A brewery can be a building or place that produces beer, or a business (brewing company) whose trade is the production and sale of beer. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Breweries can take up multiple city blocks, or be a collection of equipment in a homebrewer's kitchen. Homebrewing typically refers to the Brewing of Beer and similar Alcoholic beverages (and sometimes soft drinks on a very small scale as a Hobby The diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, and kinds of beer produced in breweries. Automation ( Ancient Greek: = self dictated) roboticization or industrial automation or Numerical control is the use of Control systems Typically a brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Brewing is the production of Alcoholic beverage and Alcohol fuel through fermentation.
The oldest brewery in the world still in operation is believed to be the Bavarian State-owned brewery Weihenstephan, found in the German city of Freising, which can trace its history back to 1040 Although the Zatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove paying beer tax in 1004. See also Beer Beer is one of the world's oldest beverages with the history of beer dating back to the 6th millennium BC and being recorded in the written history of Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Weihenstephan is a small city near Freising (48500 inhabitants north of Munich, Upper Bavaria Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising.
Beer, in some form, can be traced back almost 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Before the rise of production breweries the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption, but also to use as payment. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men.
Early breweries were almost always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors utilized earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another This layout is often preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design.
Early breweries typically used large copper vats in the brewhouse, and fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers. Fermentation in Food processing typically refers to the conversion of Sugar to Alcohol using Yeast under Anaerobic conditions Such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, and scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Today, almost all breweries are made of stainless steel. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11
A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently.
The steam engine, vastly improved in 1765 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms, and pumps into the brewery. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes It gave brewers the ability to more reliably mix liquids while heating, particularly the mash, to prevent scorching, and a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. Almost all breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps. The steam engine also allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring.
Carl von Linde, along with several other people, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Professor Doctor Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde ( 11 June, 1842 - 16 November 1934) was a German engineer who developed Refrigeration Refrigeration is the process of removing Heat from an enclosed space or from a substance and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, and always at the same temperature. Yeast is very sensitive to temperature, and if a beer was produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavors onto the beer. Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic Microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1500 Species currently described Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, and store it in underground cellars, or even caves, to protect it from summer's heat.
Most importantly, the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer lead to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually WORT (899 FM is a listener-sponsored community radio station broadcasting from 118 S Emil Christian Hansen ( May 8, 1842 – August 27, 1909) was a Danish Mycologist and fermentation physiologist Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability. Some breweries in Belgium still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers (see lambic). The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Lambic is a very distinctive type of Beer brewed only in the Pajottenland region of Belgium (southwest of Brussels)
Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels often have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Stainless steel has many favorable characteristics which make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavor in beer, it reacts with very few chemicals, which means almost any cleaning solution can be used on it (concentrated chlorine bleach being a notable exception) and it is very sturdy. Cleanliness is the absence of dirt including Dust, Stains bad smells and Garbage. In Chemistry, a solution is a Homogeneous Mixture composed of two or more substances A bleach is a Chemical that removes color or whitens often via Oxidation. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, and it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning.
Heating in the brewhouse is usually achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Similarly, cooling in other areas of the brewery is typically done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to precisely control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is also common.
Today modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed in order to correct for variations; Samples are pulled at almost every step and tested for oxygen content, unwanted microbial infections, and other beer-aging compounds; and a representative sample of the finished product is often stored for months for comparison when complaints are filed. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the
Work in the brewery is typically divided into 7 steps: Mashing, Lautering, Boiling, Fermenting, Conditioning, Filtering, and Filling. Brewing is the production of Alcoholic beverage and Alcohol fuel through fermentation.
Mashing is the process of mixing milled grain (typically malted grain) with water, and heating this mixture up with rests at certain temperatures to allow enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars, typically maltose. Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Maltose, or malt sugar is a Disaccharide formed from two units of Glucose joined with an α(1→4 linkage
Lautering is the separation of the extracts won during mashing from the spent grain to create wort. Lautering is a process in Brewing Beer in which the mash is separated into the clear liquid Wort and the residual grain WORT (899 FM is a listener-sponsored community radio station broadcasting from 118 S It is achieved in either a lauter tun, a wide vessel with a false bottom, or a mash filter, a plate-and-frame filter designed for this kind of separation. A Lauter tun is the traditional vessel used for separation of the extracted wort Lautering has two stages: first wort run-off, during which the extract is separated in an undiluted state from the spent grains, and sparging, in which extract which remains with the grains is rinsed off with hot water.
Boiling the wort ensures its sterility, and thus prevents infections. WORT (899 FM is a listener-sponsored community radio station broadcasting from 118 S During the boil, hops are added, which contribute their bitterness, aroma and flavor compounds to the beer, and, along with the heat of the boil, cause proteins in the wort to coagulate and the pH of the wort to fall. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. Finally, the vapors produced during the boil volatilize off flavors, including dimethyl sulfide precursors. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH32S
The boil must be conducted so that it is even and intense. The boil lasts between 60 and 120 minutes, depending on its intensity, the hop addition schedule, and volume of wort the brewer expects to evaporate.
Fermentation, as a step in the brewing process, starts as soon as yeast is added to the cooled wort. This is also the point at which the product is first called beer. It is during this stage that sugars won from the malt are metabolized into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Fermentation tanks come in all sorts of forms, from enormous tanks which can look like storage silos, to five gallon glass carboys in a homebrewer's closet. A silo is a structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are used in Agriculture to store grain (see Grain elevators or fermented feed A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries A carboy is a container for fluids Brewing In Brewing, a carboy is also known as a demijohn.
Most breweries today use cylindroconical vessels, or CCVs, have a conical bottom and a cylindrical top. The cone's aperture is typically around 60°, an angle that will allow the yeast to flow towards the cones apex, but is not so steep as to take up too much vertical space. CCVs can handle both fermenting and conditioning in the same tank. At the end of fermentation, the yeast and other solids which have fallen to the cones apex can be simply flushed out a port at the apex.
Open fermentation vessels are also used, often for show in brewpubs, and in Europe in wheat beer fermentation. These vessels have no tops, which makes harvesting top fermenting yeasts very easy. The open tops of the vessels make the risk of infection greater, but with proper cleaning procedures and careful protocol about who enters fermentation chambers when, the risk can be well controlled.
Fermentation tanks are typically made of stainless steel. If they are simple cylindrical tanks with beveled ends, they are arranged vertically, as opposed to conditioning tanks which are usually laid out horizontally.
A very few breweries still use wooden vats for fermentation as wood is difficult to keep clean and infection-free and must be repitched more or less yearly.
After high kraeusen, a bung device (German: Spundapparat) is often put on the tanks to allow the CO2 produced by the yeast to naturally carbonate the beer. Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single This bung device can be set to a given pressure to match the type of beer being produced. The more pressure the bung holds back, the more carbonated the beer becomes.
When the sugars in the fermenting beer have been almost completely digested, the fermentation slows down and the yeast starts to settle to the bottom of the tank. At this stage, the beer is cooled to around freezing, which encourages settling of the yeast, and causes proteins to coagulate and settle out with the yeast. Unpleasant flavors such as phenolic compounds become insoluble in the cold beer, and the beer's flavor becomes smoother. During this time pressure is maintained on the tanks to prevent the beer from going flat.
If the fermentation tanks have cooling jackets on them, as opposed to the whole fermentation cellar being cooled, conditioning can take place in the same tank as fermentation. Otherwise separate tanks (in a separate cellar) must be employed.
Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavour, and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. Not all beer is filtered. When tax determination is required by local laws, it is typically done at this stage in a calibrated tank.
Filters come in many types. Many use pre-made filtration media such as sheets or candles, while others use a fine powder made of, for example, diatomaceous earth, also called kieselguhr, which is introduced into the beer and recirculated past screens to form a filtration bed. Diatomaceous earth (ˌdaɪətəˈmeɪʃəs ˈɝθ also known as DE, TSS, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur and
Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids (e. g. hops, grain particles) left in the beer, to filters tight enough to strain color and body from the beer. Normally used filtration ratings are divided into rough, fine and sterile. Rough filtration leaves some cloudiness in the beer, but it is noticeably clearer than unfiltered beer. Fine filtration gives a glass of beer that you could read a newspaper through, with no noticeable cloudiness. Finally, as its name implies, sterile filtration is fine enough that almost all microorganisms in the beer are removed during the filtration process.
Packaging is putting the beer into the containers in which it will leave the brewery. Typically this means in labeled bottles, kegs and casks, but it might include bulk tanks for high-volume customers. A bottle is a container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth A keg is a cylindrical container usually constructed of aluminum steel or wood A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container traditionally made of Wood Staves and bound with Iron Hoops The
Breweries range widely in the volume and variety of beer produced, ranging from small breweries that produce a few dozen barrels a year, to large regional breweries which supply a limited quantity of quality products to the world such as The Firehouse Brewing Company in San Diego, to massive multinational conglomerates,like Anheuser-Busch in St. Anheuser-Busch Companies Inc ( (ˈænhаɪzər bʊʃ is the largest Brewing company in the United States with a 48 Louis or InBev, that produce hundreds of millions of barrels annually. For the proposed merged company see Proposed merger of Anheuser-Busch and InBev. The word million In standard English, the -lli- in million is pronounced with an l-sound followed by a Some commonly used descriptions of breweries are:
US Brewing Programs:
Before Prohibition in the United States, breweries were local institutions, with a few exceptions. The Siebel Institute of Technology is a technical school located in the Lincoln Park neighbourhood of Chicago that focuses on brewing science The University of California Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, or just UCD, is a public coeducational university located in the city of Davis, Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The costs involved in moving large quantities of beer while maintaining its quality necessitated that beer be made near where it was to be consumed. Prohibition, as could be expected, closed most of the breweries in the United States, and the few that were able to remain open by producing near beer, malt extract, yeast, and other beer-related products, were in an advantageous position to produce and sell beer after the repeal of Prohibition. Low-alcohol beer (also non-alcoholic or NA beer, small beer, or small ale or near-beer) is Beer with very This article discusses the repeal of (alcohol Prohibition in the United States. During the same period, advancements in refrigeration and motor vehicles enabled large regional and national breweries to maintain product quality while being transported a greater distance. Refrigeration is the process of removing Heat from an enclosed space or from a substance and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable These remaining breweries quickly became large enough to be household names all over the nation, and concentrated mostly on the style with the broadest appeal: American light lager. American-style lager beer is a common variety of beer a type of Pale lager, traditionally made and consumed in North America but also popular in much of the rest of the world Local breweries, primarily producing niche beers, were lost in America.
In 1978, Jimmy Carter signed into law a bill explicitly allowing people to brew beer for private consumption. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 As the homebrewing movement grew, homebrewers looked to re-create beers they had enjoyed in places with a more varied beer assortment. The rise of imported beers and homebrewing brought a demand for more beer styles, and locally brewed beer. Answering this need, smaller breweries started popping up across America, and a whole industry grew around the microbrewing industry. A microbrewery, or craft brewery, is a modern Brewery which produces a limited amount of beer usually with an orientation toward distinctive and flavorful products Many of these startup microbreweries, have since grown into major regional breweries in their own right.
Portland, Oregon has earned the name "Beervana", with more breweries than any other city in the world: 33 just within the city limits. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers The McMenamin brothers alone have over thirty brewpubs, distilleries and wineries scattered throughout the metropolitan area, many in renovated theaters and other old buildings otherwise destined for demolition. McMenamins Pubs and Breweries is a chain of over fifty Brewpubs, Microbreweries, music venues historic hotels and theater pubs Other notable Portland brewers include Widmer Brothers, Bridgeport Brewing Company and the MacTarnahan's Brewing Company. Widmer Brothers is an American Brewery founded in 1984 in Portland, Oregon, by brothers Kurt and Rob Widmer MacTarnahan's Brewing Company is an American craft brewery located in Portland, Oregon. In 1999, "beerhunter" and author Michael Jackson called Portland a candidate for the beer capital of the world because the city boasted more breweries than Cologne, Germany.
San Diego, California has become the "21st Century Craft Beer Capitol of the world" with more craft beer growth since 2000 than any other city in the world. Major successes include Alesmith and Pizza Port which have won beer awards around the area. The most notable success has been the San Diego based "Firehouse Brewing Company" which has seen more growth in the last three years than any other regional brewery.