Brackens (Pteridium) are a genus of about ten species of large, coarse ferns, in the family Dennstaedtiaceae. A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta Dennstaedtiaceae is one of fifteen families in the order Polypodiales, the most derived families within monilophytes (ferns The genus has probably the widest distribution of any fern genus in the world, being found on all continents except Antarctica and in all environments except for hot and cold deserts. Therefore it is considered to have a cosmopolitan distribution. In Biogeography, a Biological category of living things is said to have cosmopolitan distribution if this category can be found almost anywhere around the world In the past, the genus was commonly treated as having only one species, Pteridium aquilinum, but the recent trend is to subdivide it into several species.
Evolutionarily, bracken may be considered to be one of the most successful ferns. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 The plant sends up large, triangular fronds from a wide-creeping underground rootstock, and may form dense thickets. This rootstock may travel a metre or more underground between fronds. The fronds may grow up to 2. 5 m (8 feet) long or longer with support, but typically are in the range of 0. 6-2 m (2-6 feet) high. In cold environments bracken is winter-deciduous, and, as it requires well-drained soil, is generally found growing on the sides of hills. Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel
Brackens are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Dot Moth, Gold Swift, Map-winged Swift, Orange Swift and Small Angle Shades. A larva ( Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of Animal with indirect development, undergoing Metamorphosis (for example Lepidoptera is an order of Insect that includes Moths and butterflies. The Dot Moth ( Melanchra persicariae) is a Moth of the family Noctuidae. Phymatopus is a genus of Moths of the family Hepialidae. There are six described species scattered across the Northern Hemisphere, placed in two Pharmacis is a genus of Moths of the family Hepialidae. There are eight described species found in Eurasia. The Orange Swift ( Triodia sylvina) also known as "Orange Moth" (but see Angerona prunaria) is a species of Moth belonging to the The Small Angle Shades ( Euplexia lucipara) is a Moth of the family Noctuidae.
It is a herbaceous perennial plant, deciduous in winter. A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than The fronds are produced singly from an underground rhizome, and grow to 1-3 m tall; the main stem is up to 1 cm diameter at the base. A frond is a large Leaf with many divisions to it and the term is typically used for the leaves of palms Ferns or Cycads A frond is In Botany, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a Plant that is usually found underground often sending out Roots and Shoots
The plant is carcinogenic to animals such as mice, rats and cattle when ingested. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation Young stems are used as a vegetable in Japan, leading some reasearchers to suggest a link between consumption and higher stomach cancer rates. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Stomach or gastric cancer can develop in any part of the Stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs particularly the Esophagus and  The spores have also been implicated as a carcinogen. In Biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions Danish scientist Lars Holm Rasmussen released a study in 2004 showing that the carcinogenic compound in bracken, ptaquiloside or PTQ, can leach from the plant into the water supply, which may explain an increase in the incidence of gastric and oesophageal cancers in bracken-rich areas.  In cattle, bracken poisoning can occur in both an acute and chronic form, acute poisoning being the most common. In pigs and horses bracken poisoning induces vitamin B deficiency. Poisoning usually occurs when there is a shortage of available grasses as in drought or snowfalls.
The word bracken is of Old Norse origin, related to the Swedish word bräken, meaning fern. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age
Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken or Common Bracken) is the most common species with a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring in temperate and subtropical regions throughout much of the world, including most of Europe, Asia, and North America in the Northern Hemisphere, and Australia, New Zealand and northern South America in the Southern Hemisphere. In Biogeography, a Biological category of living things is said to have cosmopolitan distribution if this category can be found almost anywhere around the world Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Southern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is South of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' It is a prolific and abundant plant in the highlands of Great Britain. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands It causes such a problem of invading pastureland that at one time the British government had an eradication program. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Special filters have even been used on some British water supplies to filter out the bracken spores. In Biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions
Bracken fiddleheads (the immature, tightly curled emerging fronds) have been considered edible by many cultures throughout history, and are still commonly used today as a foodstuff. Fiddlehead ferns refers to the unfurled fronds of a young Fern harvested for food consumption Bracken fiddleheads are either consumed fresh (and cooked) or preserved by salting, pickling, or sun drying. In Korea, where they are called gosari namul (고사리 나물), they are a typical ingredient in the mixed rice dish called bibimbap. Bibimbap is a popular Korean dish. The word literally means "stirred/mixed Rice " or "stirred/mixed meal
Both fronds and rhizomes have been used to brew beer, and the rhizome starch has been used as a substitute for arrowroot. A frond is a large Leaf with many divisions to it and the term is typically used for the leaves of palms Ferns or Cycads A frond is In Botany, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a Plant that is usually found underground often sending out Roots and Shoots Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Arrowroot, or obedience plant ( Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial Herb of genus Maranta found in Rainforest Bread can be made out of dried and powered rhizomes alone or with other flour. Flour is a powder made of Cereal grains It is the key ingredient of Bread, which is a staple food in many countries and therefore the availability American Indians cooked the rhizomes, then peeled and ate them or pounded the starchy fiber into flour. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. In Japan, starch from the rhizomes used to be used to make confections. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
The Māori of New Zealand used the rhizomes of P. This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island esculentum (aruhe) as a staple food, especially for exploring or hunting groups away from permanent settlements; much of the widespread distribution of this species in present-day New Zealand is in fact a consequence of prehistoric deforestation and subsequent tending of aruhe stands on rich soils (which produced the best rhizomes). The rhizomes were air-dried so that they could be stored and became lighter; for consumption, they were briefly heated and then softened with a patu aruhe (rhizome pounder); the starch could then be sucked from the fibers by each diner, or collected if it were to be prepared for a larger feast. Patu aruhe were significant items and several distinct styles were developed (McGlone et al. 2005).
Bracken has also been used as a form of herbal remedy. A(n herb (ˈhɝb or /ˈɝb/ see pronunciation differences) is a plant that is valued for qualities such as medicinal properties flavor scent or the like Powdered rhizome has been considered particularly effective against parasitic worms. Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between Organisms of different Species. American Indians ate raw rhizomes as a remedy for bronchitis. Bronchitis is an Inflammation of the Bronchi. More specifically it may refer to Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting
In East Asia, Pteridium aquilinum (fernbrake or bracken fiddleheads) is eaten as a vegetable, called warabi (蕨 / わらび) in Japan, gosari (고사리) in Korea, and juécài (蕨菜) in China and Taiwan. Fiddlehead ferns refers to the unfurled fronds of a young Fern harvested for food consumption In Korea, a typical banchan (small side dish) is gosari-namul (고사리나물) that consists of prepared fernbrake that has been sauteed. Banchan also spelled panchan, refers to small Side dishes served along with cooked rice in Korean cuisine. It is a component of the popular dish bibimbap. Bibimbap is a popular Korean dish. The word literally means "stirred/mixed Rice " or "stirred/mixed meal
Bracken has been shown to be carcinogenic in some animals and is thought to be an important cause of the high incidence of stomach cancer in Japan. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation Stomach or gastric cancer can develop in any part of the Stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs particularly the Esophagus and It is currently under investigation as a possible source of new insecticides. An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms
Uncooked bracken contains the enzyme thiaminase, which breaks down thiamine. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Thiaminase is an Enzyme that metabolizes or breaks down Thiamine into two molecular parts For the similarly spelled pyrimidine see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1 Eating excessive quantities of bracken can cause beriberi, especially in creatures with simple-stomachs. Beriberi (pronounced Berry-berry) is a Nervous system ailment caused by Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency Ruminants are less vulnerable because they synthesize thiamine. Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known