|Directed by||Terry Gilliam|
|Produced by||Arnon Milchan|
Joseph P. Grace
|Written by||Terry Gilliam|
Robert De Niro
|Music by||Michael Kamen|
|Editing by||Julian Doyle|
|Distributed by||Twentieth Century Fox (Europe)|
Universal Pictures (US)
February 20, 1985
February 22, 1985
December 18, 1985
|Running time||94 min. Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member Arnon Milchan (ארנון מילצ'ן December 6, 1944) is Film producer and businessman Joseph P Grace was born in Pitsfield Mass on Feb 3rd 1949 Later in life befriend Arnon Milchan and helped creat Regency Enterprises Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member Sir Tom Stoppard OM, CBE (born 3 July 1937 is a British Screenwriter playwright Charles McKeown (b1946 is a British actor and writer perhaps best known for his collaborations with Terry Gilliam. Jonathan Pryce (born 1 June 1947 is a Welsh award-winning stage and Film actor/singer Kimberley Bret Greist (born May 12 1958) is an American Actress. Michael Edward Palin, CBE (born 5 May 1943 is an English Comedian, actor writer and Television presenter best known for being one of the members Robert Mario De Niro Jr (born August 17 1943 is a two-time Academy Award -winning American Film Actor, director and producer Katherine Marie Helmond (born July 5, 1928, Galveston Texas) is an American Film, Theater and Television Robert William "Bob" Hoskins Jr (born 26 October 1942 is an English Actor, known for playing Cockney rough diamonds and gangsters and Sir Ian Holm CBE (born 12 September, 1931) is an English award-winning Actor known for his stage work and for many film roles Michael Kamen ( April 15, 1948 – November 18, 2003) was an American Composer (especially of Film scores Julian John Doyle was an Australian Lawyer, Politician and Civil servant. Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) |
|Gross revenue||$9,929,000 (USA)|
Brazil, directed by Terry Gilliam, is a dystopian black comedy feature film, released on February 22, 1985 in the United States. A director's cut is a specially edited version of a Film, and less often TV series, Music video, commercials or Video games The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society Black comedy, also known as black humor or dark comedy, is a sub-genre of Comedy and Satire where topics and events that are usually regarded In the Film industry, a feature film is a Film made for initial distribution in theaters and being the "main attraction" of the screening Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) It was written by Gilliam, Charles McKeown, and Tom Stoppard and stars actor Jonathan Pryce. Charles McKeown (b1946 is a British actor and writer perhaps best known for his collaborations with Terry Gilliam. Sir Tom Stoppard OM, CBE (born 3 July 1937 is a British Screenwriter playwright Jonathan Pryce (born 1 June 1947 is a Welsh award-winning stage and Film actor/singer The film also features Robert De Niro, Kim Greist, Michael Palin, Katherine Helmond, Bob Hoskins, and Ian Holm. Robert Mario De Niro Jr (born August 17 1943 is a two-time Academy Award -winning American Film Actor, director and producer Kimberley Bret Greist (born May 12 1958) is an American Actress. Michael Edward Palin, CBE (born 5 May 1943 is an English Comedian, actor writer and Television presenter best known for being one of the members Katherine Marie Helmond (born July 5, 1928, Galveston Texas) is an American Film, Theater and Television Robert William "Bob" Hoskins Jr (born 26 October 1942 is an English Actor, known for playing Cockney rough diamonds and gangsters and Sir Ian Holm CBE (born 12 September, 1931) is an English award-winning Actor known for his stage work and for many film roles
Brazil evokes the melancholy, dreamlike quality of its theme song, an English translation of a 1939 Brazilian song, "Aquarela do Brasil," featured in Disney's Saludos Amigos (1942). Events Publication of Music Here and Now, book by Ernst Krenek March 23 – Béla Bartók 's Violin Concerto "Aquarela do Brasil" ( " Watercolor of Brazil ") also known in English -speaking countries simply as "Brazil" Walter Elias Disney (December 5 1901 – December 15 1966 was a multiple Academy Award -winning American Film producer, director, Screenwriter Saludos Amigos ( Alô Amigos in Portuguese is a 1942 animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by RKO Radio Pictures. In that escapist film, Brazil is represented as a romantic, fantasy location that is the opposite of gloomy, northern countries. Gilliam was inspired by this song to create the fictional totalitarian government and the overall dystopian mood of the film. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private
The film centers on Sam Lowry, a young man trying to find a woman who appears in his dreams while he is working in a mind-numbing job and living a life in a small apartment, set in a dystopian world in which there is an over-reliance on poorly maintained (and rather whimsical) machines. Brazil's bureaucratic, totalitarian government is reminiscent of the government depicted in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, except that it has a buffoonish, slap-stick quality, and lacks any kind of figurehead. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel
Jack Mathews, movie critic and author of The Battle of Brazil (1987), characterized the film as "satirizing the bureaucratic, largely dysfunctional industrial world that had been driving [Gilliam] crazy all his life. A bureaucrat is a member of a Bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the Government. " While the film was a flop upon its initial release, it has since become a cult classic. A cult film is a Film that has acquired a highly devoted but relatively small group of fans.
Brazil recounts the story of Sam Lowry, a low-level government employee who is conflicted about his role in an overreaching bureaucracy. We learn that he is initially happy with his "dead end job" and simple life, and that he habitually escapes into a fantasy world of romantic struggles. His contented but lonely life becomes complicated by his mother's attempts to secure him a promotion, the intrusion of a renegade heating engineer, and the real-life appearance of the woman of his dreams.
Throughout the story Sam becomes involved in complicated and life-threatening attempts to secure himself happiness, while also developing a strong hatred for the system of which he is a part. Ultimately, his efforts culminate into a violent and tragic climax, the outcome of which depends entirely on his friends' loyalty to Sam over their loyalty to the system that controls them.
Gilliam sometimes refers to this film as the second of a trilogy of movies, starting with Time Bandits (1981) and ending with The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1989). A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex violence substance abuse profanity impudence or other types A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex violence substance abuse profanity impudence or other types The Office of Film and Literature Classification is a Statutory Censorship and classification body which provides day to day administrative support for the Classification The DJCTQ, or Department of Justice Rating Titles and Qualification ( Departamento de Justiça Classificação Títulos e Qualificação in Portuguese A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex violence substance abuse profanity impudence or other types A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex violence substance abuse profanity impudence or other types The British Board of Film Classification ( BBFC) originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for Film, DVD The Motion Picture Association of America's film-rating system is used in the U A trilogy is a set of three works of art usually Literature, Film, or Video games, that are connected and can be seen either as a single work or three Time Bandits is a 1981 Fantasy film, produced and directed by Terry Gilliam. The Adventures of Baron Munchausen is a 1988 Film directed by Terry Gilliam, starring John Neville, Sarah Polley  All are about the "craziness of our awkwardly ordered society and the desire to escape it through whatever means possible. " All three movies also focus on these struggles and attempts to escape them through imagination.
Sam is not so much beset by malicious characters as he is by a vast, impersonal, and indifferent social structure that is both hypocritical and pedantic for its own sake. The individual villains are neither malicious nor sadistic, they are merely doing their jobs.
The jilted sense of priorities that adult life often entails are also another theme. The elevation of meaningless considerations of status and vanity over personal happiness and well being is continuously portrayed throughout the movie. At one point, a police officer encourages a prisoner to cooperate, not because he is about to be tortured but because prolonged imprisonment could jeopardize his credit rating.
John Scalzi's Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies describes the film as a dystopian satire. John Michael Scalzi II (born May 10, 1969) is an author and online writer best known for his Hugo Award -nominated Science fiction novel Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human
Gilliam has stated that Brazil was inspired by Nineteen Eighty-Four — which he has admitted never having read  — but is written from today's perspective rather than looking to the future like Orwell's novel (although it should be noted that Orwell considered Nineteen Eighty-Four to be about the year 1948). Some scenes resemble the film which had been released a year earlier. Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a British Film based upon George Orwell 's novel of the same name In Gilliam's words Brazil was, "the Nineteen Eighty-Four for 1984. " In fact, Gilliam's working title for the movie was 1984½, which also pays tribute to the influence of Fellini's 8½. 8½ (pronounced
Brazil is noteworthy for the way its strong visual imagery tends to overwhelm the plot. One visual element which figures prominently in the movie is the ducts, specifically the snakelike "flex-ducts" used in modern construction. Ducts are used in heating ventilation and air conditioning ( HVAC) to deliver and remove air The film opens with an advertisement for different styles of ducting available for homes, seen on a display of television sets in a shop, which is then blown up in a terrorist bombing.
Lowry's apartment is dominated by a wall consisting entirely of metal panels which conceal an incorrigible air-conditioning system, and his hero is the guerrilla mechanic Tuttle, who is the only person able to tame this monster. Later, Lowry lunches in a restaurant dominated by a giant centerpiece where the "flowers" are actually flex-ducts. After that, when Lowry makes a potentially seditious nighttime visit to his office, the emptiness of the government building's gigantic lobby is set off by a maintenance man's floor buffing machine, trailing a long cord of flex-duct.
In the working-class Buttle home, members of the Buttle family have to live their lives while giving way to ducts that in fact hinder their daily activities. In Sam's home, the ducts are not visible initially, but make their presence felt as an undertone, particularly when they break down. In the Department of Records, the ducts are a visible part of the environment, but above everyone's heads. Finally, in the Department of Information Retrieval, there are no ducts at all. Poverty and powerlessness appear proportional to the invasiveness of ducts – and all ducts end in the dictatorial Department of Information Retrieval.
Ary Barroso's famous 1939 song "Aquarela do Brasil" (English: "Watercolor of Brazil", often simply "Brazil") is the leitmotif of the movie, although other background music is also utilized. Ary Barroso ( November 7 1903 in Ubá, Minas Gerais — February 9 1964 in Rio de Janeiro) was an Academy "Aquarela do Brasil" ( " Watercolor of Brazil ") also known in English -speaking countries simply as "Brazil" A leitmotif (ˌlaɪtmoʊˈtiːf (also leitmotiv; lit "leading motif" is a recurring Musical theme, associated with a particular person place Michael Kamen, who scored the music for the film, originally recorded "Brazil" with vocals by Kate Bush. Michael Kamen ( April 15, 1948 – November 18, 2003) was an American Composer (especially of Film scores Kate Bush (born Catherine Bush on 30 July 1958 is an English singer songwriter musician and Record producer. This recording was not included in the actual film or the original soundtrack release; however, it has been subsequently released on re-pressings of the soundtrack. (Kamen also composed music for Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen. The Adventures of Baron Munchausen is a 1988 Film directed by Terry Gilliam, starring John Neville, Sarah Polley )
Robert De Niro originally wanted to play Jack, but Gilliam had already promised the role to Michael Palin. Elizabeth Spender (born, 19?? is a Film actor She appeared in Terry Gilliam 's 1985 Cult film Brazil. Myrtle Devenish (born 1913 died 21 January 2007 was a Film actor Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member De Niro still wanted to be in the film, and so was cast as Tuttle instead. 
Terry Gilliam's daughter Holly Gilliam plays Jack Lint's daughter Holly.
The movie was produced by Arnon Milchan's company Embassy International Pictures (not to be confused with Joseph E. Arnon Milchan (ארנון מילצ'ן December 6, 1944) is Film producer and businessman Regency Enterprises is a Los Angeles -based Motion picture and Television Production company formed by Arnon Milchan and Joseph Levine's Embassy Pictures). Embassy Pictures Corporation (previously known as Avco Embassy Pictures and later Embassy Film Associates) was an independent studio and distributor responsible for Gilliam's original cut of the film is 142 minutes long and ends on a dark note. This version was released internationally outside the US by 20th Century Fox.
US distribution was handled by Universal. Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Universal executives thought the ending tested poorly, and Universal chairman Sid Sheinberg insisted on dramatically re-editing the film to give it a happy ending, a decision that Gilliam resisted vigorously. Sidney "Sid" Jay Sheinberg (born 1935, Corpus Christi Texas) is an American entertainment executive Brazil is a 1985 Dystopian Black comedy film directed by Terry Gilliam. As with the cult science fiction film Blade Runner (1982), which had been released three years earlier, a version of Brazil was created by the movie studio with a more consumer-friendly ending. Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. A movie studio (aka film studio) is in the established sense of the term a company that distributes films. After a lengthy delay with no sign of the film being released, Gilliam took out a full-page ad in the trade magazine Variety urging Sheinberg to release Brazil in its intended version. Variety is a weekly entertainment trade newspaper founded in New York in 1905 by Sime Silverman Eventually, after Gilliam conducted secret private screenings (without the studio's knowledge), Brazil was awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association award for "Best Picture", which prompted Universal to finally agree to release a modified 131-minute version supervised by Gilliam, in 1985. The Los Angeles Film Critics Association ("LAFCA" was founded in 1975 Events 3 December - Roger Moore steps down from the role of James Bond after twelve years and seven films 
In North America, the film was released on VHS and Laserdisc in the 131-minute US version. The Laserdisc (LD is an obsolete Home video disc format and was the first commercial Optical disc storage medium A slightly modified 142-minute version of the original European cut was first made available in a 5-disc Criterion Collection laserdisc box set in 1996, and is currently available on DVD (referred to in the director's commentary as the "fifth and final cut", it uses the American cloud opening instead of a stark blank screen setting the time and place). The Criterion Collection is a Privately held company that distributes "authoritative" consumer versions of "important classic and contemporary films" DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is 
Sheinberg's edit, the 94-minute so-called "Love Conquers All" version, was shown on syndicated television and was first made available for sale to consumers as a separate disc in the Criterion laserdisc box set, and subsequent DVD three-disc set in 1999 (both of which also featured a special video documentary version of Jack Mathews' book, with new Gilliam interviews and tape-recorded interviews from Sid Sheinberg for the original book).
The box set presents the feature film in its correct aspect ratio for the first time, but the version on the original DVD release is not enhanced for newer widescreen TVs. New 16:9-enhanced editions of the film in both a complete set and separate film-only disc were re-issued on DVD by Criterion on September 5th, 2006.
The changes in each version are as follows:
These are scenes missing in the UK release of the film and what Americans saw in US theaters. The reasons for excluding these scenes from the UK version and adding them to the US version are unknown.
These are scenes missing in the US release of the film and what British audiences saw in UK theaters. These scenes were edited for the US release by Sheinberg because he thought that an American audience would be highly disturbed and unsettled by their content and length.
The Sheinberg Edit also aired on syndicated TV for time restrictions on some occasions and it pleased Gilliam as it showed how bad the studio cut of the film was. In Broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast Radio shows and Television shows to multiple individual stations without going through
Chicago Sun Times Film Critic Roger Ebert disliked it, giving it 2 out of 4 stars, saying it "is awash in elaborate special effects, sensational sets, apocalyptic scenes of destruction and a general lack of discipline," as well as, "The movie is very hard to follow. The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. I have seen it twice, and am still not sure exactly who all the characters are, or how they fit. "
Los Angeles Times Critic Kenneth Turan described the film as "the most potent piece of satiric political cinema since Dr. Strangelove. The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed Kenneth Turan ( (b 27 October 1946) is an American Film critic and Lecturer in the Master of Professional Writing Program at the University 
New York Times film critic Janet Maslin was very positive towards the film upon its release. Janet Maslin (born 1948 is an American Journalist. She is best known as a film and literary critic for The New York Times She stated that "Terry Gilliam's Brazil, a jaunty, wittily observed vision of an extremely bleak future, is a superb example of the power of comedy to underscore serious ideas, even solemn ones. "
In 2004 the magazine Total Film named Brazil the 20th greatest British movie of all time. The year 2004 in film involved some significant events Major releases of sequels took place Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally Total Film, published by Future Publishing, is the United Kingdom 's second best-selling Film Magazine. In 2005 Time magazine's film reviewers Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel named Brazil in an unordered list of the 100 best films of all time. The year 2005 in film involved some significant events Releases of sequels took place with movies like The Devil's Rejects, Cheaper Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Richard Nelson Corliss (born 1943 is a writer for Time magazine who focuses on Movies, with the occasional article on music or sports Richard Warren Schickel (born February 10, 1933 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is an Author, Journalist, and documentary In 2006 Channel 4 voted Brazil one of the "50 Films to See Before You Die", shortly before its broadcast on FilmFour. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Channel 4 is a public-service Television and Radio broadcaster in the United Kingdom centred around a television channel of the same name which began 50 Films to See Before You Die was a television programme first shown on Channel 4 on Saturday 22 July, 2006, to celebrate the relaunch of Film4 is a free digital Television channel in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, owned and operated by Channel 4, that screens
Wired Magazine ranked Brazil number 5 in its list of the top 20 sci-fi movies. Wired is a full-color monthly American Magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993 
Rob Thomas of Madison's Capital Times gave the film 5 out of 5 stars and stated "it has visual style and imagination to burn, but it's the ideas behind it that make it a modern classic. Robert Thomas could refer to Rob Thomas (musician, singer-songwriter leadsinger of Matchbox Twenty Robert Thomas (counterfeiter, 18th-century The Capital Times (or just Cap Times) is a Newspaper published in Madison Wisconsin by Capital Newspapers. . . ".
Numerous Hollywood directors, actors, and auteurs cite the film as a major artistic and cultural influence.
On the website Rotten Tomatoes, it ranked 97% Freshness. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.
Filmsiteorg is a Website operated by Tim Dirks since 1996. It contains about 300 in-depth reviews of what Dirks judges to be the "greatest films" Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages