abundance of green in the city. The Buffalo New York public parks and parkways system is the United States ' oldest coordinated system of such recreational spaces designed by Frederick Law The Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens are Botanical gardens located at 2655 South Park Avenue Buffalo New York, USA. In fact, Buffalo has more than 20 parks with multiple ones being accessible from any part of the city.
The Olmsted Park and Parkway System is the hallmark of Buffalo’s many green spaces. Olmsted Park is a linear Park in Boston and Brookline, Massachusetts, and a part of Boston's Emerald Necklace of connected parks Three-fourths of city park land is part of the system, which comprises six major parks, eight connecting parkways, nine circles and seven smaller spaces. Begun in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted and his partner Calvert Vaux, the system was integrated into the city and marks the first attempt in America to lay out a coordinated system of public parks and parkways. Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Calvert Vaux ( December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an architect and landscape designer The Olmsted designed portions of the Buffalo park system are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and are maintained by the Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of
Situated at the confluence of Lake Erie and the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers, Buffalo is a waterfront city. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally For other rivers with this name see Buffalo River. The Buffalo River is a River that empties into the eastern end of Lake Erie The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The city’s rise to economic power came through its waterways in the form of transshipment, manufacturing, and an endless source of energy. Transshipment or Transhipment is the Shipment of goods to an intermediate destination and then from there to yet another destination Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale Buffalo’s waterfront is still a hub of commerce, trade, and industry that is essential to its economic prosperity.
Buffalo's waterfront is being transformed from its industrial past into a focal point for social and recreational activity. A literal focal point, viewed from above, is a marina taking the shape of a buffalo (located near the junction of the Buffalo Skyway NY 5 and the New York State Thruway I-190. New York State Route 5 is a 37087 mile (59686 km long New York State Route that runs between the New York / Pennsylvania border at the Town New York State Route 5 is a 37087 mile (59686 km long New York State Route that runs between the New York / Pennsylvania border at the Town The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll Highway in the U Interstate 190 (abbreviated I-190) runs 2834 miles (4561 km from I-90 near Buffalo New York to Lewiston New York via Niagara Falls
The loss of traditional jobs in manufacturing, rapid suburbanization and high costs of labor have led to economic decline, making Buffalo one of the poorest amongst U. S. cities with populations of more than 250,000 people. An estimated 30% of Buffalo residents live below the poverty line, second only to Detroit.  Buffalo's median household income of $27,850 is third-lowest among large cities, behind only Miami and Cleveland; however the median household income for the metropolitan area is $57,000. 
This, in part, has led to the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area having the most affordable housing market in the U. The Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties &ndash Erie and S. today. The quarterly NAHB/Wells Fargo Housing Opportunity Index (HOI) noted that nearly 90% of the new and existing homes sold in the metropolitan area during the second quarter were affordable to families making the area's median income of $57,000. The area median price of homes was $75,000. This high affordability within the housing market combined with the metropolitan area's short commute time and cultural offerings such as the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra or professional sports teams such as the Buffalo Sabres or Buffalo Bills offer area residents a good quality of life. The Albright-Knox Art Gallery is a major showplace for Modern art and Contemporary art located in Buffalo New York. The Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra is an American orchestra located in Buffalo New York. The Buffalo Sabres are a professional Ice hockey team based in Buffalo New York. The Buffalo Bills are a professional American football team based in the Buffalo New York Metropolitan area, playing seven of their home games in the suburb
Buffalo faces issues with vacant and abandoned houses, as the city ranks second only to St. Louis on the list of American cities with the most vacant properties per capita. Since 2000, the city has torn down 2,000 vacant homes but as many as 10,000 still remain. Mayor Byron W. Brown recently unveiled a $100 million, five-year plan to rip down 5,000 more houses.  However an overwhelming majority of these houses are in Buffalo's east side, a predominately African American community. The city's move away from hard industry and toward a service and bioinformatics industry has led to an improving environment which has allowed area residents to further enjoy the area's natural offerings that include two Great Lakes, the Niagara River, and Alleghany Mountains. In July 2005, Reader's Digest ranked Buffalo as the third cleanest large city in the nation. Reader's Digest is a monthly general-interest family Magazine co-founded in 1922 by Lila Bell Wallace and DeWitt Wallace. 
The most common of its monikers The Queen City first appeared in print in the 1840s, referring to the city being the second largest city in New York State behind New York City. The Queen City had also been used during the 1800s to describe Buffalo as the second largest American city on the Great Lakes after Chicago. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Buffalo has also been called The Nickel City due to the appearance of a bison on the back of Indian Head nickel in the early part of the 20th century. The United States five- cent Coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of Currency equaling one-twentieth or five hundredths of a The City of Good Neighbors refers to the helpful, friendly spirit of its inhabitants. Buffalo was also known in the 1980s as The City of No Illusions, due in part to a t-shirt campaign by local stores.  In the early 20th century, the city began calling itself the City of Light because of the plentiful hydroelectric power made possible by nearby Niagara Falls. The Niagara Falls are massive Waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario 
Buffalo was first settled by New Englanders and a small but influential number of African Americans. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The first wave of European immigrants was a large influx of Germans. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry The city was further populated by Irish immigrants escaping famine, and infused by Polish, Italian and Sicilian, Jewish, and more recently Latino populations, all of which have made it a melting pot of ethnic cultures. Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánach are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in Ireland. A Polish American is an American citizen of Polish descent There are an estimated 10 million Americans of Polish descent An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship American Jews, or Jewish Americans The melting pot is an analogy for the way in which homogeneous societies develop in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures races and religions are The newest immigrants are from Somalia, Asia, and the Arab world. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. They include sub-ethnic groups such as Chinese Americans Filipino Americans Indian An Arab American is a United States citizen or resident of Arab cultural and linguistic heritage and/or Identity whose ancestry traces back to any of various
The old First Ward in South Buffalo retains a strong Irish identity, and Kaisertown reflects a German heritage. (latlon South Buffalo is a predominantly Irish American neighborhood which makes up the southern third of Buffalo New York. The city's East Side was once home of Buffalo's Polonia centered around the Broadway Market, a microcosm of Polish/Slavic traditions and food delicacies. Polonia, the name for Poland in Latin and many Romance and other languages refers in modern Polish to the Polish Diaspora The East Side is now home to African Americans who came north during the Great Migration. See also Second Great Migration (African American The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African-Americans out of the The Juneteenth Festival of Buffalo, NY is an important component for Black-Americans of summertime events in the Buffalo-Niagara region. Juneteenth, also known as Freedom Day or Emancipation Day, is an official annual holiday in 29 Twelve other states list it as an official holiday including 
The West Side is home to the city's Hispanic community, predominantly of Puerto Rican descent. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically The West Side was once home to Buffalo's "Little Italy," but in the 1980s much of Buffalo's Italian American heritage shifted to North Buffalo. There is also a small Italian-American enclave in the East Side neighborhood of Lovejoy. The Sicilian custom of preparing St. Joseph's Day (March 19) tables, at which various meatless Lenten courses are laid out for the poor, continues in many Buffalo households as well as in some churches and restaurants. Saint Joseph's Day, 19 March, the Feast of St Joseph or Solemnity of Saint Joseph is in Western Christianity the principal feast day of Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. Lent, in some Christian denominations, is the forty-day-long liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter.
Buffalo is also home to a sizable Jewish community. American Jews, or Jewish Americans German Jews immigrants originally settled on Buffalo's West Side in the mid-1800s. Jews have lived in Germany, or " Ashkenaz " at least since the early 4th century, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of Less well-off Russian Jews and Polish Jews immigrating to the Niagara Frontier in the early 1900s initially settled on the lower East Side, near William Street and Jefferson Avenue. The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over a Millennium. The Niagara Frontier refers to the stretch of land south of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie and extending westward to Cleveland Ohio. William Street may refer to William Street Brisbane in Queensland Australia William Street Melbourne in Victoria Australia Jefferson Avenue is a scenic road along the eastern part of the Detroit metropolitan area in the U The community migrated to the Masten Park neighborhood on the East Side, and then to North Buffalo between the 1940s and the 1960s. Although many still live in the city, particularly in North Buffalo and the Delaware District on the city's West Side, the majority of the Buffalo area's approximately 26,400 Jews now live in the northeastern suburbs of Amherst and Williamsville where the two Jewish Day Schools are located, Kadima Hebrew Day School and Jewish Heritage/Torah U'Masorah Day School. Amherst is a Town in Erie County, New York, US, directly northeast of the City of Buffalo. Williamsville is a Village in Erie County New York in the United States. Buffalo's Jewish Community centers are located in the Delaware District and Amherst. A Jewish Community Center ( JCC) is a general recreational social and fraternal organization serving the Jewish community in a number of
Distancing itself from its industrial past, Buffalo is redefining itself as a cultural, banking, educational, and medical center and the city was named by Reader's Digest as the third cleanest city (environmentally) in the United States in 2005. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Reader's Digest is a monthly general-interest family Magazine co-founded in 1922 by Lila Bell Wallace and DeWitt Wallace. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  In 2001 USA Today named Buffalo the winner of its "City with a Heart" contest, proclaiming it the nation's "friendliest city. USA TODAY is a national American daily Newspaper published by the Gannett Company. " Also, n 1996 and 2002, Buffalo won the All-America City Award. The All-America City Award is given by the National Civic League annually to ten cities in the United States. 
As a melting pot of cultures, cuisine in the Buffalo area reflects a variety of cultures. A kummelweck, or sometimes kimmelweck or even kümmelweck, is a salty roll that is popular in Western New York Cuisine (from French cuisine, "cooking culinary art kitchen" ultimately from Latin coquere, "to cook" is a specific set These include Italian, Jewish, German, Polish, African American, Greek and American influences. Italian cuisine as a national Cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political changes with its roots traced back to 4th century BC Jewish cuisine is a collection of international Cookery traditions linked by Jewish Dietary laws ( Kashrus) and Jewish holiday traditions German cuisine varies greatly from region to region The southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share many dishes among them and with their neighbours to the south Polish cuisine (kuchnia polska is a mixture of Slavic culinary traditions Soul food is an American Cuisine, a selection of Foods and is the traditional cuisine of African-Americans of the Southern United States and of The Greek cuisine ( Greek: Ελληνική Κουζίνα is Greece's traditional Cuisine, a typical Mediterranean cuisine Contemporary The cuisine of the United States is a style of food preparation derived from the United States. Beef on Weck, Wardynski's kielbasa, Sahlen's hot dogs, sponge candy, pierogi, and haddock fish fries are among the local favorites, as is a loganberry-flavored beverage that remains relatively obscure outside of the Western New York and Southern Ontario area. A kummelweck, or sometimes kimmelweck or even kümmelweck, is a salty roll that is popular in Western New York Kielbasa comes from the Polish word kiełbasa for traditional Polish sausage. A hot dog is a type of fully-cooked cured and/or smoked moist Sausage of soft even texture and flavor Sponge toffee is a sugary confection with a light rigid foam-like texture Pierogi (also perogi, perogy, pirohi, piroghi, pirogi, pirogen, pierogy, pidahih,--> or Fish and chips (sometimes written " fish ’n’ chips " is a popular Take-away food originating from the United Kingdom. The loganberry ( Rubus × loganobaccus) is a hybrid produced from crossing a Blackberry and a Raspberry. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Weber's mustard is a well known local producer of horseradish mustard which is popular in the Western NY area. Teressa Bellissimo, the chef/owner of the city's Anchor Bar, first prepared the now-widespread Chicken Wings here on October 3, 1964. The Anchor Bar is a restaurant located at 1047 Main at North St The Anchor Bar is a restaurant located at 1047 Main at North St Buffalo wings, chicken wings, hot wings or wings are Chicken wing sections (called Wings or "flats" and drummettes Local or regional chains with a significant presence in the Buffalo area include Louies Hot Dogs(two separate companies with the same name), Ted's Hot Dogs, Anderson's Frozen Custard, Duff's Famous Wings, John & Mary's, Jim's SteakOut, Just Pizza, SPoT Coffee, Tim Hortons, Mighty Taco, and LaNova Pizzeria. Ted's Hot Dogs is a chain of Hot dog Restaurants based in Buffalo, New York. Tim Hortons Inc is a Coffee -and- Doughnut Fast food restaurant chain Mighty Taco is a Mexican -style Fast-food restaurant chain in the Buffalo New York area Buffalo's pizza is also unique, perhaps because Buffalo is geographically located halfway between New York City and Chicago, Illinois, the pizza made is likewise about halfway between thin-crust New York-style pizza and deep-dish Chicago-style pizza. The City of New York Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. New York-style pizza is a common style of Pizza, originating from New York City. Chicago-style pizza is a deep-dish Pizza style developed in Chicago. The city is also home to the Pearl Street Brewery and Flying Bison Brewing Company, who continue Buffalo's brewing traditions. Flying Bison Brewing Company is an American Microbrewery located in Buffalo New York. A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of Beer, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of beer's history Labatt USA, the US operation for Labatt Beer, a Toronto-based brewer, is also headquartered in Buffalo. Labatt Brewing Company Ltd is a Canadian beer company founded by John Kinder Labatt in 1847 in London Ontario. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Twice a summer thousands of Western New Yorkers descend into the city for two food festivals, the Taste of Buffalo and the National Buffalo Wing Festival. National Buffalo Wing Festival is a weekend festival held at Dunn Tire Park in downtown Buffalo, New York celebrating the Buffalo style chicken wing 
Buffalo also has several specialty import/grocery stores in old ethnic neighborhoods, and is home to an eclectic collection of cafes and restaurants that serve adventurous, cosmopolitan fare. Locally-owned restaurants offer Chinese, German, Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Mexican, Italian, Greek, Arab, Indian, Caribbean, Soul Food, and French. Chinese cuisine ( Traditional Chinese: 中國菜 Simplified Chinese: 中国菜 originated from the various regions of China and has become widespread in German cuisine varies greatly from region to region The southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share many dishes among them and with their neighbours to the south Japanese Cuisine has developed over the centuries as a result of many political and social changes Mexican food is a style of food that originated in Mexico. Mexican cuisine is known for its intense and varied flavors colorful decoration and variety of spices Italian cuisine as a national Cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political changes with its roots traced back to 4th century BC The Greek cuisine ( Greek: Ελληνική Κουζίνα is Greece's traditional Cuisine, a typical Mediterranean cuisine Contemporary Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab World from Iraq to Morocco to Somalia to Yemen, and incorporating Caribbean cuisine is a fusion of African, Amerindian, British, Spanish, French, Dutch, Indian. Soul food is an American Cuisine, a selection of Foods and is the traditional cuisine of African-Americans of the Southern United States and of French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France.
Several well-known food companies are based in Buffalo. Non-dairy whipped topping, later imitated by Cool Whip, was invented in Buffalo in 1945 by Robert E. Cool Whip is a brand of imitation Whipped cream called a " Whipped topping " by its manufacturer Rich, Sr. His company, Rich Products, is one of the city's largest private employers. Rich Products Corporation (also known as Rich's is a privately held international food products corporation headquartered in Buffalo New York. General Mills was organized in Buffalo, and Gold Medal brand flour, Wheaties, Cheerios and other General Mills brand cereals are manufactured here. General Mills ( is a Fortune 500 Corporation, mainly concerned with Food products which is headquartered in Golden Valley, Minnesota Wheaties, a wheat and bran mixture baked into flakes is a Breakfast cereal introduced in 1924 and marketed by the General Cheerios is a Brand of Breakfast cereal created on June 19, 1941 and marketed by the General Mills cereal company of One of the country's largest cheese manufacturers, Sorrento, has been here since 1947. Sorrento Lactalis is one of the largest Cheese companies in America. Archer Daniels Midland also operates its largest flour mill in the city. The Archer Daniels Midland Company ( is a conglomerate based in Decatur Illinois.
Buffalo is also home to one of the largest privately held food companies in the world, Delaware North Companies, which operates concessions in sports arenas, stadiums, resorts, and many state & federal parks. Delaware North Companies is an American-based food service and hospitality company headquartered in Buffalo N
Buffalo is home to over 50 private and public art galleries , most notably the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, home to a world-class collection of modern and contemporary art. An art gallery or art museum is a space for the exhibition of art, usually Visual art. The Albright-Knox Art Gallery is a major showplace for Modern art and Contemporary art located in Buffalo New York. History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The local art scene is also enhanced by the Burchfield-Penney Art Center, Hallwalls Contemporary Arts Center, CEPA, and many small galleries and studios. The Burchfield-Penney Art Center is located on the campus of Buffalo State College and was founded in 1966  AmericanStyle ranked Buffalo fourth in its list of America's top art destinations.
Two street festivals - the Allentown Art Festival and the Elmwood Festival of the Arts - bring thousands of people to the city to browse and purchase original crafts. Allentown Art Festival is an annual Arts festival held in the Allentown neighborhood of Buffalo New York. The Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, which performs at Kleinhans Music Hall, is one of the city's most prominent performing arts institutions. The Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra is an American orchestra located in Buffalo New York. Kleinhans Music Hall, home of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, was built in the late 1930s and opened October 1940 Shea's Performing Arts Center, long known as Shea's Buffalo, is an old-style large theatre that continues to show productions and concerts. Shea's Performing Arts Center is a theater for touring Broadway musicals and special events in Buffalo, New York.
Many architectural treasures exist in Buffalo, including:
The country's largest intact parks system designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, including Delaware Park. The Darwin D Martin House Complex, built between 1903 and 1905 and located at 125 Jewett Parkway in Buffalo New York, was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American Calvert Vaux ( December 20, 1824 – November 19, 1895) was an architect and landscape designer Delaware Park is located in Buffalo, New York, USA. It was designed as part of a coordinated system of Parks Parkways and Traffic Buffalo was the first city for which Olmsted designed (in 1869) an interconnected park and parkway system rather than stand-alone parks.
The Guaranty Building, by Louis Sullivan, was one of the first steel-supported, curtain-walled buildings in the world, and its thirteen stories made it, at the time it was built, the tallest building in Buffalo and one of the world's first true skyscrapers. Louis Henri Sullivan (September 4 1856 &ndash April 14 1924 was an American Architect, and has been called the "father of modernism. 
The Hotel Buffalo was the first hotel in the world to feature a private bath in each room.
The H. H. Richardson Complex, originally the State Asylum for the Insane, is Richardsonian Romanesque in style and was the largest commission designed by prominent architect Henry Hobson Richardson. HH Richardson Complex is a recently-coined name for the Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane, a large Medina red sandstone and brick hospital that stands on the grounds Henry Hobson Richardson ( September 29, 1838 &ndash April 27, 1886) was a prominent American Architect of the 19th The grounds of this hospital were also designed by Olmsted. Though currently in a state of disrepair, New York State has allocated funds to restore this treasure.
There are several buildings by Frank Lloyd Wright, including the Darwin Martin House, George Barton House, William Heath House, The Graycliff Estate, as well as the now demolished Larkin Administration Building. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who The George Barton House in Buffalo New York, USA, was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and constructed in 1903 for George Barton, an employee The Larkin Administration Building was designed in 1904 by Frank Lloyd Wright for the Larkin Soap Company of Buffalo New York, at 680 Seneca Street  Currently under construction is the never built boathouse designed by Wright, on Buffalo's Black Rock Canal. Buffalo has more Frank Lloyd Wright buildings than any other city except Chicago. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States.
Other notable buildings:
Last call is at 4 a. In a pub, a last call is an announcement made shortly before the bar closes for the night urging the patrons to buy one last drink. m. in Buffalo, rather than 2 a. m. as in most other areas of the U. S. This is often attributed to the historically high density of industrial facilities and the demand of second and third shift patrons. It is also because New York law allows bars to be open until 4 a. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous m. (However, local municipalities can override it to an earlier time. ) This law was actually designed to accommodate the thriving late nightlife of New York City, but the state's "Second City" has adopted it as well. The City of New York
Several distinct and thriving nightlife districts have grown around clusters of bars and nightclubs in the city. NightLife with Tony Delroy is a popular late night talkback show across ABC Local Radio, Broadcasting from the 702 ABC Sydney studios in Ultimo The most visible nightlife district is West Chippewa Street, located between Main Street and South Elmwood Avenue. The area is home to high-energy dance clubs, crowded bars, trendy coffeehouses, and restaurants. Allentown, where bars are as numerous but the atmosphere is a bit more relaxed, is a several minute walk north to Allen Street. The Allentown district is a neighborhood in Buffalo New York. Allen Street near Main Street houses several gay bars, while Allen near Elmwood has many bars that feature live music. Continuing up Elmwood Avenue from Allentown is the Elmwood Strip, which runs about two miles to Buffalo State College. Buffalo State College, often referred to colloquially as Buff State, is a public Liberal arts college in Buffalo New York and is part of the This strip has numerous small boutiques and restaurants, with few large corporate establishments. Crowds on this strip include everyone from college students to families to the elderly.
The city and surrounding Niagara Region also have an active summer concert schedule, a large portion of which are free and easy to access. The events are well planned and are spaced out through the week. Artpark on Tuesday nights, Buffalo Place on Thursdays, The Canal Concert series is on Saturday nights in Lockport and new for 2008 is a Friday night series on the Erie canal in North Tonawanda.
Buffalo is served by the Buffalo Niagara International Airport, located in Cheektowaga. Lafayette Square (formerly Court House Park or Courthouse Square) The square formerly hosted the original Erie County Courthouse the original Erie County Jail and Buffalo Niagara International Airport is an airport located in the town of Cheektowaga in Erie County, New York. Cheektowaga is a Town (also a Census-designated Place, see below) in Erie County, New York, United States. The airport, recently re-constructed, serves over 5 million passengers a year and is still growing. Buffalo Niagara International Airport ranks among the five cheapest airports from which to fly in the country, according to the U. Buffalo Niagara International Airport is an airport located in the town of Cheektowaga in Erie County, New York. S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. The average round trip flight cost $295. 58.  As of 2006, plans are in the works by U. S. Senator Charles Schumer to make the under-used Niagara Falls International Airport into an international cargo hub for New York and Toronto, as well as Canada as a whole. Charles Ellis "Chuck" Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is the senior U Niagara Falls International Airport is a public-use Airport located four miles (6 km east of the Central business district of Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) operates Buffalo Niagara International Airport and Niagara Falls International Airport, and the public transit system throughout the Buffalo area. Buffalo Niagara International Airport is an airport located in the town of Cheektowaga in Erie County, New York. Niagara Falls International Airport is a public-use Airport located four miles (6 km east of the Central business district of The NFTA operates bus lines throughout the city and suburbs, as well as the 6 mile (9 km) "Metro Rail" light rail transit system in the city. Buffalo Metro Rail is the Public transit rail system in Buffalo New York, USA it is operated by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, or NFTA For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems.
The Metro Rail is a 6 mile long, single line rail that extends from downtown Buffalo to the University Heights district in north Buffalo. Buffalo Metro Rail is the Public transit rail system in Buffalo New York, USA it is operated by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, or NFTA The University Heights District is a neighborhood in Buffalo New York. The downtown section of the line is operated above ground and is free of charge to passengers. Outside the downtown area the line transitions to a below ground system until it reaches the end of the line at University Heights. Passengers must pay a fee to ride the below ground portion of the rail.
Two train stations, Buffalo-Depew and Buffalo-Exchange Street serve the city and are operated by Amtrak. The Buffalo-Depew (BUF Amtrak station is a Train station in Depew New York. The Buffalo-Exchange Street Station (BFX is an Amtrak (former New York Central Railroad) Train station. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 VIA Rail also serves these stations for travel into Canada. VIA Rail Canada (also referred to as VIA Rail and VIA; ˈviːə 'vee-ah' is an independent Crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail
Freight service for Buffalo is served by CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern (NS), as well as Canadian National (CN) and Canadian Pacific (CP) railroads from across the Border. This article is about the present railroad formed in 1990 For the former regional railroad in Virginia and North Carolina a small part of the new one see Norfolk Southern The Canadian Pacific Railway ( The area has 4 large rail yards: Frontier (CSX), Bison (NS), SK (NS / CP) and Buffalo Creek (NS / CSX). A large amount of hazardous cargo also crosses through the Buffalo area, such as liquid propane and anhydrous ammonia. Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor
Buffalo is at the eastern end of Lake Erie, one of the Great Lakes, which boasts the greatest variety of freshwater sportfish in the country. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The Lake serves as a playground for numerous personal yachts, sailboats, power boats and watercraft, and provides a short water route to excellent sand beaches on the nearby Ontario (Canada) shore. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The city has an extensive breakwall system protecting its inner and outer Lake Erie harbors, which are maintained at commercial navigation depths for Great Lakes freighters. Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defence or to protect an anchorage from the effects of Weather and Longshore drift. A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border.
A Lake Erie tributary that flows through south Buffalo is the Buffalo River, for which the city is named. Buffalo River can refer to Buffalo National River (Arkansas a tributary of the White River in the United States Buffalo River (Minnesota Buffalo is historically linked to the fabled Erie Canal, which ends where the Black Rock Channel enters Lake Erie. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally When the Canal was dedicated, New York State governor DeWitt Clinton poured waters from the Atlantic ocean into the Lake at Buffalo's western terminus of the Canal. DeWitt Clinton ( March 2, 1769 Little Britain New York February 11, 1828 Albany New York) was an early American politician Once a major route for passengers and cargo, the Canal is now used primarily for pleasure craft and some light local freight, and in Buffalo it bypasses the swift upper reach of the Niagara River. The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. A tributary of the Niagara River is Scajaquada Creek, which flows though Buffalo, via the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Delaware Lake and Park. The Scajaquada Creek is a small river located in western New York, USA Frederick Law Olmsted ( April 25, 1822 &ndash August 28, 1903) was an American landscape designer and father of American
The offices of the Buffalo District, US Army Corps of Engineers are located adjacent to the Black Rock Lock in the Black Rock channel of the Erie Canal. US Route 20 is the longest surface road in New York. Its 372-mile (599 km segment in the state begins at the Pennsylvania state line near US Route 20A is an east-west Alternate route of US Route 20 stretching 83 US Route 62 runs from the US-Mexico border at El Paso Texas to Niagara Falls New York, near the United States-Canada border. Within the US state of New York, US Route 219 spans from the Pennsylvania state line in the south to the Buffalo suburbs in the The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes In addition to maintaining and operating the lock, the District is responsible for planning, design, construction and maintenance of water resources projects in an area extending from Toledo, Ohio to Massena, New York. This article is about the city in Ohio, USA. For Toledo Spain, see that article There are two places named Massena in St Lawrence County in the U These include the flood-control dam at Mount Morris, New York, oversight of the lower Great Lakes (Erie and Ontario), review and permitting of wetlands construction, and remedial action for hazardous waste sites. The Mount Morris Dam is a concrete Dam on the Genesee River. It is located south of Rochester New York in the town of Mount Morris New York Mount Morris New York refers to two locations in Livingston County New York, both named after Robert Morris, the financier of the American Revolution, The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Buffalo is also the home of a major office of the National Weather Service (NOAA), which serves all of western and much of central New York State. The National Weather Service ( NWS) once known as the Weather Bureau is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Buffalo is also the location of the chief judge, United States Attorney, and administrative offices for the United States District Court for the Western District of New York. United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the United States federal government in United States district court and The United States District Court for the Western District of New York is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties Allegany,
|Football||NFL||Buffalo Bills||1960||Ralph Wilson Stadium|
|Hockey||NHL||Buffalo Sabres||1970||HSBC Arena|
|Baseball||IL||Buffalo Bisons||1979||Dunn Tire Park|
|Lacrosse||NLL||Buffalo Bandits||1992||HSBC Arena|
|Basketball||ABA||Buffalo Sharks||2005||Koessler Athletic Center|
|Basketball||PBL||Buffalo Dragons||2008||Burt Flickinger Center|
|Soccer||NPSL||Queen City FC||2007||All-High Stadium|
Though Buffalo is not a major center of film production, the Buffalo Niagara Film Commission exists to promote and assist with filmmaking in the area. The Buffalo News is the primary Newspaper of the Buffalo New York, Metropolitan area and its surrounding Suburbs It is wholly owned An alternative newspaper is a type of Newspaper that eschews comprehensive coverage of general news in favor of opinionated Reviews and columns A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of The Buffalo Courier-Express was a morning Newspaper in Buffalo New York. The Daily Beast was a newspaper in the 1938 novel Scoop The Beast is a Buffalo New York Left-libertarian Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) is a term that has been adopted by several different libertarian political movements and theorists In addition, the non-profit Buffalo International Film Festival helps to highlight the work of Buffalonians associated with the film industry. Squeaky Wheel, a non-profit media arts center, provides access for local media artists to video and film equipment, as well as screenings of independent and avant-garde films.
There have also been a number films that were set or filmed in the Buffalo area.
|Northwest: Grand Island||North: Kenmore, Tonawanda||Northeast: Amherst|
|West: Fort Erie, Niagara River||Buffalo||East: Sloan, Cheektowaga|
|Southwest: Lake Erie||South: Lackawanna||Southeast: West Seneca|