Bletchley Park, also known as Station X, is an estate located in the town of Bletchley, in Buckinghamshire now part of Milton Keynes, England. Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England. Milton Keynes ( ˌmɪltənˈkiːnz often abbreviated to MK, is a large town England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland During World War II, Bletchley Park was the location of the United Kingdom's main codebreaking establishment. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden" and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie" is the study of methods for Codes and ciphers of several Axis countries were deciphered there, most famously the German Enigma. The Enigma machine is any one of a family of related electro-mechanical Rotor machines used to generate Ciphers for the Encryption and decryption of The high-level intelligence produced by Bletchley Park, codenamed Ultra, is frequently credited with aiding the Allied war effort and shortening the war, although Ultra's effect on the actual outcome of WWII is debated. ULTra ("Urban Light Transport" is a Personal rapid transit system from Advanced Transport Systems Ltd a company based in Cardiff, Wales.
Bletchley Park is now a museum and is open to the public.
The lands of the Bletchley Park estate were formerly part of the Manor of Eaton, included in the Domesday Book in 1086. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey Browne Willis built a mansion in 1711, but this was pulled down by Thomas Harrison, who had acquired the property in 1793. Browne Willis ( 16 September, 1682 &ndash 5 February, 1760) Antiquary and Numismatist, born at Blandford St Mary The estate was first known as Bletchley Park during the ownership of Samuel Lipscombe Seckham, who purchased it in 1877. The estate was sold on 4 June 1883 to Sir Herbert Samuel Leon (1850–1926), a financier and Liberal MP. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. Leon expanded the existing farmhouse into the present mansion. 
The architectural style is a mixture of Victorian Gothic, Tudor and Dutch Baroque and was the subject of much bemused comment from those who worked there, or visited, during World War II. Dutch Baroque is a variety of Baroque architecture that flourished in the Dutch Republic and its colonies during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century Leon's estate covered 581 acres (235 hectares), of which Bletchley Park occupied about 55 acres (22 ha). The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, Leon's wife, Fanny, died in 1937, and in 1938 the site was sold to a builder, who was about to demolish the mansion and build a housing estate. Just in time, Admiral Sir Hugh Sinclair, (Director of Naval Intelligence, head of MI6 and founder of the Government Code and Cypher School) bought the site with his own money (£7,500), having failed to persuade any government department to pay for it. Admiral Sir Hugh Sinclair ( 1873 – 4 November 1939) nicknamed Quex, was a British intelligence officer The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ is a British Intelligence agency responsible for providing Signals intelligence (SIGINT and Information  The fact that Sinclair, and not the Government, owned the site was not widely known until 1991 when the site was nearly sold for redevelopment. The first government visitors to Bletchley Park described themselves as Captain Ridley's shooting party.
The estate was conveniently located on the "Varsity Line" (now largely closed) between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which supplied many of the codebreakers, at its junction with the main West Coast railway line from London. Varsity Line (or Oxford to Cambridge Line) is an informal name for the Railway service which formerly linked the English university cities of Oxford The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Bletchley is a Railway station that serves Bletchley Milton Keynes ( ceremonial Buckinghamshire) southern districts of Milton Keynes generally It was also chosen for its proximity to a major road (the A5) to London and to a route for telephone trunk lines. Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information
Just before war broke out Biuro Szyfrów revealed Poland's achievements on decrypting German Enigma codes to British intelligence. The Biuro Szyfrów ( Polish for " Cipher Bureau " was the Polish Interwar agency charged with both Cryptography (the The British used the information given to them by Poland as a basis for their own attempts to decrypt German Enigma signals. The "first wave" of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) moved to Bletchley Park on 15 August 1939. The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ is a British Intelligence agency responsible for providing Signals intelligence (SIGINT and Information Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The main body of GC&CS, including its Naval, Military and Air Sections was on the ground floor of the house, together with a telephone exchange, a teleprinter room, a kitchen and a dining room for all the staff. The top floor was allocated to MI6. The prefabricated wooden huts were still being erected, and initially the entire "shooting party" was crowded into the existing house, its stables and cottages. These were too small, so Elmers School, a neighbouring boys' boarding school was acquired for the Commercial and Diplomatic Sections (Smith, 1998 page 2-3).
A wireless room was set up in the mansion's water tower and given the code name "Station X", a term now sometimes applied to the codebreaking efforts at Bletchley as a whole. The "X" simply denotes the number "10" in Roman numerals, as this was the tenth such station to be opened. Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. Due to the long radio aerials stretching from the wireless room, the radio station was moved from Bletchley Park to nearby Whaddon to avoid drawing attention to the site. For other villages with the same name see Whaddon. Whaddon is a Village and also a Civil parish within Aylesbury Vale district in 
Listening stations – the Y-stations (such as the ones at Chicksands in Bedfordshire and Beaumanor Hall in Leicestershire, the War Office "Y" Group HQ) – gathered raw signals for processing at Bletchley. Y-stations were British Signals Intelligence collection sites initially established during World War I and later used during World War II. Chicksands is a village in the Mid Bedfordshire district of Bedfordshire, England, and part of the Civil parish of Campton and Chicksands Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a County in England that forms part of the East of England region. Beaumanor Hall is a Stately home with a park in the small village of Woodhouse on the edge of the Charnwood Forest, near the town of Loughborough Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics Coded messages were taken down by hand and sent to Bletchley on paper by motorcycle couriers or, later, by teleprinter. Bletchley Park is mainly remembered for breaking messages enciphered on the German Enigma cypher machine, but its greatest cryptographic achievement may have been the breaking of the German "Fish" High Command teleprinter cyphers. The Enigma machine is any one of a family of related electro-mechanical Rotor machines used to generate Ciphers for the Encryption and decryption of For the (Fibonacci Shrinking Stream cipher published in 1993, see FISH (cipher.
The intelligence produced from decrypts at Bletchley was code-named "Ultra". ULTra ("Urban Light Transport" is a Personal rapid transit system from Advanced Transport Systems Ltd a company based in Cardiff, Wales. It contributed greatly to the Allied success in defeating the U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic, and to the British naval victories of Battle of Cape Matapan and the Battle of North Cape. The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous Military campaign of World War II, (though some say it was a series of naval Military campaigns The Battle of Cape Matapan (Battle of Tenaro) was a World War II Naval battle fought off the Peloponnesian coast of Greece from In the World War II naval Battle of the North Cape, ships of the Royal Navy sank the German Battlecruiser ''Scharnhorst'' off Norway
When the United States joined the war Churchill agreed with Roosevelt to pool resources and a number of American cryptographers were posted to Bletchley Park. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Whilst the British continued to work on German cyphers, the Americans concentrated on the Japanese ones.
The only direct action that the site experienced was when three bombs, thought to have been intended for Bletchley railway station, were dropped on 20 November – 21 November 1940. Bletchley is a Railway station that serves Bletchley Milton Keynes ( ceremonial Buckinghamshire) southern districts of Milton Keynes generally Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. One bomb exploded next to the dispatch riders' entrance, shifting the whole of Hut 4 (the Naval Intelligence hut) two feet on its base. As the huts stood on brick pillars, engineers just winched it back into position whilst work continued inside.
An outpost of Bletchley Park was set up at Kilindini, Kenya to break and decipher Japanese codes. Kilindini Harbour is a large natural deep-water inlet extending inland from Mombasa, Kenya.  With a mixture of skill and good fortune, this was successfully done: the Japanese merchant marine suffered 90 per cent losses by August 1945, a result of decrypts.
After the war, Churchill refered to the Bletchley staff as "My geese that laid the golden eggs and never cackled. "
The Enigma cipher machine
Most of the messages subjected to cryptanalysis at BP were encrypted with some variation of the Enigma cipher machine. The Enigma machine is any one of a family of related electro-mechanical Rotor machines used to generate Ciphers for the Encryption and decryption of This article contains technical details about the rotors of the Enigma machine. The Enigma machines were a family of portable Cipher machines The Biuro Szyfrów ( Polish for " Cipher Bureau " was the Polish Interwar agency charged with both Cryptography (the The method of perforated sheets was a cryptologic technique used by the Polish Cipher Bureau before World War II, and during the war by The Bomba, or Bomba kryptologiczna ( Polish for " Bomb " or " Cryptologic bomb " was a special-purpose Enigma "doubles" were machines produced by the Polish Cipher Bureau, based on Marian Rejewski 's reconstruction of The cyclometer was a cryptologic device designed in the end of 1936 by Marian Rejewski, of the Polish Cipher Bureau 's German section (BS-4 to facilitate Banburismus was a process invented by Alan Turing at Bletchley Park in England during the Second World War. John W Herivel (born 1918 is a British Science historian and former World War II Codebreaker at Bletchley Park. In the History of cryptography, the Bombe was an electromechanical device used by British Cryptologists to help break German Enigma Hut 6 was a wartime section of Bletchley Park tasked with the solution of German Army and Air Force Enigma machine ciphers Hut 8 was a section at Bletchley Park (the British World War II Codebreaking station tasked with solving German naval Enigma messages PC Bruno was a Polish - French intelligence station that operated outside Paris during World War II. ULTra ("Urban Light Transport" is a Personal rapid transit system from Advanced Transport Systems Ltd a company based in Cardiff, Wales.
From 1943, Colossus, one of the earliest digital electronic computers, was constructed in order to break a German teleprinter on-line cipher known as TUNNY. The Colossus machines were electronic Computing devices used by British codebreakers to read Encrypted German messages during "Tunny" redirects here For the fish see Tuna. The Lorenz SZ 40 and SZ 42 ( Schlüsselzusatz, meaning Colossus was designed by Tommy Flowers and built by the British Post Office's Dollis Hill facility. Thomas (Tommy Harold Flowers MBE ( 22 December 1905 &ndash 28 October 1998) was an English engineer The Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill, London, was first established in 1921 and opened by the Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald in 1933 The Colossus series machines were operated at Bletchley Park.
Some 9,000 people were working at Bletchley Park at the height of the codebreaking efforts in January 1945, and over 10,000 worked there at some point during the war.  Among the famous mathematicians and cryptanalysts working there, perhaps the most influential and certainly the best-known in later years was Alan Turing. A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden" and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie" is the study of methods for Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (ˈt(jʊ(ərɪŋ (23 June 1912 &ndash 7 June 1954 was an English Mathematician A number of Bletchley Park employees were recruited for various intellectual achievements, whether they were chess champions, crossword experts, polyglots or great mathematicians. In one, now well known instance, the ability to solve The Daily Telegraph crossword in under 12 minutes was used as a recruitment test. For "The Daily Telegraph" in Australia see The Daily Telegraph (Australia. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after which each of the successful participants was contacted and asked if they would be prepared to undertake "a particular type of work as a contribution to the war effort". The competition itself was won by F H W Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes. Dagenham is a suburban town in east London, in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, situated east of Charing Cross. 
At the end of the war, much of the equipment used and its blueprints were destroyed. Although thousands of people were involved in the decoding efforts, the participants remained silent for decades about what they had done during the war, and it was only in the 1970s that the work at Bletchley Park was revealed to the general public. After the war, the site belonged to several owners, including British Telecom, the Civil Aviation Authority and PACE (Property Advisors to the Civil Estate). BT Group plc (formerly British Telecommunications plc) which trades as BT (ˌbiːˈtiː bee tee) (previously known as British Telecom and still The Office of Government Commerce (OGC is an independent office of Her Majesty's Treasury, a department of state in the government of the United Kingdom. GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters), the post-war successor organisation to GC&CS, ended training courses at Bletchley Park in 1987. The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ is a British Intelligence agency responsible for providing Signals intelligence (SIGINT and Information
The local headquarters for the GPO was based here and housed all the engineers for the local area together with all the support they needed. The Eastern Region training school was also based in the park and later part of the national BT management college which was relocated here from Horwood House. Horwood House lies south east of the village of Little Horwood in Buckinghamshire. There was also a teacher training college.
By 1991, the site was nearly empty and the buildings were at risk of demolition for redevelopment. On 10 February 1992, Milton Keynes Borough Council declared most of the Park a conservation area. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Three days later, on 13 February 1992, the Bletchley Park Trust was formed to maintain the site as a museum devoted to the codebreakers. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The site opened to visitors in 1993, with the museum officially inaugurated by HRH the Duke of Kent, as Chief Patron, in July 1994. On 10 June 1999 the Trust concluded an agreement with the landowner, giving control over much of the site to the Trust. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) 
The Trust is volunteer-based and relies on public support to continue its efforts. Christine Large was appointed Director of the Trust in March 1998. On 1 March 2006, the Park Trust announced that Simon Greenish had been appointed Director Designate, and would work alongside Large in 2006, taking over on 1 May 2006. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
In October 2005, American billionaire Sidney Frank donated £500,000 to Bletchley Park Trust to fund a new Science Centre dedicated to Alan Turing. Sidney E Frank ( October 2, 1919 – January 10, 2006) was an American businessman who became a Billionaire through his Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (ˈt(jʊ(ərɪŋ (23 June 1912 &ndash 7 June 1954 was an English Mathematician 
A team headed by Tony Sale has undertaken a reconstruction of a Colossus computer in H block. The Colossus machines were electronic Computing devices used by British codebreakers to read Encrypted German messages during  Another team has undertaken a rebuild of the bombe, led by John Harper. In the History of cryptography, the Bombe was an electromechanical device used by British Cryptologists to help break German Enigma  On 6 September 2006, the Trust demonstrated that the Bombe was back in action. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
In April 2008 the General Manager of the Radio Society of Great Britain announced that they are moving the Society's "public headquarters" (library, radio station, museum and bookshop) to Bletchley Park. First founded in 1913 as the London Wireless Club the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB is the UK 's recognised national society for Amateur radio operators  The "RSGB Pavilion" in Bletchley Park will open in late summer to early autumn 2008.
The huts were designated by numbers; in some cases, the hut numbers became associated as much with the work which went on inside the buildings as with the buildings themselves. Because of this, when a section moved from a hut into a larger building, they were still referred to by their "Hut" code name.
Some of the hut numbers, and the associated work, are: