|(U.S. National Historic Landmark District)|
|View of the Water Celebration, on Boston Common, October 25, 1848|
|Architect:||Multiple, including Augustus St. Gaudens|
|Designated as NHL:||February 27, 1987|
|Added to NRHP:||July 12, 1972 (original, in NRHP also including Boston Public Garden)|
February 27, 1987 (new, in NHL of Boston Common alone)
|NRHP Reference#:||72000144 (original)|
Boston Common is a central public park in Boston, Massachusetts. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the Augustus Saint-Gaudens ( Dublin, March 1, 1848 &ndash Cornish New Hampshire, August 3, 1907) was the Irish A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Boston Commons". Dating from 1634, it is the oldest city park in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Its 50 acres (20 ha) of land are bounded by Tremont Street, Park Street, Beacon Street, Charles Street, and Boylston Street. The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, Tremont Street is a major thoroughfare in Boston Massachusetts. This article refers to Park Street in Boston For other Park Streets please see the Park Street disambiguation page Beacon Street is a major thoroughfare in Boston Massachusetts and several of its western suburbs Charles Street is the name of a north-south street in the city center of Boston Massachusetts. Boylston Street is the name of a major east-west thoroughfare in the city of Boston Massachusetts and its western suburbs The Common is part of the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways that extend from the Common south to Franklin Park in Roxbury. The Emerald Necklace consists of an 1100-acre chain of parks linked by parkways and waterways in Boston and Brookline Massachusetts. Franklin Park, a partially-wooded parkland in the Jamaica Plain and Roxbury neighborhoods of Boston Massachusetts, is maintained by the Department Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts USA It was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became a A visitors' center for all of Boston is on the Tremont Street side of the park.
The Central Burying Ground is found on the Boylston Street side of Boston Common. There one can find the burial sites of the artist Gilbert Stuart and the composer William Billings. Gilbert Charles Stuart (born Stewart) (December 3 1755 &ndash July 9 1828 was an American painter from Rhode Island. William Billings ( October 7, 1746 &ndash September 26, 1800) was an American choral Composer, and is widely
The Common's purpose has changed over the years. Originally it was owned by William Blaxton (often given the modernized spelling "Blackstone") until it was bought from him by the city. Reverend William Blaxton (also spelled William Blackstone) (1595 - 1675 was an early British settler in New England, and the first European settler of During the 1630s, it was used as a cow pasture by many families living in Boston. However, this only lasted for a few years, as affluent families bought additional cows which led to overgrazing. Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to Livestock Grazing for extended periods of time or without sufficient recovery periods 
The Common was used as a camp by the British before the Revolutionary War, from which they left for the Battle of Lexington and Concord. A military camp or bivouac is a semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an Army. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. It was used for public hangings up until 1817, most of which were from a large oak which was replaced with gallows in 1769. Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin A gallows is a frame typically wooden used for execution by Hanging. Mary Dyer was hanged there in 1660. Mary Barrett Dyer (c 1611 – June 1 1660) was an English Puritan turned Quaker who was hanged in Boston Massachusetts
On May 19, 1713, two hundred citizens rioted on the Common in reaction to a food shortage in the city. They later attacked the ships and warehouses of wealthy merchant Andrew Belcher, who was exporting grain to the Caribbean for higher profits. The lieutenant governor was shot during the riot. 
Central Burying Ground on Boston Common
Frog Pond, viewed from the west.
Boston Common Inscription
1890 Map of Boston Common and the adjacent Public Garden.
Plaque to the Great Elm tree, which had been destroyed in a storm in 1876
A hundred people gathered on the Common in early 1965 to protest the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia A second protest happened on October 15, 1969, this time with 100,000 people protesting. 
Today the Common serves as a public park for all to use for formal or informal gatherings. Events such as concerts, protests, softball games, and ice skating (on Frog Pond) often take place in the park. Famous individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Pope John Paul II have made speeches there. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Pope Judy Garland gave her largest concert ever (100,000+) on the Common, on August 31, 1967. Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10 1922 – June 22 1969 was an American actress and singer
It was declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1987. A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the 
On October 21, 2006, the Common became the site of a new world record, when 30,128 Jack-o'-lanterns were lit simultaneously around the park. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A jack-o'-lantern (sometimes also spelled Jack O'Lantern)is typically a carved Pumpkin. The previous record, held by Keene, New Hampshire since 2003, was 28,952. Keene is a city in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. 
On August 27, 2007 two teenagers were shot on the Common. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. One of the bullets fired during the shooting struck the Massachusetts State House. This article is about a building For the similarly-named legislative body see Massachusetts House of Representatives.  A strict curfew has since been enforced, which has been protested by the homeless population of Boston. A curfew can be one of the following An order by a Government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing because they cannot afford or are otherwise unable to maintain regular safe and adequate shelter  
Notable features of the Common
- The Massachusetts State House stands across Beacon Street from the northern edge of the Common. This article is about a building For the similarly-named legislative body see Massachusetts House of Representatives.
- The Unitarian Universalist Association, headquarters of the international, liberal religious denomination, sits next door to the Massachusetts State House facing the Common. Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association Liberal religion is a Religious tradition which embraces the Theological diversity of a congregation rather than respecting any single Creed, authority Church (disambiguation A religious denomination is a subgroup within a Religion that operates under a common name tradition and identity This article is about a building For the similarly-named legislative body see Massachusetts House of Representatives.
- The Common forms the southern foot of Beacon Hill. Other places are also named Beacon Hill. Beacon Hill is a neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts, covering approximately one square
- Plaque to the Great Elm tree, which had been adorned with lanterns to represent liberty, used as a point of fortification and been used for hangings. 
- The monument to Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry stands at Beacon and Park Streets, the northeast corner of the Common, opposite the State House. Robert Gould Shaw ( October 10, 1837 &ndash July 18, 1863) was the Colonel in command of the all- black 54th Massachusetts The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment, an Infantry Regiment that fought in the American Civil War, was one of the first official black
- The Soldiers and Sailors Monument is a victory column on Flag Staff Hill in the Common
- The Boston Public Garden lies to the west of the Common, across Charles Street, and was originally considered an extension of the Common. The Soldiers and Sailors Monument on Boston Common at Boston, in the U A Victory column is a Monument in the form of a Column, erected in memory of a victorious War or Battle. The Public Garden, also known as Boston Public Garden, is a large park located in the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, adjacent to the Boston Common
- Frog Pond, a public ice-skating rink in winter months, is situated in the northern portion.
- Park Street Station, the first subway station in America, stands at the eastern corner of the park. Park Street Station of the MBTA, located at the intersection of Park Street and Tremont Street in Boston at a corner of Boston Common
- Likewise, Boylston Station at the southern corner is America's second subway station. For the Orange Line station formerly called Boylston see Chinatown.
- Boston Common is the southern end of Boston's Freedom Trail. The Freedom Trail is a red (mostly brick path through downtown Boston Massachusetts which leads to sixteen significant historic sites
- Parkman Bandstand, in the eastern part of the park, is commonly used in musical and theatrical productions.
- The softball fields lie in the southwest corner of the Common.
- A grassy area forms the west part of the park, and is most commonly used for the park's largest events. A parking garage underlies this part of the Common. A granite slab there commemorates Pope John Paul II's October 1979 visit to Boston. Pope
- The Province of Nova Scotia has donated the annual Christmas tree to the City of Boston as an enduring thank-you for the relief efforts of the Boston Red Cross and the Massachusetts Public Safety Committee following the Halifax Explosion of 1917. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's A Christmas tree, Yule tree, holiday tree or Tannenbaum (fir tree is one of the most popular Traditions associated with the celebration The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated The Halifax Explosion occurred on Thursday December 6, 1917, when the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, was devastated by the In recent years the tree has been located on the Common.
- The Masonic Grand Lodge of Massachusetts headquarters sits across from the southern corner of the Common, at the intersection of Boylston and Tremont Streets. The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, or Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in short (GLMA is the main governing
- Also across from the southern corner of the Common, along Boylston and Tremont Streets, lies the campus of Emerson College. Emerson College is a private university in Boston, Massachusetts that focuses on "communication and the arts"
- In 1986, two prehistoric sites were discovered on the Common indicating Native American presence in the area as far back as 8,500 years ago.
- A monumental inscription at the corner of Park Street and Tremont Street reads:
"In or about
the year of our Lord
One Thousand Six Hundred
thirty and four
the then present inhabitants
of the Town of Boston of whom
the Hon John Winthrop Esq
Gov of the Colony was Chiefe
did treat and agree with
Mr William Blackstone
for the purchase of his
Estate and any
Lands living within said
neck of Land called
after which purchase the
Town laid out a plan for
a trayning field for which ever
since and now is used for
that purpose and for
the feeding of cattell"
Notable recurring events on the Common
- Commonwealth Shakespeare Company's Shakespeare on the Common. The Commonwealth Shakespeare Company (CSC was formed in 1996 by artistic director Steven Maler and associate Joan Moynagh to bring free outdoor Shakespeare to the people of
- Boston Lyric Opera's Outdoor Opera Series. Boston Lyric Opera (BLO is New England’s favorite opera company
- Massachusetts Cannabis Reform Coalition's Freedom Rally. The Freedom Rally is an annual event in Boston, Massachusetts.
- Boston Pride.
Other parks and parkways of the Emerald Necklace:
- ^ a b James H. The Emerald Necklace consists of an 1100-acre chain of parks linked by parkways and waterways in Boston and Brookline Massachusetts. The Public Garden, also known as Boston Public Garden, is a large park located in the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, adjacent to the Boston Common Commonwealth Avenue (colloquially referred to as Comm Ave by locals the latter word pronounced in the same manner as "have" is a major street in the cities of The Back Bay Fens, most commonly called simply The Fens, is a Parkland and Urban wild in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United The Fenway refers to either a thoroughfare or an area within Boston Massachusetts. The Riverway is a Parkway in Boston Massachusetts. "The Riverway" is most correct although locals use "Riverway" and "The Riverway" The Jamaicaway is a four-lane undivided Parkway in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts near the border of Brookline. Olmsted Park is a linear Park in Boston and Brookline, Massachusetts, and a part of Boston's Emerald Necklace of connected parks Jamaica Pond is a kettle pond part of the Emerald Necklace of parks in Boston designed by Frederick Law Olmsted The Arborway consists of a four-lane divided Parkway and a two lane residential street in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts. The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an Arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston Massachusetts Franklin Park, a partially-wooded parkland in the Jamaica Plain and Roxbury neighborhoods of Boston Massachusetts, is maintained by the Department Founded in 1660 the Granary Burying Ground on Tremont Street in Boston Massachusetts is the city's third-oldest cemetery King's Chapel is a Christian Unitarian church in Boston Massachusetts, located at the corner of Tremont Street and School Street The Public Garden, also known as Boston Public Garden, is a large park located in the heart of Boston, Massachusetts, adjacent to the Boston Common The Freedom Trail is a red (mostly brick path through downtown Boston Massachusetts which leads to sixteen significant historic sites This article is about a building For the similarly-named legislative body see Massachusetts House of Representatives. Charleton (November, 1985), National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Boston CommonPDF (32 KB), National Park Service and Accompanying photos: one aerial from 1972 and three from 1985PDF (32 KB)
- ^ a b Boston Common. National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2008-04-16. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom
- ^ National Register Information System. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service (2007-01-23). Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor
- ^ Loewen, James. James (Jim W Loewen (b February 6, 1942) is a sociologist Professor, and author whose best known work is Lies My Teacher Told Me Everything Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong. New York: The New Press, 1999. p. 414 ISBN 0965003172
- ^ Zinn, Howard. Howard Zinn (born August 24 1922 is an American Historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and Playwright, best known A People's History of the United States. A People's History of the United States is a 1980 Nonfiction book by American Historian and Political scientist Howard Zinn New York: Perennial, 2003. p. 51 ISBN 0060528370
- ^ Zinn, Howard. p. 486
- ^ A love in Common for pumpkins - The Boston Globe
- ^ Shots on Common strike teens, State House - The Boston Globe
- ^ Curfew targets crime on Common - The Boston Globe
- ^ Homeless Protest Boston Common Curfew: Park Closed After 11 P.M.. TheBostonChannel. Com (2007-08-30). Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Retrieved on 2008-04-16. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom
- ^ http://www.celebrateboston.com/sites/greatelm.htm
External links A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system.
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