|República de Bolivia (Spanish)|
Bulibya Republika (Quechua)
Wuliwya Suyu (Aymara)
Republic of Bolivia
|Motto: "¡La unión es la fuerza!" (Spanish)|
"Unity is strength!"
|Anthem: Bolivianos, el hado propicio (Spanish)|
|Capital||Sucre (constitutional, judicial)|
La Paz (administrative)
|Largest city||Santa Cruz de la Sierra|
|Official languages||Spanish, Quechua, Aymara|
|-||Vice President||Álvaro García|
|-||from Spain||August 6, 1825|
|-||Total||1,098,581 km² (28th)|
424,163 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||1. The current flag of Bolivia was originally adopted by Bolivia in 1851. The Coat of Arms of Bolivia has a central crest surrounded by Bolivian flags, Muskets laurel branches and has an Andean condor on top A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The National anthem of Bolivia (Himno Nacional de Bolivia also known as Bolivianos el Hado Propicio (Bolivians a most Favorable Destiny was adopted in 1851 Sucre (population 247300 in 2006 is the constitutional Capital of Bolivia, seat of the Supreme Court ( Corte Suprema de Justicia Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. Bolivia 's ethnic distribution is estimated to be 55%-70% indigenous people 30%-42% Mestizo and 10-15% Caucasians The largest of the approximately three dozen indigenous Santa Cruz de La Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital city of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Aymara ( Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The President of Bolivia is the head of state of Bolivia. According to the current constitution the president is elected by popular vote for a single non-renewable five year Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since This is a list of Vice Presidents of Bolivia, the second highest political position in Bolivia Álvaro Marcelo García Linera (born October 19, 1962) is a Bolivian politician. This is the History of Bolivia.See also the History of Latin America, the History of the Americas, and the History of present-day nations Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 29|
|-||July 2007 estimate||9,119,152 (84th)|
|-||Density||8. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 4/km² (210th)|
21. List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 8/sq mi
|-||Total||$25. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 684 billion (101st)|
|-||Per capita||$2,817 (125th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$12. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 8 billion (108rd)|
|-||Per capita||$1,422 (121st)|
|Gini (2002)||60. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 1 (high)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 695 (medium) (117th)|
The Republic of Bolivia (Spanish: República de Bolivia, Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβ̞lika ð̞e β̞oˈliβ̞ja]), named after Simón Bolívar, is a landlocked country in central South America. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The boliviano ( ISO 4217 code BOB) is the Currency of Bolivia. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco,Venezuelan or commonly known as Simón Bolívar ( July 24, 1783 &ndash A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a It is bordered by Brazil on the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina on the south, and Chile and Peru on the west. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. From 1839 Sucre was the seat of government until the administrative capital was moved to La Paz in 1898. Sucre (population 247300 in 2006 is the constitutional Capital of Bolivia, seat of the Supreme Court ( Corte Suprema de Justicia Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. Sucre remains the constitutional capital and seat of the Supreme Court (Corte Suprema de Justicia).
The territory now known as Bolivia was called "Upper Peru" and was under the authority of the Viceroy of Lima. This is the History of Bolivia.See also the History of Latin America, the History of the Americas, and the History of present-day nations Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking Local government came from the Audiencia de Charcas located in Chuquisaca (La Plata—modern Sucre). The Royal Audience and Chancellery of la Plata de los Charcas (Sp By the late 16th century Bolivian silver was an important source of revenue for the Spanish empire. Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries  A steady stream of natives served as labor force (the Spanish employed the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita). Mita ( Quechua: mit'a) was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.  As Spanish royal authority weakened during the Napoleonic wars, sentiment against colonial rule grew. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions
The struggle for independence started in 1809, but sixteen years of war followed before the republic was proclaimed, named for Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825 (see Bolivian War of Independence). Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco,Venezuelan or commonly known as Simón Bolívar ( July 24, 1783 &ndash Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
In 1836, Bolivia, under the rule of Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz, invaded Peru to reinstall the deposed president, General Luis Orbegoso. Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana ( December 5, 1792, La Paz, Bolivia &ndash September 25, 1865, Beauvoir France was President Peru and Bolivia formed the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, with de Santa Cruz as the Supreme Protector. Following tensions between the Confederation and Chile, war was declared by Chile on December 28, 1836. Argentina, Chile's ally, declared war on the Confederation on May 9, 1837. The Peruvian-Bolivian forces achieved several major victories: the defeat of the Argentinian expedition and the defeat of the first Chilean expedition on the fields of Paucarpata near the city of Arequipa. For the Cactus Genus, see Oreocereus. Arequipa is the capital of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru
On the same field the Paucarpata Treaty was signed with the unconditional surrender of the Chilean and Peruvian rebel army. The treaty assured the Chilean withdrawal from Peru-Bolivia, the return of captured Confederate ships, normalized economic relations, and the payment of Peruvian debt to Chile by the Confederation. Public outrage over the treaty forced the government to reject it. The Chileans organized a second expeditionary force, and attacked the Peru-Bolivian confederation, defeating the Confederation on the fields of Yungay using the same arms and equipment Santa Cruz had allowed them to retain. The Battle of Yungay was the final battle in the Chilean-Confederation War, taking place on January 20 1839 After this defeat, Santa Cruz fled to Ecuador, and the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation was dissolved. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics.
Following the independence of Peru, General Gamarra, the Peruvian president, invaded Bolivia, under the Peruvian flag. Agustín Gamarra Messia ( August 27, 1785 in Cusco, Peru – November 18, 1841 in Ingavi, Bolivia) The Peruvian army was decisively defeated at the Battle of Ingaví on November 20, 1841, where General Gamarra was killed. The Bolivian army under General José Ballivián then mounted a counter-offensive managing to capture the Peruvian port of Arica. For the province of Bolivia see José Ballivián Beni José Ballivián ( May 5, 1805 – October 6, Later, both sides signed a peace in 1842 putting a final end to the war.
Because of a period of political and economic instability in the early to middle nineteenth century, Bolivia's weakness was demonstrated during the War of the Pacific (1879–83), during which it lost its access to the sea, and the adjoining rich nitrate fields, together with the port of Antofagasta, to Chile. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms For the copper-mining company named after the region see Antofagasta plc. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Since independence, Bolivia has lost over half of its territory to neighboring countries because of wars. Bolivia also lost the state of Acre (known for its production of rubber) when Brazil persuaded the state of Acre to secede from Bolivia in 1903 (see the Treaty of Petrópolis). For other meanings of the word Acre, see also Acre (disambiguation Acre (ˈakɾi is a state of Brazil, located The Treaty of Petrópolis, signed on November 11, 1903, ended tensions between Bolivia and Brazil over the then-Bolivian territory of Acre
An increase in the world price of silver brought Bolivia a measure of relative prosperity and political stability in the late 1800s. Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen During the early part of the twentieth century, tin replaced silver as the country's most important source of wealth. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 A succession of governments controlled by the economic and social elite followed laissez-faire capitalist policies through the first thirty years of the twentieth century. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where
Living conditions of the native people, who constituted most of the population, remained deplorable. Forced to work under primitive conditions in the mines and in nearly feudal status on large estates, they were denied access to education, economic opportunity, or political participation. Bolivia's defeat by Paraguay in the Chaco War (1932–35) marked a turning-point. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only The Chaco War (1932&ndash1935 was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of a great part of the Gran Chaco region of South America 
The Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR) emerged as a broadly based party. The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario is a Bolivian Political party, perhaps the most important in the country during the 20th Denied their victory in the 1951 presidential elections, the MNR led the successful 1952 revolution. Under President Víctor Paz Estenssoro, the MNR , having strong popular pressure, introduced universal suffrage into his political platform, and carried out a sweeping land-reform promoting rural education and nationalization of the country's largest tin-mines. Ángel Víctor Paz Estenssoro ( October 2, 1907 - June 7, 2001) was a politician and former president of Bolivia. Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to
Twelve years of tumultuous rule left the MNR divided. In 1964, a military junta overthrew President Paz Estenssoro at the outset of his third term. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, The 1969 death of President René Barrientos Ortuño, a former member of the junta elected President in 1966, led to a succession of weak governments. René Barrientos Ortuño ( May 30, 1919 – April 27, 1969) was a Bolivian politician who served as his country's vice-president in Alarmed by public disorder and the rising Popular Assembly, the military, the MNR, and others installed Colonel (later General) Hugo Banzer Suárez as President in 1971. Hugo Banzer Suárez ( May 10, 1926 &ndash May 5, 2002) was a politician military general and President of Bolivia. Banzer ruled with MNR support from 1971 to 1974. Then, impatient with schisms in the coalition, he replaced civilians with members of the armed forces and suspended political activities. The economy grew impressively during most of Banzer's presidency, but human rights violations and eventual fiscal crises undercut his support. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled He was forced to call elections in 1978, and Bolivia again entered a period of political turmoil.
Elections in 1979 and 1981 were inconclusive and marked by fraud. There were coups d'état, counter-coups, and caretaker governments. In 1980, General Luis García Meza Tejada carried out a ruthless and violent coup d'état that did not have popular support. Luis García Meza Tejada (b August 8, 1932, La Paz, Bolivia) is a former Bolivian dictator He pacified the people by promising to remain in power only for one year. (At the end of the year, he staged a televised rally to claim popular support and announced, "Bueno, me quedo," or, "All right; I'll stay [in office]. " He was deposed shortly thereafter. ) His government was notorious for human-rights-abuses, narcotics-trafficking, and economic mismanagement; during his presidency, the inflation that would later cripple the Bolivian economy could already be felt. The term narcotic (ναρκωτικός is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that benumb or deaden causing loss Later convicted in absentia for various crimes, including murder, García Meza was extradited from Brazil and began serving a thirty-year sentence in 1995. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of
After a military rebellion forced out García Meza in 1981, three other military governments in fourteen months struggled with Bolivia's growing problems. Unrest forced the military to convoke the Congress elected in 1980 and allow it to choose a new chief executive. The National Congress ( Congreso Nacional) is the national Legislature of Bolivia, based in the nation's De facto Capital, In October 1982, twenty-two years after the end of his first term of office (1956-60), Hernán Siles Zuazo again became President. Hernán Siles Zuazo ( March 21, 1914, Bolivia &ndash August 6, 1996, Uruguay) was a politician from Bolivia
Sánchez de Lozada pursued an aggressive economic and social reform agenda. Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930, La Paz) familiarly known as "Goni" is a Bolivian politician The most dramatic change undertaken by the Sánchez de Lozada government was the "capitalization" program, under which investors, typically foreign, acquired 50% ownership and management control of public enterprises, such as the state oil corporation, telecommunications system, airlines, railroads, and electric utilities in return for agreed upon capital investments. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit An airline provides air transport services for Passengers or Freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license The reforms and economic restructuring were strongly opposed by certain segments of society, which instigated frequent and sometimes violent protests, particularly in La Paz and the Chapare coca-growing region, from 1994 through 1996. The Sánchez de Lozada government pursued a policy of offering monetary compensation for voluntary eradication of illegal coca by its growers in the Chapare region. The policy produced little net reduction in coca, and in the mid-1990s Bolivia accounted for about one-third of the world's coca that was being processed into cocaine. Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant
During this time, the umbrella labor-organization of Bolivia, the Central Obrera Boliviana (COB), became increasingly unable to effectively challenge government policy. A teachers' strike in 1995 was defeated because the COB could not marshal the support of many of its members, including construction- and factory-workers. The state also used selective martial law to keep the disruptions caused by the teachers to a minimum. The teachers were led by Trotskyites, and were considered to be the most militant union in the COB. Their downfall was a major blow to the COB, which also became mired in internal corruption and infighting in 1996.
In the 1997 elections, General Hugo Banzer, leader of the ADN party and former dictator (1971-1978), won 22% of the vote, while the MNR candidate won 18%. Hugo Banzer Suárez ( May 10, 1926 &ndash May 5, 2002) was a politician military general and President of Bolivia. Nationalist Democratic Action (in Spanish: Acción Democrática Nacionalista) is a Right-wing party in Bolivia led by Jorge Quiroga General Banzer formed a coalition of the ADN, MIR, UCS, and CONDEPA parties, which held a majority of seats in the Bolivian Congress. The Congress elected him as president, and he was inaugurated on August 6, 1997. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar During the election-campaign, General Banzer had promised to suspend the privatization of the state-owned oil-company, YPFB. Considering the weak position that Bolivia was in vis-à-vis international corporations, however, this seemed unlikely.
The Banzer government basically continued the free-market and privatization-policies of its predecessor, and the relatively robust economic growth of the mid-1990s continued until about the third year of its term in office. After that, regional, global and domestic factors contributed to a decline in economic growth. Financial crises in Argentina and Brazil, lower world prices for export-commodities, and reduced employment in the coca-sector depressed the Bolivian economy. The public also perceived a significant amount of public-sector corruption. These factors contributed to increasing social protests during the second half of Banzer's term.
At the outset of his government, President Banzer launched a policy of using special police-units to physically eradicate the illegal coca of the Chapare region. The policy produced a sudden and dramatic four-year decline in Bolivia's illegal coca-crop, to the point that Bolivia became a relatively small supplier of coca for cocaine. Those left unemployed by coca-eradication streamed into the cities, especially El Alto, the slum-neighborhood of La Paz. The MIR of Jaime Paz Zamora remained a coalition-partner throughout the Banzer government, supporting this policy (called the Dignity Plan).
On August 6, 2001, Banzer resigned from office after being diagnosed with cancer. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled He died less than a year later. Banzer's Vice President, Jorge Fernando Quiroga Ramírez, completed the final year of his term. Jorge Fernando "Tuto" Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to
Quiroga was constitutionally prohibited from running for national office in 2002.
In the June 2002 national elections, former President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (MNR) placed first with 29. Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930, La Paz) familiarly known as "Goni" is a Bolivian politician 5% of the vote, followed by coca-advocate and native peasant-leader Evo Morales (Movement Toward Socialism, MAS) with 20. Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since The Movement for Socialism ( Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS alternately referred to as "Movement Toward Socialism" or "Movement to Socialism" is a 9%. Morales edged out populist candidate Manfred Reyes Villa of the New Republican Force (NFR) by just 700 votes nationwide, earning a spot in the congressional run-off against Sánchez de Lozada on August 4, 2002. Manfred Reyes Villa (born April 20, 1954) is a Bolivian politician who was mayor of Cochabamba four times and ran for presidency in 2002 against The New Republican Force ( Nueva Fuerza Republicana) is a center-right personalist party in Bolivia. Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
A July agreement between the MNR and the fourth-place MIR, which had again been led in the election by former president Jaime Paz Zamora, virtually ensured the election of Sánchez de Lozada in the congressional run-off, and on August 6 he was sworn in for the second time. Jaime Paz Zamora (born in Cochabamba on April 15, 1939) was President of Bolivia from August 6, 1989 to August Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. The MNR platform featured three overarching objectives: economic reactivation (and job creation), anti-corruption, and social inclusion. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain
The 2005 Bolivian presidential election was held on December 18, 2005. The Bolivian gas conflict was a social confrontation in Bolivia centering on the exploitation of the country's vast Natural gas reserves Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. The 2005 Bolivian presidential election was held on December 18, 2005. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The two main candidates were Juan Evo Morales Ayma of the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS) Party, and Jorge Quiroga, leader of the Democratic and Social Power (PODEMOS) Party and former head of the Acción Democrática Nacionalista (ADN) Party. Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since The Movement for Socialism ( Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS alternately referred to as "Movement Toward Socialism" or "Movement to Socialism" is a Jorge Fernando "Tuto" Quiroga Ramírez (born May 5, 1960) was President of Bolivia from August 7, 2001 to Podemos is the name of a right-of-center pro-business Bolivian political party Nationalist Democratic Action (in Spanish: Acción Democrática Nacionalista) is a Right-wing party in Bolivia led by Jorge Quiroga
Morales won the election with 53. 740% of the votes, an absolute majority unusual in Bolivian elections. An absolute majority or majority of the entire membership (in American English, a Supermajority Voting requirement is a Voting basis He was sworn in on January 22, 2006 for a five-year term. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Prior to his official inauguration in La Paz, he was inaugurated in an Aymara ritual at the archeological site of Tiwanaku before a crowd of thousands of Aymara people and representatives of leftist movements from across Latin America. Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia. Though highly symbolic, this ritual was not historically based and primarily represented native Aymaras — not the main Quechua-speaking population. Since the Spanish conquest in the early 1500s, this region of South America, with a majority native population, has been ruled mostly by descendants of European immigrants, with only a few mestizo (mixed European and indigenous) rulers. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Morales, an Aymara, has stated that the five hundred years of colonialism are now over and that the era of autonomy has begun. The Aymara are a native Ethnic group in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1
His recent presidential election victory has also brought new attention to the U. S. drug-war in South America and its heavy emphasis on coca-crop-eradication. Coca eradication is a controversial strategy strongly promoted by the United States government as part of its " War on Drugs " to eliminate the The US-supported "Plan Dignidad" (dignity-plan), which seeks to reduce cocaine-production to zero, is seen by many Bolivians as an attack on their livelihoods and way of life. Morales, a leader among coca-growers, has said his government will try to interdict drugs, but he wants to preserve the legal market for coca-leaves and promote export of legal coca-products. Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America
On May 1, 2006, Morales announced his intent to re-nationalize Bolivian hydrocarbon assets. Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. While stating that the nationalization-initiative would not be an expropriation, Morales sent Bolivian troops to occupy fifty-six gas-installations simultaneously. Troops were also sent to the two Petrobras-owned refineries in Bolivia, which provide over 90% of Bolivia's refining-capacity. Petrobras ( Bovespa: PETR3 / PETR4 ( NYSE: PBR / PBRA( Latibex: XPBR / XPBRA short for Petróleo Brasileiro S A deadline of 180 days was announced, by which all foreign energy-firms were required to sign new contracts giving Bolivia majority ownership and as much as 82% of revenues (the latter for the largest natural-gas-fields). That deadline has since passed, and all such firms have signed contracts. Reports from the Bolivian government and the companies involved are contradictory as to plans for future investment. By far the biggest customer for Bolivian hydrocarbons has been Brazil, which imports two-thirds of Bolivia's natural gas via pipelines operated by the huge semi-private Petrobras (PBR). Since gas can only be exported from landlocked Bolivia via PBR's large (and expensive) pipelines, the supplier and customer are strongly linked. How the nationalization will unfold is quite uncertain, as PBR has announced plans to produce sufficient natural gas by 2011 to replace that now supplied by Bolivia. Bolivia's position is strengthened both by the knowledge that hydrocarbon-reserves are more highly valued now than at the times of previous nationalizations, and by the pledged support of President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela.
Fulfilling a campaign promise, Morales opened on August 6, 2006 the Bolivian Constituent Assembly to begin writing a new constitution aimed at giving more power to the indigenous majority. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Bolivian Constituent Assembly, convened on August 6, 2006 in Sucre, with the purpose of drafting a new national Constitution by December Problems immediately arose when, unable to garner the two-thirds votes needed to include controversial provisions in the constitutional draft, Morales' party announced that only a simple majority (50%+) would be needed to draft individual articles while two-thirds needed to pass the document in full. Violent protests arose in December 2006 in parts of the country for both two-thirds and departmental autonomy; mostly in the eastern third of the country, where much of the hydrocarbon wealth is located. Conservative sectors in this region threaten to secede from the nation if their demands are not met. MAS and its supports believed two-thirds voting rules would give an effective veto for all constitutional changes to the conservative minority. Later in August 2007, more conflicts arose in Sucre, as the city demanded the discussion of the seat of government inside the assembly, hoping the executive and legislative branch could return to the city, but the city faced denial from the assembly and the government who pointed out that the demand was overwhelmingly impractical and politically undesirable. With the conflict turning into violence, the assembly was moved to a military area in Oruro. Although the main opposition party boycotted the session, a constitutional draft was approved on November 24. Subsequent riots, whipped up by opposition mercenary groups, left three dead.
In January 2007 a clash between middle class city dwellers and poorer rural campesinos left two dead and over 130 injured in the central city of Cochabamba. Cochabamba is a city in central Bolivia, located in a Valley bearing the same name in the Andes Mountain range. The campesinos had paralyzed the city by blockading the highways, bridges, and main roads, and days earlier had set fire to the departmental seat of government, trying to force the resignation of the elected Prefect of Cochabamba, Manfred Reyes Villa after he demanded a re-vote on departmental autonomy having been previously defeated by popular vote. Manfred Reyes Villa (born April 20, 1954) is a Bolivian politician who was mayor of Cochabamba four times and ran for presidency in 2002 against The city dwellers clashed with the campesinos, breaking the blockade and routing the protesters, while the police did little to interfere on either side. Further attempts by the campesinos to reinstate the blockade and threaten the government were unsuccessful, but the underlying tensions have not been resolved.
The 1967 constitution, amended in 1994, provides for balanced executive, legislative, and judicial powers. Santa Cruz de La Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital city of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia. The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the president is Head of The traditionally strong executive, however, tends to overshadow the Congress, whose role is generally limited to debating and approving legislation initiated by the executive. The National Congress ( Congreso Nacional) is the national Legislature of Bolivia, based in the nation's De facto Capital, The judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court and departmental and lower courts, has long been riddled with corruption and inefficiency. The Supreme Court of Bolivia is the South American country's highest legislative body located in Sucre, 410 kilometres to the south-east of La Paz, Bolivia Through revisions to the constitution in 1994, and subsequent laws, the government has initiated potentially far-reaching reforms in the judicial system and processes.
Bolivia's nine departments received greater autonomy under the Administrative Decentralization law of 1995. |||} Bolivia is divided into 9 departments (departamentos These are (with their capitals indicated in parentheses Beni ( Trinidad) Departmental autonomy further increased with the first popular elections for departmental governors (prefectos) on 18 December 2005, after long protests by pro-autonomy-leader department of Santa Cruz. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Government and Administration According to current Constitution, the highest authority in the department lies with the prefect (prefecto similar to a governor but Bolivian cities and towns are governed by directly elected mayors and councils. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Municipal elections were held on 5 December 2004, with councils elected to five-year terms. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The Popular Participation Law of April 1994, which distributes a significant portion of national revenues to municipalities for discretionary use, has enabled previously neglected communities to make striking improvements in their facilities and services.
The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote. Elected president Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada resigned in October 2003, and was substituted by Vice-president Carlos Mesa. Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada Sánchez Bustamante (born July 1, 1930, La Paz) familiarly known as "Goni" is a Bolivian politician Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert (born August 12, 1953) is a Bolivian politician historian and President of Bolivia from October 17 Mesa was in turn replaced by chief justice of the Supreme Court Eduardo Rodríguez in June 2005. Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé (born March 2, 1956) is a former president of Bolivia; prior to that appointment he was the chief justice of the Six months later, on December 18, 2005, the Socialist native leader, Evo Morales, was elected president. Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26 1959 in Orinoca, Oruro) popularly known as Evo (ˈeβo is the President of Bolivia since
Bolivia's government is a republic. The National Congress ( Congreso Nacional) is the national Legislature of Bolivia, based in the nation's De facto Capital, The Congreso Nacional (National Congress) has two chambers. The National Congress ( Congreso Nacional) is the national Legislature of Bolivia, based in the nation's De facto Capital, In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral The Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies) has 130 members elected to five-year terms, seventy from single-member districts (circunscripciones) and sixty by proportional representation. The National Congress ( Congreso Nacional) is the national Legislature of Bolivia, based in the nation's De facto Capital, Chamber of deputies is the name given to a legislative body such as the Lower house of a Bicameral legislature or can refer to a Unicameral legislature The Cámara de Senadores (Chamber of Senators) has twenty-seven members (three per department), elected to five-year terms. The National Congress ( Congreso Nacional) is the national Legislature of Bolivia, based in the nation's De facto Capital, A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament.
Bolivia has had a total of 193 coups d'etat from independence until 1981, thereby averaging a change of government once every ten months. Credit for the past quarter century of relative political stability is largely attributed to President Víctor Paz Estenssoro, who ceded power peacefully after cutting hyperinflation which reached as high as 14,000 percent. Ángel Víctor Paz Estenssoro ( October 2, 1907 - June 7, 2001) was a politician and former president of Bolivia. Certain figures in this article use Scientific notation for readability 
The Bolivian military comprises three branches: an Army, Navy and Air Force. Military branches of Bolivia: Army The Bolivian Army has around 31500 men The legal age for voluntary admissions is 18; however, when the numbers are small the government recruits anyone as young as 14. It is estimated that 20% of the Bolivian army is between the ages 14 and 16 while another 20% is from 16 to 18. The tour of duty is generally 12 months. In the Military, a tour of duty is a period of time spent at Sea or assigned to service in a foreign country The Bolivian government annually spends $130 million on defense. 
Bolivia is divided into nine departments (departamentos); capitals in parentheses:
Additionally, the departments are further divided into 100 provinces (provincias), and the provinces are each divided into municipalities (municipios) and cantons (cantones), which handle local affairs. |||} Bolivia is divided into 9 departments (departamentos These are (with their capitals indicated in parentheses Beni ( Trinidad) |||}The departments of Bolivia are divided into 100 Provinces which are further divided into municipalities. |||} On the third level below departments and provinces, Bolivia is divided into municipalities. |||} On the level below municipalities, Bolivia is divided into cantons ( cantones) Noel Kempff Mercado National Park is a National park in the north-eastern portion of the Santa Cruz Department, Province of José Miguel de Velasco Government and Administration According to current Constitution, the highest authority in the department lies with the prefect (prefecto similar to a governor but |||} Bolivia is divided into 9 departments (departamentos These are (with their capitals indicated in parentheses Beni ( Trinidad) Provinces of Beni Cercado Iténez José Ballivián Mamoré Marbán For other places and things named Trinidad see Trinidad (disambiguation. Chuquisaca is a department of Bolivia located in the center south Sucre (population 247300 in 2006 is the constitutional Capital of Bolivia, seat of the Supreme Court ( Corte Suprema de Justicia Cochabamba is one of the nine component departments of Bolivia. Cochabamba is a city in central Bolivia, located in a Valley bearing the same name in the Andes Mountain range. The La Paz Department of Bolivia comprises with a 2001 Census population of 2350466 inhabitants Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. Oruro is a department in Bolivia, with an area of 53588 km² Population (2001 census 391870 Oruro may refer to Oruro Bolivia - capital of the Bolivian Oruro Department Oruro Department - one of nine departments in Bolivia Provinces of Pando Abuná Federico Román Madre de Dios Manuripi The Bolivian city of Cobija is located ca 600 km (373 mi north of La Paz in the Amazon Basin on the border of Brazil. The department of Potosí is in southwestern Bolivia. It comprises 118218 km² with 709013 inhabitants (2001 census Potosí is a city the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. Government and Administration According to current Constitution, the highest authority in the department lies with the prefect (prefecto similar to a governor but Santa Cruz de La Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital city of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia.
At 1,098,580 km² (424,135 mi²), Bolivia is the world's 28th-largest country (after Ethiopia). The geography of Bolivia is unique among the nations of South America. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page It is comparable in size to Mauritania, and it has about 1. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country 5 times the area of the US state of Texas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. 
Bolivia has been a landlocked nation since 1879, when it lost its coastal department of Litoral to Chile in the War of the Pacific. History Antofagasta's history is divided as the territory in two sections the coastal region and the highlands plateau or Altiplano around the Andes. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia However, it does have access to the Atlantic via the Paraguay River. The Paraguay River ( Río Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major River in south central South America
An enormous diversity of ecological zones are represented within Bolivia's territory. The western highlands of the country are situated in the Andes Mountains and include the Bolivian Altiplano. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. The Altiplano ( Spanish for high plain) where the Andes are at their widest is the most extensive area of High plateau on earth outside The eastern lowlands include large sections of Amazonian rainforests and Chaco. Rainforests are Forests characterized by high Rainfall with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1750–2000 mm (68-78 inches The highest peak is Nevado Sajama at 6,542 metres (21,463 ft) located in the department of Oruro. Nevado Sajama is an extinct Stratovolcano and the highest peak in Bolivia. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Oruro may refer to Oruro Bolivia - capital of the Bolivian Oruro Department Oruro Department - one of nine departments in Bolivia Lake Titicaca is located on the border between Bolivia and Peru. Lake Titicaca is a lake located on the border of Bolivia and Peru. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Salar de Uyuni, the world's largest salt flat, lies in the southwest corner of the country, in the department of Potosí. Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest Salt flat at 10582 km² (4085 square miles The department of Potosí is in southwestern Bolivia. It comprises 118218 km² with 709013 inhabitants (2001 census
Major cities are La Paz, El Alto, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and Cochabamba. Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. The city of El Alto ( Spanish for The Height) is a suburb of La Paz, Bolivia, located on the Altiplano highlands - while La Paz Santa Cruz de La Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital city of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia. Cochabamba is a city in central Bolivia, located in a Valley bearing the same name in the Andes Mountain range.
Bolivia is the poorest country in South America. The economy of Bolivia has had a historic pattern of a single-commodity focus The country is rich in natural resources, and has been called a "donkey sitting on a gold-mine" because of this. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body
Bolivia's 2002 gross domestic product (GDP) totaled USD $7. Cochabamba is a city in central Bolivia, located in a Valley bearing the same name in the Andes Mountain range. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 9 billion. Economic growth is about 2. 5% a year, and inflation was expected to be between 3% and 4% in 2002 (it was under 2% in 2001).
Bolivia’s current lackluster economic situation can be linked to several factors from the past three decades. The first major blow to the Bolivian economy came with a dramatic fall in the price of tin during the early 1980s, which impacted one of Bolivia’s main sources of income and one of its major mining-industries.  The second major economic blow came at the end of the Cold War in the late 1980s and early 1990s as economic aid was withdrawn by western countries who had previously tried to keep a market-liberal regime in power through financial support.
Since 1985, the government of Bolivia has implemented a far-reaching program of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform aimed at maintaining price-stability, creating conditions for sustained growth, and alleviating scarcity. A major reform of the customs-service in recent years has significantly improved transparency in this area. The most important structural changes in the Bolivian economy have involved the capitalization of numerous public-sector enterprises.
Parallel legislative reforms have locked into place market-liberal policies, especially in the hydrocarbon- and telecommunication-sectors, that have encouraged private investment. Foreign investors are accorded national treatment, and foreign ownership of companies enjoys virtually no restrictions in Bolivia.
The government has a long-term sales-agreement to sell natural gas to Brazil through 2019. The government expects to hold a binding referendum in 2004 on plans to export natural gas.
In April 2000, Bechtel signed a contract with Hugo Banzer, the former president of Bolivia, to privatize the water-supply in Bolivia's third-largest city, Cochabamba. Bechtel Corporation ( Bechtel Group) is the largest Engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the Hugo Banzer Suárez ( May 10, 1926 &ndash May 5, 2002) was a politician military general and President of Bolivia. Cochabamba is a city in central Bolivia, located in a Valley bearing the same name in the Andes Mountain range. Shortly thereafter, the company tripled the water-rates in that city, an action which resulted in protests and rioting among those who could no longer afford clean water. The Cochabamba protests of 2000, also known as "The Cochabamba Water Wars" were a series of protests that took place in Cochabamba, Bolivia 's third largest Drawing water from community wells or gathering rainwater was made illegal.  Amidst Bolivia's nationwide economic collapse and growing national unrest over the state of the economy, the Bolivian government was forced to withdraw the water contract.
Bolivian exports were $1. 3 billion in 2002, from a low of $652 million in 1991. imports were $1. International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. 7 billion in 2002. Bolivian tariffs are a uniformly low 10%, with capital equipment charged only 5%. For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary Bolivia's trade-deficit was $460 million in 2002.
Bolivia's trade with neighboring countries is growing, in part because of several regional preferential trade-agreements it has negotiated. Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest Salt flat at 10582 km² (4085 square miles Bolivia is a member of the Andean Community and enjoys nominally free trade with other member countries. The Andean Community ( Spanish: Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a Trade bloc comprising the South American countries of
The United States remains Bolivia's largest trading-partner. In 2002, the United States exported $283 million of merchandise to Bolivia and imported $162 million.
Agriculture accounts for roughly 15% of Bolivia's GDP. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Soybeans are the major cash crop, sold into the Andean Community market. In Agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for Money.
Bolivia's government remains heavily dependent on foreign assistance to finance development-projects. At the end of 2002, the government owed $4. 5 billion to its foreign creditors, with $1. A creditor is a party (eg person organization company or government that has a claim to the services of a second party 6 billion of this amount owed to other governments and most of the balance owed to multilateral development-banks. A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money Most payments to other governments have been rescheduled on several occasions since 1987 through the Paris Club mechanism. The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the world's richest countries which provides financial services such as debt restructuring debt relief and debt External creditors have been willing to do this because the Bolivian government has generally achieved the monetary and fiscal targets set by IMF programs since 1987, though economic crises in recent years have undercut Bolivia's normally good record. The rescheduling of agreements granted by the Paris Club has allowed the individual creditor-countries to apply very soft terms to the rescheduled debt. Debt is that which is owed usually referencing Assets owed but the term can cover other obligations As a result, some countries have forgiven substantial amounts of Bolivia's bilateral debt. The U. S. government reached an agreement at the Paris Club meeting in December 1995 that reduced by 67% Bolivia's existing debt-stock. The Bolivian government continues to pay its debts to the multilateral development banks on time. Bolivia is a beneficiary of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC debt-relief-programs, which by agreement restricts Bolivia's access to new soft loans. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries ( HIPC) are a group of 37 Developing countries with high levels of Poverty and Debt overhang which are eligible
Bolivia's ethnic distribution is estimated to be 30% Quechua-speaking and 25% Aymara-speaking Amerindians. Bolivia 's ethnic distribution is estimated to be 55%-70% indigenous people 30%-42% Mestizo and 10-15% Caucasians The largest of the approximately three dozen indigenous Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. Aymara ( Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes. The largest of the approximately three-dozen native groups are the Quechuas (2. Quechuas is the term used for several ethnic groups in South America that use a Quechua language ( Southern Quechua mainly belonging to several ethnic 5 million), Aymaras (2 million), then Chiquitano (180,000), and Guaraní (125,000). The Aymara are a native Ethnic group in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America, distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guaraní language So the full Amerindian population is at 55% and the remaining 30% is Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) and around 15% are Whites. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. 
The white population consists mostly of criollos, which in turn consist of families of relatively unmixed Spanish ancestry, descended from the early Spanish colonists. Criollo is a term that dates back to the Spanish colonial Casta system ( Caste system) of Latin America These have formed much of the aristocracy since independence. Other smaller groups within the white population are Germans who founded the national airline Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, as well as Italian, American, Basque, Croatian, Russian, Polish and other minorities, many of whose members descend from families that have lived in Bolivia for several generations. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland.
Also noteworthy is the Afro-Bolivian community that numbers more than 0. Potosí is a city the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. 5% of the population, descended from African slaves that were transported to work in Brazil and then migrated westward into Bolivia. They are mostly concentrated in the Yungas region (Nor Yungas and Sud Yungas provinces) in the department of La Paz, some three hours from La Paz city. Yungas is an area in the eastern piedmont of the Andes Mountains, primarily in Bolivia. Nor Yungas is a Province in the Yungas -area of the Bolivian department of La Paz. Sud Yungas is a Province in the Bolivian department of La Paz. The La Paz Department of Bolivia comprises with a 2001 Census population of 2350466 inhabitants Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative Capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. There are also Japanese who are concentrated mostly in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and Middle Easterners who became prosperous in commerce. The are the dominant Ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent of these approximately 127 million are residents of Japan Santa Cruz de La Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital city of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.
Bolivia is one of the least developed countries in South America. Almost two-thirds of its people, many of whom are subsistence farmers, live in poverty. Population-density ranges from less than one person per square kilometer in the southeastern plains to about ten per square kilometer (twenty-five per sq. mi) in the central highlands. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. As of 2006, the population is increasing about 1. 45% per year. 
The great majority of Bolivians are Roman Catholic (the official religion), although Protestant denominations are expanding strongly. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.  According to a 2001 survey conducted by the National Statistical Institute, 78 percent of the population is Roman Catholic, 16 percent is Protestant and 3 percent follow other religions of Christian origin.  Islam practiced by the descendants of Middle Easterners is almost nonexistent. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. There is also a small Jewish community that is almost all Ashkenazi in origin. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim ( Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, ˌaʃkəˈnazim sing More than 1% of Bolivians practice the Bahá'í Faith (giving Bolivia one of the largest percentages of Bahá'ís in the world). The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind
There are colonies of Mennonites in the department of Santa Cruz. Sucre (population 247300 in 2006 is the constitutional Capital of Bolivia, seat of the Supreme Court ( Corte Suprema de Justicia The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496&ndash1561 though his teachings were a relatively Government and Administration According to current Constitution, the highest authority in the department lies with the prefect (prefecto similar to a governor but  Many Native communities interweave pre-Columbian and Christian symbols in their worship. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth This article refers to the religious act For the album by Michael W About 80% of the people speak Spanish as their first language, although the Aymara and Quechua languages are also common. A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth Approximately 90% of the children attend primary-school but often for a year or less. The literacy-rate is low in many rural areas, but, according to the CIA, the literacy-rate is 87% nationwide, a rate similar to Brazil's, but below the South American average.
Bolivian culture has been heavily influenced by the Quechua, the Aymara, as well as by the popular cultures of Latin America as a whole. Bolivia is a town in South America located at the Andes Mountains It has a Native American population which mixed Spanish and West and Central The Carnaval de Oruro (or Carnival of Oruro is the biggest annual cultural event in Bolivia. Out of all the Andean countries Bolivia remains perhaps the most culturally linked to the indigenous peoples DateEnglish Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. The Aymara are a native Ethnic group in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1
The cultural development of what is present-day Bolivia is divided into three distinct periods: pre-Columbian, colonial, and republican. Important archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics, and weavings remain from several important pre-Columbian cultures. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. Major ruins include Tiwanaku, Samaipata, Incallajta, and Iskanawaya. Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia. Samaipata may refer to Samaipata Bolivia Fuerte de Samaipata Incallajta ( Quechua: Inka llaqta inca city) is a monumental Inca site in central Bolivia, approximately 130 kilometers east of Cochabamba The country abounds in other sites that are difficult to reach and have seen little archaeological exploration. 
The Spanish brought their own tradition of religious art which, in the hands of local native and mestizo builders and artisans, developed into a rich and distinctive style of architecture, painting, and sculpture known as "Mestizo Baroque". Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The colonial period produced not only the paintings of Pérez de Holguín, Flores, Bitti, and others but also the works of skilled but unknown stonecutters, woodcarvers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths. Woodworking is the process of building making or carving something using Wood. A goldsmith is a Metalworker who specializes in working with Gold and other Precious metals usually in modern times to make Jewelry. A silversmith is a person who works primarily making objects in solid Silver; historically the training and guild organization of Goldsmiths included silversmiths An important body of native baroque religious music of the colonial period was recovered in recent years and has been performed internationally to wide acclaim since 1994. 
Bolivian artists of stature in the twentieth century include Guzmán de Rojas, Arturo Borda, María Luisa Pacheco, and Marina Núñez del Prado.
Bolivia has a rich folklore. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological Its regional folk music is distinctive and varied. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The "devil dances" at the annual carnival of Oruro are one of the great folkloric events of South America, as is the lesser known carnival at Tarabuco. Carnival is a festival season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February and March Tarabuco is a Bolivian town head of the second section of the Yamparáez Province, in the department of Chuquisaca. 
The best known of the various festivals found in the country is the "Carnaval de Oruro", which was among the first 19 "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity," as proclaimed by the UNESCO in May of 2001. The Carnaval de Oruro (or Carnival of Oruro is the biggest annual cultural event in Bolivia. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16
Entertainment includes football, which is the national sport, as well as table football, which is played on street-corners by both children and adults. Football is the word given to a number of similar Team sports all of which involve (to varying degrees kicking a Ball with the foot in an attempt to score a Table football, also known as foosball, table soccer or baby foot, is a table-top game that is based on Association football (soccer