Buckwheat refers to plants in two genera of the family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus Eriogonum. Conrad Moench ( 1744 - 1805) was a German Botanist, Professor of Botany at the Marburg University from 1786 until his death Polygonaceae is a family of flowering plants also known as the "knotweed family" or "smartweed family" The Genus Fagopyrum in the Flowering plant family Polygonaceae contains 15 to 16 species of plants including two important crop plants Eriogonum is the scientific name for a Genus of Flowering plants, in the family Polygonaceae. The crop plant, common buckwheat, is Fagopyrum esculentum. Tartary buckwheat (F. Tartar Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum) is a domesticated food Plant in the Genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into tataricum Gaertn. ) or "bitter buckwheat" is also used as a crop, but it is much less common. Despite the common name and the grain-like use of the crop, buckwheats are not grasses and are not related to wheat. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. The agricultural weed known as Wild Buckwheat (Fallopia convolvulus) is in the same family, but not closely related to the crop species. Wild Buckwheat ( Fallopia convolvulus, syn Polygonum convolvulus L Within Fagopyrum, the cultivated species are in the cymosum group, with F. cymosum L. (perennial buckwheat), F. giganteum and F. homotropicum.  The wild ancestor of common buckwheat is F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale. F. homotropicum is interfertile with F. esculentum and the wild forms have a common distribution, in Yunnan. The wild ancestor of tartary buckwheat is F. tataricum ssp. potanini. 
The name "buckwheat" or "beech wheat" comes from its triangular seeds, which resemble the much larger seeds of the beech nut from the beech tree, and the fact that it is used like wheat. For the babyfood see Beech-Nut. Beech ( Fagus) is a genus of ten Species of Deciduous Trees in the The etymology of the word is explained as partial translation of Middle Dutch boecweite : boek, beech; see PIE bhago- + weite, wheat.
Common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in southeast Asia, possibly around 6000 BC, and from there spread to Europe and to Central Asia and Tibet. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Domestication most likely took place in the western Yunnan region of China.  Buckwheat is documented in Europe in the Balkans by at least the Middle Neolithic (circa 4000 BC) and the oldest known remains in China so far date to circa 2600 BC, and buckwheat pollen has been found in Japan from as early as 4000 BC. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos It is the world's highest elevation domesticate, being cultivated in Yunnan on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau or on the Plateau itself. The Tibetan Plateau, also known as the Qinghai-Tibetan (Qingzang Plateau is a vast elevated Plateau in Central Asia covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Buckwheat was one of the earliest crops introduced by Europeans to North America. Dispersal around the globe was complete by 2006, when a variety developed in Canada was widely planted in China.
Buckwheat is a short season crop that does well on low-fertility or acidic soils, but the soil must be well drained. Too much fertilizer, especially nitrogen, will reduce yields. In hot climates, it can only be grown by sowing late in the season, so that it will bloom in cooler weather. The presence of pollinators greatly increases the yield. A pollinator is the biotic agent ( vector) that moves Pollen from the male Anthers of a Flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish The nectar from buckwheat flower makes a dark colored honey. Buckwheat is sometimes used as a green manure, as a plant for erosion control, or as wildlife cover and feed. In Agriculture, a green manure is a type of Cover crop grown primarily to add Nutrients and Organic matter to the Soil. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind
Common buckwheat is by far the most important buckwheat species, economically, accounting for over 90% of the world's buckwheat production. A century ago, Russia was the world leader in buckwheat production. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending  Growing areas in the Russian Empire were estimated at 6. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya 5 million acres (26,000 km²), followed by those of France (0. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 9 million acres; 3,500 km²).  In 1970 the Soviet Union grew an estimated 4. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 5 million acres (18,000 km²) of buckwheat. Today China is the world's top producer. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Japan, Poland, Canada, Brazil, South Africa, and Australia also grow significant quantities of buckwheat. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
In the northeastern United States, buckwheat was a common crop in the 18th and 19th centuries. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Cultivation declined sharply in the 20th century due the use of nitrogen fertilizer, to which maize and wheat respond strongly. Over a million acres (4,000 km²) were harvested in the United States in 1918. By 1954 that had declined to 150,000 acres (600 km²), and by 1964, the last year that production statistics were gathered, only 50,000 acres (200 km²) were grown.
|Seeds||Starch||71–78% in groats|
|Proteins||18% with biological values above 90%. |
This can be explained by a high concentration of all essential amino acids, especially lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and the sulphur-containing amino acids. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α- Amino acid with the Chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2(CH24NH2 Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T) is an α- Amino acid with the Chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2CH(OHCH3 Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an Essential amino acid in the Human diet 
|Minerals||Rich in iron (60–100 ppm), zinc (20–30 ppm) and selenium (20–50 ppb). Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Selenium (səˈliniəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic number 34 represented by the chemical symbol Se, an atomic mass of 78 |
|Antioxidants||10–200 ppm of rutin and 0. Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin, is a Citrus Flavonoid Glycoside found in Buckwheat 1–2% of tannins|
|Aromatic compounds||Salicylaldehyde (2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) was identified as a characteristic component of buckwheat aroma. Tannins are Astringent, bitter plant Polyphenols that either bind and Precipitate or shrink Proteins The astringency from the tannins is what Salicylaldehyde, or 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde is the Chemical compound with the formula C6H4CHO-2-OH 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, (E)-2-nonenal, decanal and hexanal also contribute to its aroma. 2-Nonenal is an Unsaturated Aldehyde which some research has associated with human Body odor alterations during Aging. Decanal is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula C9H19CHO Hexanal, or hexanaldehyde, is an Alkyl Aldehyde used in the flavor industry to produce fruity flavors They all have odour activity value more than 50, but aroma of these substances in isolated state does not resemble buckwheat. Odour activity value (OAV is a Measure of importance of a specific compound to the Odor of a sample (e|
|Herb||Antioxydants||1–10% rutin and 1–10% tannins|
The fruit is an achene, similar to sunflower seed, with a single seed inside a hard outer hull. Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin, is a Citrus Flavonoid Glycoside found in Buckwheat Tannins are Astringent, bitter plant Polyphenols that either bind and Precipitate or shrink Proteins The astringency from the tannins is what An achene is a type of simple dry Fruit produced by many species of Flowering plants Achenes are "monocarpellate" (formed from one Carpel The sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is an Annual plant in the family Asteraceae and native to the Americas, with a large flowering The starchy endosperm is white and makes up most or all of buckwheat flour. The seed coat is green or tan, which darkens buckwheat flour. The hull is dark brown or black, and some may be included in buckwheat flour as dark specks. The dark flour is known (exaggeratedly) as "blé noir" ("black wheat") in French, along with the name sarrazin ("saracen").
Buckwheat noodles play a major role in the cuisines of Japan (soba), Korea (naengmyeon, makguksu and memil guksu) and the Valtellina region of Northern Italy (pizzoccheri). A noodle is food made from unleavened Dough that is cooked in a boiling liquid For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a type of thin Japanese Noodle made from Buckwheat flour It is served either chilled with a dipping sauce or in hot broth as a Noodle soup. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Naengmyeon (hangul 냉면; also spelled naeng-myeon, naengmyun, naeng-myun) literally "cold Makguksu is a Korean Buckwheat Noodle dish served in a chilled Broth. Valtellina or the Valtelline Valley; (Valtellina Veltlin Vuclina is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Pizzoccheri are a type of Tagliatelle, a flat ribbon Pasta, made with Buckwheat flour Soba noodles are the subject of deep cultural importance in Japan. In Korea, before wheat flour being replaced for making guksu, the generic term referring to noodles, buckwheat noodles were widely eaten as hot dishes. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Korean cuisine includes many types of noodles These include Noodles by ingredients Dangmyeon (당면 cellophane noodles - made from The difficulty of making noodles from flour that has no gluten has resulted in a traditional art developed around their hand manufacture.
Buckwheat groats are commonly used in western Asia and eastern Europe. The porridge was common, and is often considered the definitive peasant dish. It is made from roasted groats that are cooked with broth to a texture similar to rice or bulgur. Bulgur (also bulghur or burghul)(from Turkish bulgur, known as πλιγούρι, pligoúri, in Greek and The dish was brought to America by Russian and Polish Jewish immigrants who called it "kasha" and used it mixed with pasta or as a filling for knishes and blins, and hence buckwheat groats are most commonly called kasha in America. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Kasha is a Porridge commonly eaten in Eastern Europe. In English kasha generally refers to Buckwheat groats but in Slavic countries kasha A knish (knɪʃ ie the "k" is pronounced is an Eastern European and Yiddish snack food made popular in North America by Jewish immigrants Groats were the most widely used form of buckwheat worldwide during the 20th century, with consumption primarily in Russia, Ukraine and Poland.
Buckwheat pancakes, sometimes raised with yeast, are eaten in several countries. Pancakes are a type of Flatbread prepared from a sweet batter that is cooked on a hot Griddle or in a Frying pan. Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described They are known as buckwheat blinis in Russia, galettes in France (where they are especially associated with Brittany), ployes in Acadia and boûketes (that is, named the same as the plant they are made of) in Wallonia. A blintz, blintze or blin (plural blintzes or blini cf Lithuanian: Blynai blynai; Russian: блин blin, блины Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Galette is a general term used in French to designate different types of round and flat crusty cakes This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into A Ploye is a pancake type mix of Buckwheat flour and water which is extremely popular in the Saint John Valley region of New Brunswick and northern The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design Wallonia, or Wallonie, (Wallonie Wallonien Wallonië Waloneye is the Meridional part of Belgium belonging to the Romance linguistic field Similar pancakes were a common food in American pioneer days. They are light and foamy. The buckwheat flour gives them an earthy, mildly mushroom-like taste. In Ukraine, yeast rolls called hrechanyky are made from buckwheat.
Farina made from groats are used for breakfast food, porridge, and thickening materials in soups, gravies, and dressings. Porridge, or porage, is a simple dish made by boiling Oats (normally crushed oats occasionally Oatmeal) or another cereal in Water Soup is a Food that is made by combining ingredients such as Meat and Vegetables in stock or hot/boiling Water, until the flavor Gravy is an English Sauce made often from the juices that run naturally from meat or vegetables during cooking In Korea, buckwheat starch is used to make a jelly called memilmuk. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Memilmuk is a Korean food that is a variety of muk made from Buckwheat Starch, which has a jelly-like consistency It is also used with wheat, maize or rice in bread and pasta products. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Pasta ( Italian for "dough" is a generic term for Italian variants of Noodles.
Buckwheat contains no gluten, and can thus be eaten by people with coeliac disease or gluten allergies. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some Coeliac Many bread-like preparations have been developed.
Besides the seeds, from which buckwheat flour is produced, buckwheat is also a good honey plant, producing a dark, strong monofloral honey. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Monofloral honey is a type of Honey which has a high value in the Marketplace because it has a distinctive flavor or other attribute due to its being predominantly
Buckwheat greens can be eaten. However, if consumed in sufficient quantities, the greens, or, more commonly, their juice, can induce sensitization of the skin to sunlight known as fagopyrism.  Fair skinned people are particularly susceptible, as are light pigmented livestock. Enthusiasts of sprouting, however, eat the very young buckwheat sprouts (four to five days of growth) for their subtle, nutty flavour and high nutritional value. Sprouting is the practice of soaking draining and then rinsing seeds at regular intervals until they Germinate, or sprout They are widely available in Japan.
Buckwheat contains rutin, a medicinal chemical that strengthens capillary walls, reducing hemorrhaging in people with high blood pressure and increasing microcirculation in people with chronic venous insufficiency. Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin, is a Citrus Flavonoid Glycoside found in Buckwheat Phytochemicals are plant-derived chemical compounds under scientific research for their potential health-promoting properties but with unproved benefits  Dried buckwheat leaves for tea were manufactured in Europe under the brand name "Fagorutin. "
Buckwheat contains D-chiro-inositol, a component of the secondary messenger pathway for insulin signal transduction found to be deficient in Type II diabetes and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). D-chiro-inositol (commonly abbreviated DCI) is a member of a family of related substances often referred to collectively as " Inositol," although that In Cell physiology, a secondary messenger system (also known as a second messenger system) is a method of cellular signaling whereby a diffusable signaling molecule Insulin is a Hormone with intensive effects on both metabolism and several other body systems (eg vascular compliance In Biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another Polycystic ovary syndrome abbreviated PCOS or PCO (also known clinically as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, Sclerocystic ovary syndrome, Hyperthecosis It is being studied for use in treating Type II diabetes.  Research on D-chiro-inositol and PCOS has shown promising results. 
A buckwheat protein has been found to bind cholesterol tightly. It is being studied for reducing plasma cholesterol in people with an excess of this compound. 
Buckwheat hulls are used as filling for a variety of upholstered goods, including pillows and zafu. Upholstery is the work of providing Furniture, especially seats with Padding, springs Webbing, and fabric or Leather A pillow is a large Cushion support for the head, usually used while Sleeping in a Bed, or for the body as used on a Couch or A zafu (座蒲 in Japanese or 蒲团 in Chinese is a round cushion about 35 cm (14 inches in diameter and often about 20 cm (8 inches high when fluffed The hulls are durable and do not conduct or reflect heat as much as synthetic fills. They are sometimes marketed as an alternative natural fill to feathers for those with allergies.
In recent years, buckwheat has been used as a substitute for other grain in gluten free beer. Gluten-free beer is Beer made from ingredients without Glycoproteins ( Gluten) that for people with a variety of medical conditions cause an Buckwheat is used in the same way as barley to produce a malt that can form the basis of a mash that will brew a beer without gliadin or hordein (together gluten) and therefore can be suitable for coeliacs or others sensitive to certain glycoproteins. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further In Brewing and Distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled Grain (typically Malted Barley with supplementary Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Gliadin is a Glycoprotein present in Wheat and several other Cereals within the grass genus Triticum. Hordein is a Glycoprotein, present in Barley and some other Cereals together with Gliadin and other glycoproteins as Gluten. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some Coeliac Not to be confused with Peptidoglycan. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain Oligosaccharide chains ( Glycans) covalently attached 
The buckwheat plant is celebrated in Kingwood, West Virginia at their Buckwheat Festival where people can participate in swine, cow, and sheep judging contests, vegetable contests, and craft fairs. Kingwood is a city in and the County seat of Preston County, West Virginia, United States, and is part of the Pittsburgh DMA. The area fire departments also play an important role in the series of parades that occur there. Each year there is a King and Lady Fireman elected. Also there are many rides and homemade, homegrown buckwheat cakes and sausage.
In Hinduism, people eat items made of buckwheat flour in the fasting days. There are many great recipies available varying all over India. People in Rajasthan and Maharashtra call this KUTTU KA ATTA.