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Black feminism essentially argues that sexism and racism are inextricable from one another. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement or Women's Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as Reproductive rights (sometimes Feminist theory is the extension of Feminism into theoretical or philosophical, ground Feminist film theory is theoretical Film criticism derived from Feminist politics and Feminist theory. Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of Economics that applies feminist lenses to economics Feminist Sexology is an offshoot of traditional studies of Sexology that focuses on the Intersectionality of sex and gender in relation to the sexual lives of women Feminist Theology is a movement generally in Christianity, Judaism and New Thought, to reconsider the traditions practices Scriptures Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the Equality of the Genders Antifeminism is opposition to Feminism in some or all of its forms Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of Feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the Feminist movement. Feminist history refers to the re-reading and re-interpretation of history from a female perspective. ---- The history of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements and their efforts to overturn injustices of Gender inequality. First-wave feminism refers to a period of Feminist activity during the nineteenth and early Twentieth century in the United Kingdom and Second-wave feminism refers to a period of Feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s Women's suffrage has been granted at various times in various countries throughout the world Suffragette is a term originally coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for the more radical and Militant members of the Beginnings Lydia Chapin (Taft (February 2 1712 – November 9 1778 was a forerunner of women's suffrage in Colonial Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in Fiction and in fact as expressed in the Physiques and feats of female athletes martial artists Anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism) combines Anarchism with Feminism. Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze the historical social political and economic roles of Mexican American Christian feminism is an aspect of Feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of Men and Women morally socially Cultural feminism developed from radical feminism It is an ideology of a "female nature" or "female essence" that attempts to revalidate what cultural feminists consider Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that Men and Women are ontologically different versions of the human being Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which attempts to unite Environmentalism and Feminism, with some currents linking Deep ecology and Equity feminism and gender feminism are terms coined by conservative libertarian Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism? published in 1992 Equality feminism is a submovement of Feminism. It is fundamentally at odds with Difference feminism and expresses the crucial similarities between the male Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of Feminism that argues overweight women are economically educationally socially and physically disadvantaged due Equity feminism and gender feminism are terms coined by conservative libertarian Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism? published in 1992 Global Feminism is a feminist theory concerned with the forward movement of Women's rights on a global scale Individualist feminism (sometimes also grouped with libertarian feminism or ifeminism) is a term for feminist ideas which seek to celebrate Islamic feminism is a form of Feminism concerned with the role of women in Islam. Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious legal and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe that questions the position Liberal feminism, also known as "mainstream Feminism," asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform Marxist feminism is a sub-type of Feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of Capitalism as a way to liberate women New feminism is a predominantly Catholic philosophy which emphasizes a belief in an integral complementarity of men and women rather than the superiority of men over women or Postcolonial feminism is a form of Feminist Philosophy which criticizes Western forms of Feminism, notably Radical feminism and Postmodern feminism is an approach to Feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory. Pro-life feminism is the opposition to Abortion, based on Feminism. Radical feminism is a "current" within Feminism that focuses on the theory of Patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex Separatist feminism is a form of Feminism that does not support Heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between Men Sex-positive feminism, also known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that began in the early 1980s Socialist feminism is a branch of Feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a woman's life and argues that Liberation can only be achieved Thealogy is a Neologism translating to "study of the Goddess " (based on Greek θεά thea, "goddess" + -λόγία Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Transfeminism as a noun is a category of feminism most often known for the application of Transgender discourses to feminist discourses and of feminist beliefs Feminism in France has its origins in the French Revolution. A few famous figures emerged during the 1871 Paris Commune, including Louise Michel, Russian-born Gerwani (from Gerakan Wanita Indonesia, Indonesian Women's Movement was an organization of communist women active in Indonesia in the 1950s The women in Revolutionary Nicaragua essentially fought a double revolution 1 to secure national freedom and 2 to secure their equality. The Feminist movement in Nepal is primarily concerned with equity and Equality of opportunity. ---- The history of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements and their efforts to overturn injustices of Gender inequality. Feminist history in the United Kingdom covers part of the Feminism movement in the United Kingdom from 1800 to the present day For Women's suffrage see History of women's suffrage in the United States. This is a list of important participants in the development of Feminism, listed by feminist ideology This is a list of important contributions to the literature of Feminism, listed by year of first publication This is a list of topics related to the issue of Feminism, Women's liberation, the Women's movement, and Women's rights: All-female Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that It is not restricted to black women, but rather designed an inner current of feminism which tied together gender domination with racism and capitalism; in the 1970s, it included women from Chicano origins, Chinese, or "Third World" origins . Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women extending from the biological to the social Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Chicano (feminine Chicana) is a politically-loaded word for a Mexican American (in the sense of native-born Americans of Mexican ancestry as opposed to Mexican Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Patricia Hill-Collins defined Black feminism, in Black Feminist Thought (1991), as including "women who theorize the experiences and ideas shared by ordinary black women that provide a unique angle of vision on self, community, and society" . Patricia Hill Collins, (born May 1, 1948 - is Distinguished University Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland College Park, former head of
Forms of feminism that strive to overcome sexism and class oppression but ignore or minimize race can perpetuate racism and thereby contribute to the oppression of many people, including women. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Black feminists argue that the liberation of black women entails freedom for all people, since it would require the end of racism, sexism, and class oppression. Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression There is a long-standing and important alliance between postcolonial feminists, which overlaps with transnational feminism and third-world feminism, and black feminists. Postcolonial feminism is a form of Feminist Philosophy which criticizes Western forms of Feminism, notably Radical feminism and Transnational Feminism is a contemporary paradigm The name highlights the difference between inter national and trans national conceptions of feminism and favours Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Both have struggled for recognition, not only by men in their own culture, but also by Western feminists. 
Recent Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of Black women's feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate One of the foundation texts of Black Feminism is An Argument for Black Women’s Liberation as a Revolutionary Force, authored by Mary Ann Weathers and published in 1969 in Cell 16's radical feminist magazine No More Fun and Games: A Journal of Female Liberation. Cell 16 was a militant Feminist organization known for its program of Celibacy, separation from men and self-defense training (specifically Karate) Radical feminism is a "current" within Feminism that focuses on the theory of Patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex . Weathers states her belief that "Women's Liberation should be considered as a strategy for an eventual tie-up with the entire revolutionary movement consisting of women, men, and children," but she posits that "(w)e women must start this thing rolling" because
|“||All women suffer oppression, even white women, particularly poor white women, and especially Indian, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Oriental and Black American women whose oppression is tripled by any of the above-mentioned. But we do have female's oppression in common. This means that we can begin to talk to other women with this common factor and start building links with them and thereby build and transform the revolutionary force we are now beginning to amass. ||”|
The following year, in 1970, the Third World Women’s Alliance published the Black Women’s Manifesto, which argued for a specificity of oppression against Black women. Co-signed by Gayle Linch, Eleanor Holmes Norton, Maxine Williams, Frances M Beale and Linda La Rue, the manifesto, opposing both racism and capitalism, stated that:
|“||The black woman is demanding a new set of female definitions and a recognition of herself of a citizen, companion and confidant, not a matriarchal villian or a step stool baby-maker. Eleanor Holmes Norton (born June 13, 1937) is a Delegate to Congress representing the District of Columbia Frances M Beale is a Black feminist and Political Activist. Frances M For the Roxy Music album see Manifesto (album. A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions often List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Role integration advocates the complementary recognition of man and woman, not the competitive recognition of same. ||”|
Other Black feminists active in early Second Wave Feminism were Civil Rights Lawyer and author Florynce Kennedy, who co-authored one of the first books on abortion, 1971's Abortion Rap, Cellestine Ware, of New York's Stanton-Anthony Brigade, and Patricia Robinson who all "tried to show the connections between racism and male dominance" in society. Second-wave feminism refers to a period of Feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s Florynce Kennedy ( February 11, 1916 &mdash December 22, 2000) was a Lawyer, Activist, Civil rights advocate New York Radical Feminists (NYRF was a Radical feminist group co-founded primarily by Shulamith Firestone and Anne Koedt with the October 3 1969 Stanton-Anthony 
Not only did the Civil Rights Movement primarily focus only on the oppression of black men, but many black women faced severe sexism within Civil Rights groups such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement The Feminist Movement focused on the problems faced by white women. For instance, earning the power to work outside of the home was not an accomplishment for black feminists; they had been working all along. Neither movement confronted the issues that concerned black women specifically. Because of their intersectional position, black women were being systematically disappeared by both movements: "All the Women are White, All the Blacks are Men but Some of Us are Brave", as titled a 1982 book by Gloria Hull, Patricia Bell Scott and Barbara Smith. Intersectionality is a theory which seeks to examine the ways in which various socially and culturally constructed categories interact on multiple levels Barbara Smith (born December 16, 1946) in Cleveland is an American, lesbian feminist who has played a significant role in building
Black women began creating theory and developing a new movement which spoke to the combination of problems, sexism, racism, classism, etc. , that they had been battling. Angela Davis, for instance, showed that while Afro-American women were suffering from compulsory sterilization programs, White women were subjected to multiple unwilled pregnancies and had to clandestinely abort . Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham Alabama) is an American Political activist and University Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. An
The short-lived National Black Feminist Organization was founded in 1973 in New York by Margaret Sloan-Hunter and others. The National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO was founded in 1973. Margaret Sloan-Hunter ( 1947 – September 23, 2004) was a Black feminist, lesbian and civil rights advocate and one of the founding editors of Two years later, Barbara Smith, her twin sister Beverly Smith, Cheryl L. Clarke and Gloria Akasha Hull and other female activists tied to the civil rights movement, Black Nationalism or the Black Panther Party established, as an off-shoot of the National Black Feminist Organization, the Combahee River Collective, a radical lesbian feminist group. Barbara Smith (born December 16, 1946) in Cleveland is an American, lesbian feminist who has played a significant role in building Beverly Smith (born December 16, 1946) in Cleveland Ohio is a Black feminist health advocate writer academic theorist and activist who is Cheryl L Clarke is a writer educator and lesbian Black feminist activist born in Washington DC in 1947 Black nationalism (BN advocates a racial definition (or redefinition of black national identity as opposed to Multiculturalism. The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a Marxist / Maoist African-American organization established The Combahee River Collective was a Black feminist Lesbian organization active in Boston from 1974 to 1980 Their founding text referred to important female figures of the abolitionist movement, such as Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman, Frances E. W. Harper, Ida B. Welles Barnett and Mary Church Terrell, president of the National Association of Colored Women founded in 1896. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Sojourner Truth (1797– November 26, 1883) was the self-given name from 1843 of Isabella Baumfree, an American abolitionist and Women's Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross; c 1820 – 10 March 1913 was an African-American Abolitionist, Humanitarian, and Union Frances Ellen Watkins Harper ( 24 September, 1825 - 22 February, 1911) born to free parents in Baltimore Maryland, was an African Ida Bell Wells ( July 16, 1862 &ndash March 25, 1931) aka Ida B Mary Church Terrell (born September 23, 1863 - July 24, 1954 was a Writer and internationally known Civil rights The National Association of Colored Women ( NACW) was established in Washington D The Combahee River Collective opposed the practice of lesbian separatism, considering that, in practice, Separatists focused exclusively on sexist oppression and not on others oppression (race, class, etc. Separatist feminism is a form of Feminism that does not support Heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between Men ) This group's primary goal was "the development of integrated analysis and practice based upon the fact that the major systems of oppression are interlocking. " They rejected all essentialization or biologization, focusing on political and economical analysis of various forms of domination. In Philosophy, essentialism is the view that for any specific kind of Entity, there is a set of Characteristics or Properties all of which The Combahee River Collective, in particular on the impulse of Barbara Smith, would engage itself in various publications on Feminism, showing that the position of Black women was specific and adding a new perspective to Women's studies, mainly written by White women.
The Black Lesbian Caucus were created as an off-shoot of the Gay Liberation Front in 1971, and later took the name of the Salsa Soul Sisters, Third World Wimmin Inc. Collective, which was the first "out" organization for lesbians, womanists and women of color in New York . Gay Liberation Front (GLF was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969 immediately after the Stonewall The Salsa Soul Sisters Third World Wimmin Inc Collective was the first "out" organization for Lesbians, Womanists and Women of color in New A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Person of color (plural people of color) is a term used primarily in the United States, to describe all people who are not white. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Salsa Soul Sisters published a Literary Quarterly called Azalea: A Magazine by Third World Lesbians in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Azalea A Magazine by Third World Lesbians was a quarterly periodical for black and Latina Lesbians published between 1977-1983 by the Salsa Soul Sisters, Third The Sisters are now known as African Ancestral Lesbians United for Societal Change, and is the oldest black lesbian organization in the United States. The Salsa Soul Sisters Third World Wimmin Inc Collective was the first "out" organization for Lesbians, Womanists and Women of color in New The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies, (Editors Akasha (Gloria T. ) Hull, Patricia Bell Scott and Barbara Smith) describes Black feminists mobilizing "a remarkable national response to the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas Senate Hearings in 1991, naming their effort African American Women in Defense of Ourselves. Anita Faye Hill (born) is a professor of social policy law and women's studies at Brandeis University at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management and Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American Jurist. He has been serving as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
E. Frances White's expressed her belief that feminists need to revise the movement's relationship to the concept of "the family"; to acnowledge that, for Women of Color, "the family is not only a source of male dominance, but a source of resistance to racism as well. E Frances White is a historian author and academic She is currently the Vice Provost of Faculty Affairs at New York University. "
In her year 2000 introduction to the reissue of the 1983 Black feminist anthology, Home Girls, theorist and author Barbara Smith states her opinion that "to this day most Black women are unwilling to jeopardize their 'racial credibility' (as defined by Black men) to address the realities of sexism. Home Girls A Black Feminist Anthology is a collection of Black Lesbian and Black feminist writing edited by Barbara Smith. " Smith also notes that "even fewer are willing to bring up homophobia and heterosexism, which are, of course, inextricably linked to gender oppression. BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Heterosexism is a term that applies to attitudes, Bias, and Discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships 
Starting around 2000, the "third wave" of Feminism in France took interest in the relations between sexism and racism, with a certain amount of studies dedicated to Black Feminism. Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s Feminism in France has its origins in the French Revolution. A few famous figures emerged during the 1871 Paris Commune, including Louise Michel, Russian-born This new focus was displayed by the translation, in 2007, of the first anthology of US Black feminism texts .
Michelle Cliff believes that there is continuity "in the written work of many African American Women,. Michelle Cliff (born 24 October, 1946) is a Jamaican American author whose notable works include No Telephone to Heaven, . . you can draw a line from the slave narrative of Linda Brent to Elizabeth Keckley's life, to Their Eyes were Watching God (by Zora Neale Hurston) to Coming of Age in Mississippi (Anne Moody) to Sula (by Toni Morrison), to the Salt Eaters (by Toni Cade Bambara) to Praise Song for the Widow (by Paule Marshall). The slave narrative is a literary form which grew out of the experience of enslaved Africans in Britain and the its colonies. Harriet Ann Jacobs ( 1813 - March 7, 1897) was an American Abolitionist and writer Elizabeth Hobbs Keckly (1818-1907 (sometimes spelled Keckley) was a former slave turned successful seamstress who is most notably known as being Mary Todd Lincoln Zora Neale Hurston ( January 7, 1891 &ndash January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time Anne Moody (born September 15 1940) is an African-American author who has written about her experiences growing up poor and black in rural Mississippi Toni Morrison (born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18 1931 is a Nobel Prize -winning American author editor and professor Toni Cade Bambara ( March 25, 1939 - December 9, 1995) was an American Author, social activist, and college professor Paule Marshall (born April 9, 1929) is an American Author. She was born Valenza Pauline Burke in Brooklyn to Barbadian " Cliff believes that all of these women, through their stories, "Work against the odds to claim the 'I'".  Claiming this 'I', this Identity can offer Black women a powerful way to connect around shared experiences and knowledge.
Activist and Cultural Critic Angela Davis, was one of the first people to articulate a written argument centered on intersectionality, in Women, Race, and Class. Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham Alabama) is an American Political activist and University Intersectionality is a theory which seeks to examine the ways in which various socially and culturally constructed categories interact on multiple levels  Kimberle Crenshaw, prominent feminist law theorist, gave the idea a name while discussing Identity Politics in her essay, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence Against Women of Color. Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw (born 1959 is a prominent figure in Critical Race Theory and a law professor specializing in race and gender issues Identity politics is Political action to advance the interests of members of a group whose members are oppressed by virtue of a shared and marginalized Identity (such " Another Feminist theorist is Patricia Hill Collins, who introduced the sociological theory of Matrix of Domination; much of her work concerns the politics of black feminist thought and oppression. Patricia Hill Collins, (born May 1, 1948 - is Distinguished University Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland College Park, former head of The Matrix of Domination is a sociological theory that explains issues of oppression that deal with race, class, and Gender, though recognized as different
The Autumn 1979 issue of Conditions was edited by Barbara Smith and Lorraine Bethel. Conditions (full title Conditions a feminist magazine of writing by women with a particular emphasis on writing by lesbians) was a Lesbian Feminist literary Barbara Smith (born December 16, 1946) in Cleveland is an American, lesbian feminist who has played a significant role in building Lorraine Bethel is an African American Lesbian Feminist Poet and Author. Conditions 5 was "the first widely distributed collection of Black feminist writing in the U. S. " Articles from the magazine were later released in Home Girls, an anthology of Black lesbian and feminist writing published in 1983 by Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, a publisher owned and operated by Women of Color. Home Girls A Black Feminist Anthology is a collection of Black Lesbian and Black feminist writing edited by Barbara Smith.
Alice Walker, a follower of Womanism, a movement tied to Black theology, is the author of The Color Purple. Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9 1944 is an American Author, self-declared Feminist and Womanist - the latter a term she herself Black theology refers to a variety of Christian theologies which has as its base in the
Pat Parker's (1944-1989) involvement in the black feminist movement was reflected in her writings as a poet. Pat Parker ( January 20, 1944 - June 19, 1989) was a Black Lesbian Feminist poet Her work inspired other black feminist poets like Hattie Gossett. Hattie Gossett is an African-American feminist Playwright, Poet, and magazine editor  Other Black feminist authors include: Jewelle Gomez, June Jordan, Sapphire, Becky Birtha, Donna Allegra, Cheryl Clarke, Ann Allen Shockley, Alexis De Veaux and many others. Jewelle Gomez (b 1948 in Boston Massachusetts) is an American Writer and cultural worker June Jordan ( July 9 1936 - June 14 2002) was an Jamaican American Political activist, Writer, Poet Cheryl L Clarke is a writer educator and lesbian Black feminist activist born in Washington DC in 1947