Black May (Thai: พฤษภาทมิฬ pruetsapha tamil, lit. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and "savage/vicious May") is the popular name for the 17-20 May 1992 popular protest in Bangkok against the government of General Suchinda Kraprayoon and the bloody military crackdown that followed. Bangkok, known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (krūŋtʰêːp máhǎːnákʰɔn) or Krung Thep ( for short is the Capital, largest Suchinda Kraprayoon (สุจินดา คราประยูร born August 6 1933) was Prime Minister of Thailand from 7 April 1992 until Up to 200,000 people demonstrated in central Bangkok at the height of the protests. The military crackdown resulted in 52 officially confirmed deaths, many disappearances, hundreds of injuries, and over 3,500 arrests. Many of those arrested were tortured.
On 23 February 1991, Army Commander Suchinda Kraprayoon overthrew the government of Chatichai Choonhavan. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Suchinda Kraprayoon (สุจินดา คราประยูร born August 6 1933) was Prime Minister of Thailand from 7 April 1992 until General Chatichai Choonhavan (ชาติชาย ชุณหะวัณ 5 April 1920 &mdash 6 May 1998) was the Prime Minister of Thailand The coup-makers, who called themselves the National Peace-Keeping Council (NPKC), appointed Anand Panyarachun as Prime Minister. The National Peace Keeping Council (NPKC คณะรักษาความสงบเรียบร้อยแห่งชาติ was a Thai military junta Anand Panyarachun (born August 9, 1932) was Thailand 's Prime Minister twice between 1991-1992 and once again in 1992 The first Prime Minister of Thailand was Phraya Manopakorn Nititada, who took office after the 1932 Siamese coup d'état ended the absolute monarchy Anand's interim government promulgated a new constitution and scheduled parliamentary elections for 22 March 1992. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand is the supreme Law of the Kingdom of Thailand This article describes the legislature of Thailand that existed prior to the military Coup d'etat of September 19, 2006.
A government coalition with 55% of the lower house was formed, which appointed General Suchinda as Prime Minister. Massive public protests immediately followed. On 9 May, Suchinda responded by saying that he would support a constitutional amendment making individuals who had not been elected to Parliament ineligible for the Premiership. Tensions dissipated.
The truce was short-lived. On 17 May 1992 the two leading government parties announced that, while they supported the constitutional amendment, they also favored transitional clauses that would permit Suchinda to serve as prime minister for the term of the Parliament. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) By that evening, 200,000 demonstrators filled Sanam Luang to call for Suchinda to resign. Sanam Luang (สนามหลวง is an open field in front of Wat Phra Kaew and the Grand Palace, Bangkok, Thailand. Chamlong Srimuang led the protestors on a 2 kilometer march to Government House. Major General Chamlong Srimuang (จำลอง ศรีเมือง Traditional Chinese: 盧金河 Simplified Chinese: 卢金河 Lu Jinhe born 5 July As they reached the intersection of Rachadamnoen and Rachadamnoen Nok Avenues, they were halted at Phan Fa Bridge, which had been barricaded with razor wire by the police. After negotiations failed, some protestors stampeded and broke through the barricade. The police retaliated with water cannons and clubs after protestors tried to commandeer one of the fire trucks. Stones and Molotov cocktails were soon flying. The Molotov cocktail, also known as the booze bomb, alcohol bomb or Molotov bomb, is a generic name used for a variety of improvised incendiary Chamlong used a loudspeaker to exhort the marchers not to attack the police, but his words were lost in the unrest.
Over the next several hours, hundreds of troops arrived to quell the protest. Just after midnight, Suchinda declared a state of emergency, making gatherings of more than ten people illegal. A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies Chamlong remained near Phan Fa Bridge and the nearby Democracy Monument. The Democracy Monument ( Thai: อนุสาวรีย์ประชาธิปไตย Anusawari Prachathipatai) is a public monument in the centre of Around 4:00 a. m. , soldiers threatened the nearly 40,000 protesters by firing M16 rifles. M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U An hour and a half later, they began firing again. By the morning, the army moved more troops in, and crowds grew even larger at other sections of the city.
Early on the afternoon of 18 May, Suchinda publicly accused Chamlong of fomenting violence and defended the government’s use of force. Shortly later, troops, firing continuously in the air, moved in on the crowd surrounding Chamlong. The troops handcuffed and arrested Chamlong.
The crowds did not disperse, and the violence escalated. After government troops had secured the area around Phan Fa Bridge and the Democracy Monument, protests shifted to Ramkhamhaeng University across the city. Ramkhamhaeng University ( Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยรามคำแหง is one of the two open universities in Thailand. By the evening of 19 May, some fifty thousand people had gathered there.
Early on the morning of 20 May, Princess Sirindhorn addressed the country on television, calling for a stop to the unrest. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Biography HRH Princess Sirindhorn born April 2, 1955, is the third child of HM King Bhumibol and HM Queen Sirikit of Thailand Her appeal was rebroadcast throughout the day. In the evening, her brother, Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn, broadcast a similar public appeal. Then at 9:30 pm, a television broadcast of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Suchinda, and Chamlong was shown, in which the King demanded that the two put an end to their confrontation and work together through parliamentary processes. Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช pʰuːmipʰon adunjadeːt Royal Institute: Phumiphon Adunyadet;) (born Monday 5 December 1927 Following the broadcast, Suchinda released Chamlong and announced an amnesty for protestors. He also agreed to support an amendment requiring the prime minister to be elected. Chamlong asked the demonstrators to disperse, which they did. On 24 May 1992, Suchinda resigned as Prime Minister of Thailand.
The front page of the International Herald Tribune's 20 May 1992 issue was blacked out, as was an editorial of the Bangkok Post of the same date. The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international Newspaper The Bangkok Post is a Broadsheet English -language daily Newspaper published in Bangkok, Thailand. Three other newspapers were shut down on May 21.
The violence resulted in 52 officially acknowledged deaths, hundreds of injuries, and many disappearances. Over 3,500 people were arrested; hundreds of them were women and children. Many arrested were tortured; some were beaten, left to sit in sweltering sunlight, soaked in gasoline and threatened with immolation, and left to starve.
A House of Representatives Special Committee and a Fact-Finding Committee led by Sophon Rattanakorn shared the same conclusion: the government of General Suchinda used excessive force to crack down on the rally. Some facts from the investigation, such as names of military officers and military units responsible for rounding up, killing, and torturing of protesters were revealed to the public. It is believed that these facts were recorded on the report of the Defense Ministry's Fact Finding Committee led by General Pichit Kullawanit, and are kept secret to this day from the Thai public.
The military constitution of 1992 remained in place until 1997, when a replacement was drafted and promulgated.
Chamlong later apologized for his role in the events: "I wanted a peaceful rally," he said afterwards. "I can’t deny some responsibility for the damage and loss of life. I feel deeply sorry for those families whose members were killed in the incident, for those people who were injured and their families. " Nevertheless, he noted that "we were right in what we have done. " He later retired from politics.
Suchinda was later appointed Chairman of Telecom Asia (today known as True), a company which received a concession to install 2 million telephone lines in Bangkok during the Anand government.
Anand became Chairman of Saha-Union Group, which had received an Independent Power Producer concession during his government. The Independent Power Producer (IPP also Non-utility generator (NUG is an Entity, which is not a Public utility, but which owns facilities to generate
|Coups, Rebellions, Revolts and Revolutions in Thailand|
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|Popular revolts||1952 | 1973 | 1992|