Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy through the combination of weight training, sufficient caloric intake, and rest. Gustavo Badell aka the Freakin' 'Rican (born November 3, 1972 in Venezuela) is an IFBB professional Bodybuilder. Muscle hypertrophy is a scientific term for the growth and increase of the size of muscle cells Weight training is a common type of Strength training for developing the strength and size of Skeletal muscles It uses the Force of gravity This article is about the unit of energy For its use in Nutrition and Food labelling regulations, see the article on Food energy. Someone who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. As a sport, called competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their aesthetic appearance. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively A judge, or justice, is an Official who presides over a Court of law Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called The muscles are revealed through a combination of fat loss, oils, and tanning (or tanning lotions) which combined with lighting make the definition of the muscle group more distinct. "Adipose" redirects here For the Doctor Who monster see " Partners in Crime " An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Unlike Sunscreen or what is commonly called Suntan lotion, indoor tanning lotion is designed to amplify the effects of Ultraviolet rather than block them Famous bodybuilders include Arnold Schwarzenegger, Kevin Levrone, Dorian Yates, Lee Haney, Lou Ferrigno, Franco Columbu, Ronnie Coleman, and Jay Cutler. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor Kevin Levrone (born July 16, 1968 in Baltimore, Maryland) is a IFBB professional Bodybuilder, Musician Dorian Andrew Mientjez Yates (born April 19, 1962 in Sutton Coldfield, England) is an English professional bodybuilder Lee Haney (born November 11, 1959 in Spartanburg South Carolina) is a former American IFBB professional bodybuilder most famous Louis Jude Ferrigno (born November 9 1951 is an American bodybuilder and Actor. Dr Franco Columbu ( August 7, 1941) is an Italian Actor and Bodybuilder. For the American football player see Ronnie Coleman (American football Ronald Dean Coleman (born May 13, 1964 in For the Denver Broncos quarterback see Jay Cutler (American football Jay Cutler (born Jason Isaac Cutler August 3 1973 in Sterling, Massachusetts As Alan M. Klein states in Little Big Men, “Bodybuilding is a subculture of hyperbole. In its headlong rush to accrue flesh, everything about this subculture exploits grandiosity and excess. "
Bodybuilding originated in India in the eleventh century when men would lift a stone version of the weight to see which man had the most power. Eugen Sandow ( April 2 1867 &ndash October 14 1925) born Friederich Wilhelm Müller, was a pioneering Bodybuilder The "Early Years" of Western Bodybuilding are considered to be the period between 1880 and 1930.
Bodybuilding (the art of displaying the muscles) did not really exist prior to the late 19th century, when it was promoted by a man from Prussia named Eugen Sandow, who is now generally referred to as "The Father of Modern Bodybuilding". Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Eugen Sandow ( April 2 1867 &ndash October 14 1925) born Friederich Wilhelm Müller, was a pioneering Bodybuilder He is credited as being a pioneer of the sport because he allowed an audience to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, those men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through his manager, Florenz Ziegfeld. Florenz Ziegfeld Jr ( March 21, 1869 &ndash July 22, 1932) called Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway He became so successful at it, he later created several businesses around his fame and was among the first to market products branded with his name alone. As he became more popular, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses (machined dumbbells, spring pulleys and tension bands). A dumbbell is a piece of equipment used in Weight training, and is a type of free weight. A pulley (also called a sheave or block) is a Wheel with a groove between two Flanges around its Circumference
Sandow was a strong advocate of "the Grecian Ideal" (this was a standard where a mathematical "ideal" was set up and the "perfect physique" was close to the proportions of ancient Greek and Roman statues from classical times). This is how Sandow built his own physique and in the early years, men were judged by how closely they matched these "ideal" proportions. Sandow organised the first bodybuilding contest on 14 September 1901 called the "Great Competition" and held in the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The Royal Albert Hall is an Arts venue situated in the Knightsbridge area of the City of Westminster, London, England, best known London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Judged by himself, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a huge success and was sold out and hundreds of physical culture enthusiasts were turned away. Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the The trophy presented to the winner was a bronze statue of Sandow himself sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham, England. Nottingham ( is a city in the Ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire, England. The most prestigious bodybuilding contest today is the Mr. Olympia, and since 1977, the winner has been presented with the same bronze statue of Sandow that he himself presented to the winner at the first contest. Mr Olympia is an international Bodybuilding competition which is held annually by the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB 
On 16 January 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially as The Garden, has been the name of four Arenas in New York City. The City of New York The winner was Al Treloar and he was declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World". Treloar won a $1,000 cash prize, a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks later, Thomas Edison made a film of Al Treloar's posing routine. Edison also made two films of Sandow a few years before, making him the man who made the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century, Bernarr Macfadden and Charles Atlas, continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Bernarr Macfadden ( 16 August 1868 &ndash 12 October 1955) was an influential exponent of Physical culture, a combination of Charles Atlas, born Angelo Siciliano ( October 30, 1892 Acri, Italy &ndash December 23, 1972, Long Beach Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America and the man whom Charles Atlas credited with his success in his statement: "Everything that I know I learned from A. Alois P Swoboda (1873-1938 was a pioneer of American Physical Culture at the turn of the century P. (Alois) Swoboda. "
Other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman (writer of some of the earliest bodybuilding instruction books), Seigmund Breitbart (famous Jewish bodybuilder), Georg Hackenschmidt, George F. Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt ( July 20 1878 - February 19 1968) was an early 20th-century strongman and professional wrestler Jowett, Maxick (a pioneer in the art of posing), Monte Saldo, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort (Strongfortism), Gustav Fristensky (the Czech champion), and Alan C. Mead, who became an impressive muscle champion despite the fact that he lost a leg in World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
The period of around 1940 to 1970 is often referred to as the "Golden Age" of bodybuilding because of changes in the aesthetic for more mass, as well as muscular symmetry and definition, which characterised the "early years". This was due in large part to the advent of World War II, which inspired many young men to be bigger, stronger and more aggressive in their attitudes. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This was accomplished by improved training techniques, better nutrition and more effective equipment. Several important publications came into being, as well, and new contests emerged as the popularity of the sport grew.
This period of bodybuilding was typified at Muscle Beach in Venice, California. Muscle Beach refers to either Muscle Beach Venice, an area in Venice, California, United States, on Ocean Front Walk two blocks north of Venice is a district in western Los Angeles California. It is known for its Canals Beaches and Circus -like Ocean Front Walk, Famous names in bodybuilding from this period included Steve Reeves (notable in his day for portraying Hercules and other sword-and-sandal heroes), Dave Draper, Clancy Ross, Reg Park, John Grimek, Dan Lurie, Sergio Oliva, Larry Scott, Bill Pearl, and Irvin "Zabo" Koszewski. Stephen L Reeves ( January 21, 1926 &ndash May 1, 2000) was an American bodybuilder, Actor, and author Hercules is the Roman name for the Mythical Greek hero Heracles, son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmena. Sword and sandal films or pepla (singular= peplum) are a Genre of adventure or Fantasy films that have subjects set in Biblical Roy "Reg" Park ( 7 June, 1928 &ndash 22 November, 2007) from Leeds in West Yorkshire, England John Carroll Grimek was born on June 17, 1910 in Perth Amboy New Jersey, son of Slovakian immigrants George and Maria Grimek Dan Lurie (born April 1 1923 is a founding father of Bodybuilding and a physical fitness pioneer Sergio Oliva is known in Bodybuilding circles as "The Myth" Bill Pearl ( William Arnold Pearl, born in Prineville Oregon on October 31, 1930) was a leading competitive American body-builder
The rise in popularity of the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) added a bodybuilding competition to their existing weightlifting contest in 1939 - and the following year this competition was named AAU Mr. America. Official NameAmateur Athletic Union of the United States Incorporated (AAU AAU Mr America was a Bodybuilding competition started by the World Bodybuilding & Fitness Association (WBFA and supported by the Amateur Athletic Union Around the mid-1940s most bodybuilders became disgruntled with the AAU since they only allowed amateur competitors and they placed more focus on the Olympic sport of weightlifting. Weightlifting, also called Olympic weightlifting or Olympic-style weightlifting, is a sport in which participants attempt a maximum weight single lift of a barbell This caused brothers Ben and Joe Weider to form the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) - which organized their competition IFBB Mr. America, which was open to professional athletes. Benjamin "Ben" Weider (born February 1, 1924 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada) is the co-founder of the International Josef E "Joe" Weider (born November 29, 1922) is the Canadian co-founder of the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB along with The International Federation of BodyBuilders ( IFBB) is a Bodybuilding organization founded in 1946 by Ben and Joe Weider. IFBB Mr America was a Bodybuilding contest organised by the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB
In 1950, another organization, the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA) started their NABBA Mr. Universe contest in the UK. The National Amateur Bodybuilders Association ( NABBA) is an Organisation founded in 1950 to promote Bodybuilding in the United Kingdom The Universe Championships are an annual Bodybuilding event organised by the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA Another major contest, Mr. Olympia was first held in 1965 - and this is currently the most prestigious title in bodybuilding.
Initially contests were only for men, but the NABBA added Miss Universe in 1965 and Ms. Olympia was started in 1980. Ms Olympia is a professional Female bodybuilding contest organised by the International Federation of BodyBuilders. (For more, see female bodybuilding. Female bodybuilding is the female component of competitive Bodybuilding. )
In the 1970s, bodybuilding had major publicity thanks to Arnold Schwarzenegger and the 1977 film Pumping Iron. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor ---- Pumping Iron is a 1977 Documentary film about the run-up to the 1975 Mr By this time the IFBB dominated the sport and the AAU took a back seat. The International Federation of BodyBuilders ( IFBB) is a Bodybuilding organization founded in 1946 by Ben and Joe Weider.
The National Physique Committee (NPC) was formed in 1981 by Jim Manion, who had just stepped down as chairman of the AAU Physique Committee. The National Physique Committee (NPC is the largest amateur Bodybuilding organization in the United States. The NPC has gone on to become the most successful bodybuilding organization in the U. S. , and is the amateur division of the IFBB. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the decline of AAU sponsored bodybuilding contests. In 1999, the AAU voted to discontinue its bodybuilding events.
This period also saw the rise of anabolic steroids used both in bodybuilding and many other sports. Anabolic steroids, or anabolic-androgenic steroids ( AAS) are a class of Steroid hormones related to the hormone Testosterone. To combat this, and to be allowed to be an IOC member, the IFBB introduced doping tests for both steroids and other banned substances. Although doping tests occurred, the majority of professional bodybuilders still used anabolic steroids for competition. During the 1970s the use of anabolic steroids was openly discussed partly due to the fact they were legal.  However the U.S. Congress in the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled substance act (CSA). The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Controlled Substances Act ( CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control
In 1990, wrestling promoter Vince McMahon announced he was forming a new bodybuilding organization, the World Bodybuilding Federation (WBF). Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24 1945 popularly known by his Ring name Mr The World Bodybuilding Federation ( WBF) was a Bodybuilding organization founded in 1990 by Vince McMahon that lasted until 1992 McMahon wanted to bring WWF-style showmanship and bigger prize money to the sport of bodybuilding. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, McMahon signed 13 competitors to lucrative long-term contracts, something virtually unheard of in bodybuilding up until then. Most of the WBF competitors immediately abandoned the IFBB. In response to the WBF's formation, IFBB president Ben Weider blacklisted all the bodybuilders who had signed with the WBF. The IFBB also quietly stopped testing their athletes for anabolic steroid use since it was difficult to compete thus with a new organization which did not test for steroids. In 1992, Vince McMahon instituted drug testing for WBF athletes because he and the WWF were under investigation by the federal government for alleged involvement in anabolic steroid trafficking. The result was that the competitors in the 1992 WBF contest looked sub-par, according to some contemporary accounts. McMahon formally dissolved the WBF in July, 1992. Reasons for this probably included lack of income from the pay-per-view broadcasts of the WBF contests, slow sales of the WBF's magazine Bodybuilding Lifestyles (which later became WBF Magazine), and the expense of paying multiple 6-figure contracts as well as producing two TV shows and a monthly magazine. However, the formation of the WBF had two positive effects for the IFBB athletes: (1) it caused IFBB founder Joe Weider to sign many of his top stars to contracts, and (2) it caused the IFBB to raise prize money in its sanctioned contests. Joe Weider eventually offered to accept the WBF bodybuilders back into the IFBB for a fine of 10% of their former yearly WBF salary.
In the early 2000s, the IFBB was attempting to make bodybuilding an Olympic sport. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games It obtained full IOC membership in 2000 and was attempting to get approved as a demonstration event at the Olympics which would hopefully lead to it being added as a full contest. This did not happen. Olympic recognition for bodybuilding remains controversial since some argue that bodybuilding is not a sport because the actual contest does not involve athletic effort. Also, some still have the misperception that bodybuilding necessarily involves the use of anabolic steroids, which are prohibited in Olympic competitions. Proponents argue that the posing routine requires skill and preparation, and bodybuilding should therefore be considered a sport.
In 2003, Joe Weider sold Weider Publications to AMI, which owns The National Enquirer. American Media Inc, is a publisher of a number of major United States -based magazines and Supermarket tabloids Company background American Media's The National Enquirer (also commonly known as the Enquirer) is an American supermarket tabloid now published by American Ben Weider is still the president of the IFBB. In 2004, contest promoter Wayne DeMilia broke ranks with the IFBB and AMI took over the promotion of the Mr. Olympia contest.
In the modern bodybuilding industry "Professional" generally means a bodybuilder who has won qualifying competitions as an amateur and has earned a 'pro card' from the IFBB. Professionals earn the right to compete in sanctioned competitions including the Arnold Classic and the Night of Champions. The Arnold Classic, renamed Arnold Fitness Weekend is an annual Bodybuilding Competition, named after Arnold Schwarzenegger, that takes place in late Night of Champions (NOC is a Bodybuilding contest held every year in New York City, USA. Placings at such competitions in turn earn them the right to compete at the Mr. Olympia; the title is considered to be the highest accolade in the professional bodybuilding field.
In natural contests bodybuilders are routinely tested for illegal substances and are banned for any violations from future contests. Natural bodybuilding may refer to one of several types of approach to the sport of Bodybuilding. Testing can be done on urine samples, but in many cases a less expensive polygraph (lie detector) test is performed instead. What qualifies as an "illegal" substance, in the sense that it is prohibited by regulatory bodies, varies between natural federations, and does not necessarily include only substances that are illegal under the laws of the relevant jurisdiction. Anabolic steroids, Prohormone and Diuretics are generally banned in natural organizations. Anabolic steroids, or anabolic-androgenic steroids ( AAS) are a class of Steroid hormones related to the hormone Testosterone. A prohormone is a substance that is a precursor to a Hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself A diuretic is any Drug that elevates the rate of urination ( Diuresis) Natural bodybuilding organizations include NANBF (North American Natural Bodybuilding Federation), and the NPA (Natural physique association). Natural bodybuilders assert that their method is more focused on competition and a healthy lifestyle than other forms of bodybuilding.
In the 1970s, women began to take part in bodybuilding competitions, and was extremely popular for a time. Female bodybuilding is the female component of competitive Bodybuilding. More than ever women are training with weights for exercise purposes with desire for a more attractive body and to prevent bone loss.  Many women however still fear that weight training will make them "bulky" and believe weight training is only for men. However strength training has many benefits for women including increased bone mass and prevention of bone loss as well as increased muscle strength and balance.  In recent years, the related areas of fitness and figure competition have gained in popularity, providing an alternative for women who choose not to develop the level of muscularity necessary for bodybuilding. Fitness and figure competition is a class of physique-exhibition events for women while bearing a close resemblance to Female bodybuilding, it emphasizes Muscle tone The first Ms. Olympia contest in 1980, won by Rachel McLish, would resemble closely what is thought of today as a fitness and figure competition. Rachel McLish (born June 21, 1955) Née Raquel Livia Elizondo is an American Female bodybuilding champion
In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders aspire to develop and maintain an aesthetically pleasing (by bodybuilding standards) body and balanced physique. Noted female bodybuilders include This is a list of male professional bodybuilders. This means the names listed that competed after 1992 will have an IFBB procard Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called The competitors show off their bodies by performing a number of poses - bodybuilders spend time practicing their posing as this has a large effect on how they are judged. A posedown (or the posedown) is the term commonly used to describe a period during Bodybuilding contests when contestants pull a variety of poses to demonstrate their
A bodybuilder's size and shape are far more important than how much he or she can lift. The sport should therefore not be confused with strongman competition or powerlifting, where the main point is on actual physical strength, or with Olympic weightlifting, where the main point is equally split between strength and technique. In the 19th century the term strongman referred to an exhibitor of strength (before strength sports were codified into Weightlifting, Powerlifting etc Powerlifting is a strength Sport, consisting of three events the squat, the Bench press, and the Deadlift. Physical strength is the ability of a person or animal to exert Force on physical objects using muscles. Though superficially similar to the casual observer, the fields entail a different regimen of training, diet, and basic motivation. This article is primarily about the human diet For a discussion of animal diets see List of feeding behaviours. Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior especially Human behavior as studied in Philosophy, Conflict, Economics
The general strategy adopted by most present-day competitive bodybuilders is to make muscle gains for most of the year (known as the "off-season") and approximately 3-4 months from competition attempt to lose body fat (referred to as "cutting"). "Adipose" redirects here For the Doctor Who monster see " Partners in Crime " In doing this some muscle will be lost but the aim is to keep this to a minimum. There are many approaches used but most involve reducing calorie intake and increasing cardio, while monitoring body fat percentage. An animal's total body fat percentage is the total weight of the animal's fat divided by the animal's weight and reflects both essential fat and storage fat
In the week leading up to a contest, bodybuilders will begin increasing their water intake so as to deregulate the systems in the body associated with water flushing. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. They will also increase their sodium intake. Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 At the same time they will decrease their carbohydrate consumption in an attempt to "carb deplete". The goal during this week is to deplete the muscles of glycogen. Glycogen is a Polysaccharide of Glucose (Glc which functions as the secondary short term energy storage in Animal cells Two days before the show, sodium intake is reduced by half, and then eliminated completely. The day before the show, water is removed from the diet, and diuretics may be introduced. A diuretic is any Drug that elevates the rate of urination ( Diuresis) At the same time carbohydrates are re-introduced into the diet to expand the muscles. This is typically known as "carb-loading. " The end result is an ultra-lean bodybuilder with full hard muscles and a dry, vascular appearance.
Prior to performing on stage, bodybuilders will apply various products to their skin to improve their muscle definition - these include fake tan commonly called "pro tan" (to make the skin darker) and various oils (to make the skin shiny). Sunless tanning (also known as self tanning, or UV-free tanning) refers to applying chemicals on the Skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to They will also use weights to "pump up" by forcing blood to their muscles to improve size and vascularity. Some may also gorge on sugar-rich candies to enhance the visibility of their veins, often considered a sign of high muscle-definition.
Bodybuilders use three main strategies to maximize muscle hypertrophy:
Weight training causes micro-tears to the muscles being trained; this is generally known as microtrauma. Weight training is a common type of Strength training for developing the strength and size of Skeletal muscles It uses the Force of gravity Microtrauma is the general term given to small injuries to the Body. These micro-tears in the muscle contribute to the soreness felt after exercise, called delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS also sometimes called muscle fever, is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 It is the repair to these micro-trauma that result in muscle growth. Normally, this soreness becomes most apparent a day or two after a workout. However, as muscles become adapted to the exercises, soreness tends to decrease. 
The high levels of muscle growth and repair achieved by bodybuilders require a specialized diet. Generally speaking, bodybuilders require more calories than the average person of the same weight to support the protein and energy requirements needed to support their training and increase muscle mass. A sub-maintenance level of food energy is combined with cardiovascular exercise to lose body fat in preparation for a contest. The ratios of food energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats vary depending on the goals of the bodybuilder. 
Carbohydrates play an important role for bodybuilders. Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Carbohydrates give the body energy to deal with the rigors of training and recovery. Bodybuilders seek out low-glycemic polysaccharides and other slowly-digesting carbohydrates, which release energy in a more stable fashion than high-glycemic sugars and starches. The Glycemic index (also glycaemic index) or GI is a measure of the effects of Carbohydrates on Blood glucose levels Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds This is important as high-glycemic carbohydrates cause a sharp insulin response, which places the body in a state where it is likely to store additional food energy as fat rather than muscle, and which can waste energy that should be directed towards muscle growth. Insulin is a Hormone with intensive effects on both metabolism and several other body systems (eg vascular compliance However, bodybuilders frequently do ingest some quickly-digesting sugars (often in form of pure dextrose or maltodextrin) after a workout. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight Carbohydrates produced by the Hydrolysis of Starch. This may help to replenish glycogen stores within the muscle, and to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. 
Protein is probably one of the most important parts of the diet for the bodybuilder to consider. Functional proteins such as motor proteins which include myosin, kinesin, and dynein generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles. Motor proteins are a class of Molecular motors that are able to move along the surface of a suitable substrate Myosins are a large family of Motor proteins found in Eukaryotic tissues. Kinesins are a class of Motor proteins found in Eukaryotic cells Dynein is a Motor protein (also called molecular motor or motor molecule in cells which converts the chemical Energy contained in ATP into the Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the Current advice says that bodybuilders should consume 25-30% of protein per total calorie intake to further their goal of maintaining and improving their body composition.  This is a widely debated topic, with many arguing that 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight is ideal, some suggesting that less is sufficient, while others recommending 1. 5, 2, or more.  It is believed that protein needs to be consumed frequently throughout the day, especially during/after a workout, and before sleep.  There is also some debate concerning the best type of protein to take. Chicken, beef, pork, fish, eggs and dairy foods are high in protein, as are some nuts, seeds, beans and lentils. Casein or whey are often used to supplement the diet with additional protein. See Casein paint for information about casein usage in artistic painting Whey protein is the collection of Globular proteins that can be isolated from Whey, a by-product of Cheese manufactured from cow's Milk. Whey protein is the type of protein contained in many popular brands of protein supplements, and is preferred by many bodybuilders because of its high Biological Value (BV) and quick absorption rates. Biological value ( BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed Protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body Bodybuilders usually require higher quality protein with a high BV rather than relying on protein such as soy, which is often avoided due to its claimed estrogenic properties.  Still, some nutrition experts believe that soy, flax seeds and many other plants that contain the weak estrogen-like compounds or phytoestrogens can be used beneficially as phytoestrogens compete with this hormone for receptor sites in the male body and can block its actions. Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Phytoestrogens, sometimes called "dietary estrogens" are a diverse group of naturally occurring non steroidal plant compounds that because of their structural similarity with This can also include some inhibition of pituitary functions while stimulating the P450 system (the system that eliminates chemicals, hormones, drugs and metabolic waste product from the body) in the liver to more actively process and excrete excess estrogen. The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an Endocrine gland about the size of a Pea. 
Bodybuilders usually split their food intake for the day into 5 to 7 meals of roughly equal nutritional content and attempt to eat at regular intervals (normally between 2 and 3 hours). This method purports to serve two purposes: to limit overindulging as well as increasing basal metabolic rate when compared to the traditional 3 meals a day. Basal metabolic rate ( BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system However, this has been debunked as the most reliable research using whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labeled water finds no metabolic advantage to eating more frequently. Doubly-labeled water is water in which both the Hydrogen and the Oxygen has been partly or completely replaced for tracking purposes (i 
The important role of nutrition in building muscle and losing fat means bodybuilders may consume a wide variety of dietary supplements. Bodybuilding supplements are Substances taken by athletes involved in Weight training or other sports to aid in the building of lean Muscle mass  Various products are used in an attempt to augment muscle size, increase the rate of fat loss, improve joint health and prevent potential nutrient deficiencies. Scientific consensus supports the effectiveness of only a small number of commercially available supplements when used by healthy, physically active adults. Creatine is probably the most widely used performance enhancing legal supplement. Creatine is Nitrogenous Organic acid that occurs naturally in Vertebrates and helps to supply energy to Muscle and nerve cells Creatine works by turning into creatine phosphate, which provides an extra phosphorus molecule in the regeneration of ATP. This will provide the body with more energy that lasts longer during short, intense bits of work like weight training.
Some bodybuilders use drugs to gain an advantage in hypertrophy, especially in professional competitions. Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ or in a select area of the tissue Although these substances are illegal without prescription in many countries, in professional bodybuilding anabolic steroids and precursor substances such as prohormones are used very frequently. Anabolic steroids, or anabolic-androgenic steroids ( AAS) are a class of Steroid hormones related to the hormone Testosterone. A prohormone is a substance that is a precursor to a Hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself Anabolic steroids cause muscle hypertrophy of both types (I and II) of muscle fibers caused likely by an increased synthesis of muscle proteins. Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ or in a select area of the tissue Some negative side-effects accompany steroid abuse, such as hepatotoxicity, gynecomastia, acne, male pattern baldness and a decline in the body's own testosterone production, which can cause testicular atrophy. Drug metabolism in liver The human body identifies almost all drugs as foreign substances (i Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, ˌgaɪnəkoʊˈmæstiə is the development of abnormally large Mammary glands in Males resulting in breast enlargement which Acne vulgaris (commonly called acne) is a Skin disease caused by changes in the Pilosebaceous units (skin structures consisting of a Hair follicle Androgenic Alopecia (also known as androgenetic alopecia or alopecia androgenetica) is a common form of hair loss in both male and female Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the Male Reproductive organs (the Testes, which in humans are located in the Scrotum 
Growth Hormone (GH) and insulin are also used. Growth hormone ( GH) is a Peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals Insulin is a Hormone with intensive effects on both metabolism and several other body systems (eg vascular compliance GH is relatively expensive compared to steroids, while insulin is very readily available yet fatal if misused. See Growth hormone treatment for bodybuilding. Growth hormone (GH is a protein Hormone secreted by the Pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction
Although muscle stimulation occurs in the gym lifting weights, muscle growth occurs afterward during rest. The word γυμνάσιον (gymnasion was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual Education of young men (see Gymnasium Without adequate rest and sleep, muscles do not have an opportunity to recover and build. About eight hours of sleep a night is desirable for the bodybuilder to be refreshed, although this varies from person to person. Additionally, many athletes find a daytime nap further increases their body's ability to build muscle. Some bodybuilders take several naps per day, during peak anabolic phases.
Overtraining refers to when a bodybuilder has trained to the point where his workload exceeds his recovery capacity. Overtraining occurs when the volume and intensity of an individual's Exercise exceeds their recovery capacity There are many reasons that overtraining occurs, including lack of adequate nutrition, lack of recovery time between workouts, insufficient sleep, and training at a high intensity for too long (a lack of splitting apart workouts). Training at a high intensity too frequently also stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) and can result in a hyper-adrenergic state that interferes with sleep patterns. In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges.  To avoid overtraining, intense frequent training must be met with at least an equal amount of purposeful recovery. Timely provision of carbohydrates, proteins, and various micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, even nutritional supplements are acutely critical. Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl A vitamin is an Organic compound required as a Nutrient in tiny amounts by an Organism. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific
It has been argued that overtraining can be beneficial. One article published by Muscle & Fitness magazine stated that you can "Overtrain for Big Gains". Muscle & Fitness is an American Bodybuilding Magazine founded by Joe Weider but now published by American Media Inc It suggested that if one is planning a restful holiday and they do not wish to inhibit their bodybuilding lifestyle too much, they should overtrain before taking the holiday, so the body can rest easily and recuperate and grow. Overtraining can be used advantageously, as when a bodybuilder is purposely overtrained for a brief period of time to super compensate during a regeneration phase. These are known as "shock micro-cycles" and were a key training technique used by Soviet athletes.  However, the vast majority of overtraining that occurs in average bodybuilders is generally unplanned and completely unnecessary.