Historical center of the city of Bitola
|Nickname: "the city of the consuls"|
|Motto: Bitola, babam Bitola|
Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia
|- Mayor||Vladimir Taleski|
|- City||422. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The Republic of Macedonia (Република Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 39 km² (163. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||+576 m (1,890 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|Area code(s)||389 047|
|Patron saints||Saint Clement and Saint Naum|
Bitola (Macedonian: Битола, Greek: Μοναστήρι) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. UTC+1 is used in the following locations Central European Time West Africa Time Western European Summer Time A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks Saint Clement of Ohrid (Свети Климент Охридски sve'ti 'kliment 'oxridski (ca Saint Naum of Preslav (Свети Наум Преславски sve'ti na Macedonian () is the official Language of the Republic of Macedonia and is a part of the Eastern group of South Slavic languages. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Republic of Macedonia (Република The city is an administrative, cultural, industrial, commercial, and educational centre. It is located in the southern part of the Pelagonia valley, surrounded by the Baba and Nidže mountains, 14 km north of the Medžitlija-Níki border crossing with Greece. Pelagonia ( Greek: Πελαγονíα Pelagonía, Macedonian: Пелагонија Pelagonija, Albanian: Pellgania, or Baba Mountain overlooks the city of Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia. Nidže ( is a mountain in the South West of the Republic of Macedonia. The Medžitlija- Níki border crossing linking the Republic of Macedonia with Greece is one of the three transit points for road vehicles between the two Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία It is an important junction connecting the south of the Adriatic Sea with the Aegean Sea and Central Europe. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and It is known from the Ottoman period as "the city of the consuls", as many European countries had consulates in Bitola. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish According to some sources, Bitola is the second largest town in the country, and to others the third. The following is a list of the most populous cities in the Republic of Macedonia.  Bitola is also the centre of the Bitola municipality. Bitola (Битола is a municipality in southern Republic of Macedonia.
Bitola has had various names during its long history. The present name Bitola (Битола) is taken from the old Slavic Obitel "monastery", as known when used under the former official name Monastır (from the Ottoman period). This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. The name of the city in other languages is: Aromanian, Bituli; Greek, Μοναστήρι, Monastíri; Albanian, Manastiri; Turkish, Manastır; Bulgarian: Битоля, Bitolya; and Serbian, Битољ, Bitolj. Aromanian ( limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Bulgarian (български език IPA: ɛzˈik is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, During Ottoman rule the city was called Monastir and when Serbia gained the city after the First Balkan War (1913), it was renamed to Bitolj (Битољ). Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 pitted the Balkan League ( Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria
According to Adrian Room, the present name is derived from the old Slavic word Obitel (monastery), since the city was formerly noted for its monastery. The Slavic Obitel means "monastery" or literally abode. When the meaning of the name was no longer understood, it lost its prefix "o". The Greek name of the city was also "Monastiri" (meaning monastery), hence the city’s Turkish name Manastır.  The name Bitola is mentioned in the Bitola inscription found in 1956 and related to the old city fortress built in 1015. The Bitola inscription is a medieval stone inscription written in Old Church Slavonic. This name was also mentioned in one of the treaties of Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria in 1014. William of Tyre (1139 - 1186) mentioned the town for the first time under the name Butella. This article is about the Archbishop/historian from the 1100s In the 12th century, the Arab traveller Idrisi wrote: "It takes two days to travel from Ahrida (Ohrid) to Butili (Bitola) to the east. IDRISI is a Geographic information system (GIS developed by Clark Labs for the analysis and display of digital spatial information Ohrid (Охрид) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia. Butili is a wonderful, nice town".
The city is dispersed along the banks of the Dragor river at an altitude of 2,019 ft (615 m) above sea level under Baba Mountain. Baba Mountain overlooks the city of Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia. Spreading on an area of 1,798 km². and with a population of 122,173 (1991), Bitola is an important industrial, agricultural, commercial, educational, and cultural center. It represents an important junction that connects the South of the Adriatic Sea with the Aegean Sea and Central Europe. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Bitola has one of the oldest and most prestigious theaters in the country.
Traditionally a strong trading center, Bitola is also known as the city of the consuls. At one time during the Ottoman rule, Bitola had consulates from twelve countries. During the same period, there were a number of prestigious schools in the city including a military academy that, among others, was attended by the famous Turkish reformer Kemal Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman Bitola was also the headquarters of many cultural organizations that were established at that time.
Baba Mountain overlooks Bitola from the east. Its magnificent Pelister mountain (2601 m) is a national park with exquisite flora and fauna, and a well-known ski resort. Baba Mountain overlooks the city of Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia.
Many important events in Balkan history took place in Bitola.
The Bitola area is very rich in monuments from the prehistoric period. Two important ones are Velushka Tumba, and Tumba Bara near the village of Porodin. From the Copper Age there are the settlements of Tumba near the village of Crnobuki, Shuplevec near the village of Suvodol and Visok Rid near the village of Bukri. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a The Bronze Age is represented by the settlements of Tumba near the village of Kanino and the settlement with the same name near the village of Karamani. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for
There are important metal artifacts from the ancient period, from the necropolis of Crkvishte near the village of Beranci.
Heraclea Lyncestis (Greek: Ηράκλεια Λυγκηστίς - City of Hercules upon the Land of the Lynx) is an important settlement from the Hellenistic period till the Middle Ages. Heraclea Lyncestis also spelled Herakleia Lynkestis, ( Ancient Greek Ἡράκλεια Λυγκηστίς) was an ancient Greek city Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly This article focuses on the historical aspects of the Hellenistic age for the cultural aspects see Hellenistic civilisation. It was founded by Philip II of Macedon by the middle of the 4th century BC, and named after the Greek demigod Heracles, whom Philip considered his ancestor. Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The term " demigod " meaning "half-god" is used to describe mythological figures whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was human In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or As an important strategic point it became a prosperous city. The Romans conquered this part of Macedon in 148 BC and destroyed the political power of the city. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most The prosperity continued mainly due to the Roman Via Egnatia road which passed near the city. The Via Egnatia ( Greek:) was a road constructed by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. Several monuments from the Roman times remain in Heraclea, including a portico, thermae (baths), an amphitheater and a number of basilicas. A portico is a Porch that is leading to the entrance of a building or extended as a Colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway supported by Columns This page is on buildings used for Roman bathing For the activity in general see Ancient Roman bathing. An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman The theatre was once capable to house around 3,000 people.
In the early Byzantine period (4th to 6th centuries AD) Heraclea was an important episcopal centre. Some of its bishops have been noted in the acts of the Church Councils as bishop Evagrius of Heraclea in the Acts of the Sardica Council from 343 AD. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Sofia and Plovdiv is a Roman Catholic Diocese of the Latin Rite, which includes the whole southern part of Bulgaria A Small and a Great (Large) basilica, the bishop's residence, a Funeral basilica near the necropolis are some of the remains of this period. Three naves in the Great Basilica are covered with mosaics of very rich floral and figurative iconography; these well preserved mosaics are often regarded as fine examples of the early Christian art period. In Romanesque and Gothic Christian Abbey, Cathedral Basilica and church Architecture, the nave is the Art History Mosaics of the 4th century BC are found in the Macedonian palace-city of Aegae, and they enriched the floors of Hellenistic Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Christian art is Art produced in an attempt to illustrate supplement and portray in tangible form the principles of Christianity. Other bishops from Heraclea are known between 4th and 6th century AD. The city was sacked by Ostrogothic forces, commanded by Theodoric the Great in 472 AD and, despite a large gift to him from the city's bishop, it was sacked again in 479 AD. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of
It was restored in the late 5th and early 6th century. In the late 6th century the city suffered successive attacks by Slavic tribes. It was finally taken over by the Slavs and lost its importance by the end of the century.
In the 6th and 7th century the region around Monastiri experienced a demographic shift as more and more Slavic tribes settled in the area. They also built a defence fortress around the settlement. Monastiri was conquered and remained part of the First Bulgarian Empire from late 8th to early 11th century. The First Bulgarian Empire (Първo Българско царство Părvo Bălgarsko Tsarstvo) was a Medieval Bulgarian state founded in AD 632 The spreading of Christianity was assisted by St. Clement of Ohrid and Naum of Preslav in the 9th and early 10th century. Saint Clement of Ohrid (Свети Климент Охридски sve'ti 'kliment 'oxridski (ca Saint Naum of Preslav (Свети Наум Преславски sve'ti na Many monasteries and churches were built in the city.
In the 10th century, Monastiri was under the rule of tsar Samuil of Bulgaria. He built a castle in the town, later used by his successor Gavril Radomir of Bulgaria. Gavril Radomir (Гаврил Радомир was the ruler of Bulgaria from October 1014 to August or September 1015 The town is mentioned in several medieval sources. John Skylitzes's 11th century chronicle mentions that Emperor Basil II burned Gavril's castles in Monastiri, when passing through and ravaging Pelagonia. John Scylitzes or Ioannes Skylitzes ( Greek Ἰωάννης Σκυλίτζης, occasionally Σκυλίτσης, fl Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 The second chrysobull (1019) of Basil II mentioned that the Bishop of Monastiri depended on the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid. A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin) attached to a decree issued by The Archbishopric of Ohrid was an autonomous Bulgarian Orthodox Church under the tutelage of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople between 1019 and During the reign of Samuil, the city was an important centre in the Bulgarian state and the seat of the Bitola Bishopric. In many medieval sources, especially Western, the name Pelagonia was synonymous with the Bitola Bishopric, and in some of them Monastiri was known under the name of Heraclea due to the church tradition, namely the turning of Heraclea Bishopric into Pelagonian Metropolitan's Diocese. In 1015, tsar Gavril Radomir was killed by his cousin Ivan Vladislav, who declared himself tsar and rebuilt the city fortress. Ivan Vladislav (Иван Владислав ruled as emperor ( Tsar) of Bulgaria from August or September 1015 to February 1018 To celebrate the occasion, a stone inscription written in the Cyrillic alphabet was set in the fortress where the Slavic name of the city is mentioned: Bitol. The Bitola inscription is a medieval stone inscription written in Old Church Slavonic. The Cyrillic alphabet (səˈrɪlɪk also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters is actually a family of Alphabets, subsets of which are used by
Following battles with tsar Ivan Vladislav, Byzantine emperor Basil II recaptured Monastiri in 1015. Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 The town is mentioned as an episcopal centre in 1019, in a record by Basil II. Two important uprisings against Byzantine rule took place in the Monastiri area in 1040 and 1072. After the Bulgarian state was restored in late 11th century, Bitola was incorporated under the rule of tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria. Kaloyan the Romanslayer (Калоян Ромеоубиец Ivan I (Иван I also Йоан I Ioan I, in English John I) ruled as emperor ( It was conquered again by Byzantium at the end of the 13th century, but became part of Serbia in the first half of the 14th century, after the conquests of Stefan Dušan. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Stefan Uroš IV Dušan ( c.1308 – 20 December 1355) called Silni ("the Mighty" was the King of Serbia (from
As a military, political and cultural center, Monastiri played a very important role in the life of the medieval society in the region, prior to the Ottoman conquest in mid-14th century. On the eve of the Ottoman conquest, Monastiri (Monastir in Ottoman Turkish) experienced a great boom, having well-established trading links all over the Balkan Peninsula, especially with big economic centers like Constantinople, Thessalonica, Ragusa and Tarnovo. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново sometimes transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Caravans of various goods moved to and from Monastir.
From 1382 to 1912, Manastır (now Bitola) was part of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Strong battles took place near the city during the arrival of Turkish forces. Turkish rule was completely established after the death of Prince Marko in 1395. Prince Marko ( Serbian: Краљевић Марко Kraljević Marko; Macedonian: Крале Марко Krale Marko; Bulgarian For several centuries, Turks were a majority in this city, while the villages were populated mostly with Slavs. Evliya Çelebi says in his Book of Travels that the city had 70 mosques, several coffee-tea rooms, a bazaar (market) with iron gates and 900 shops. Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبي the son of the imperial goldsmith Derviş Mehmed Zılli ( March 25 (? 1611 &ndash 1682 was the most famous Ottoman Seyâhatnâme (سياحت نامه is a Persian term also used in Ottoman Turkish, which means Book of travels, denoting a literary form and tradition A bazaar ( بازار) (pazar is a permanent merchandising area Marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold Manastır became a sanjak centre in the Rumeli eyalet (Ottoman province). Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants sinjaq sanjaq) are the most common English transcriptions of the Turkish word sancak Rumelia or Rumeli ( Turkish: Rumeli ("Land of the Romans" from Rum: "Greek" "Roman" and El The subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire were Administrative divisions of the State organisation of the Ottoman Empire based on military administration but
After the Austro-Ottoman wars, the trade development and the overall thriving of the city was stifled. But in late 19th century, it again it became the second-biggest city in the wider southern Balkan region after Salonica, and the main trade centre. Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia The shops were filled with goods from Leipzig, Paris, Vienna, London and many of other European cities. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The city is also known as "city of consuls", because 12 diplomatic consuls resided here during the period 1878–1913.
In 1864, Manastır became the center of an eyalet which included the sanjaks of Debre, Serfiçe, Elbasan, Manastır (Bitola), Görice and towns of Kırcaova, Pirlepe, Florina, Kesriye and Grevena. A wilāyah (ولاية or vilâyet (in Persian and Ottoman Turkish) is an administrative division usually Debar (Дебaр Dibra is a city in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the border with Albania, on the road from Struga to Gostivar Elbasan ( Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a City in central Albania. Korçë (Korçë or Korça is a major city in the Korçë District of south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with Kičevo (Кичево; Kërçovë or Kërçova is a city in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, located in a valley in the south-eastern slopes of Prilep (Прилеп) is a city of 66246 citizens in the Republic of Macedonia and the fourth largest city in the country Flórina (Φλώρινα local Slavic: Лерин Lerin; known also by several alternative names) is a town in mountainous northwestern Macedonia Kastoria (Καστοριά Kastoriá, ˌkasto̞ɾˈja is a city in northern Greece in the periphery of West Macedonia. Grevena (Γρεβενά Grevená, ɣɾe̞ve̞ˈna is a town and municipality in Greece, capital of the Grevena Prefecture.
There is opposing ethnographic data from that period, but it appears that no specific ethnic or religious group could claim an absolute majority of the population. According to the 1911 Ottoman census, Greeks were the largest Christian population in the vilayet, with 740,000 Greeks, 517,000 Slavs and 1,061,000 Muslims in the vilayets of Selanik (Thessaloniki) and Manastır. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions But the Ottoman register of Bedel-I Askeriye Tax of 1873 says the Manastır vilayet had about 150 000 Bulgarian men (heads of households), 40 000 Muslim and only 700 Greek. Ottoman population data from 1901 counts 566 000 Slavs, 363 000 Turks and 260 000 Greeks in the Thessaloniki and Manastır vilayets. Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia .
In 1894, Manastır was connected with Selanik by train. Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia The first motion picture made in the Balkans was recorded by the Aromanian Manakis brothers in Manastır in 1903. Aromanians (or Macedo-Rumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans The brothers Ianachia ( Avdella, 1878 – Thessaloniki, 1954 and Milton Manachia ( Avdella, 1882 – Bitola, 1964 were pioneering In their honour, the annual Manaki Brothers International Film Camera Festival is held in modern Bitola. The Manastır congress of 1908 which defined the modern Albanian alphabet was held in the city. The modern Albanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters History The modern Latin-based Albanian
The Bitola region was a stronghold of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising. The uprising was started as decided in 1903 in Thessaloniki by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). Gotse Delchev opposed the timing of the uprising, saying that the people were not ready. Georgi Nikolov Delchev (1872-1903 ( Bulgarian and Macedonian: Георги Николов Делчев was an important 19th century revolutionary figure in He was killed on 4 May 1903 near Banitza village (today in Greece). Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Banitsa (Καρυαί - Karié Slavic - Баница is a former village in Greek Macedonia known as the place where the revolutionary Gotse Delchev Macedonia ( Μακεδονία, Makedonía,) is a geographical and historical region of Greece in southeastern Europe The uprising in the Bitola region was planned in Smilevo village in May 1903. Smilevo (Смилево is a village in the Republic of Macedonia, municipality of Demir Hisar. The battles were fought in the villages of Bistrica, Rakovo, Buf, Skocivir, Paralovo, Brod, Novaci, Smilevo, Gjavato, Capari and others. Smilevo was defended by 600 rebels led by Dame Gruev and Georgi Sugarev, but when they were defeated, villages were burned. Damjan Jovanov Gruev ( Bulgarian: Дамян Йованов Груев; Macedonian: Дамјан Јованов Груев) often known by his
In 1912, Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece fought the Ottomans in the First Balkan War. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 pitted the Balkan League ( Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria According to the Treaty of Bucharest, 1913, the region of Macedonia was divided in 3 parts among Greeks, Serbs and Bulgarians. The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro Bitola was to be in Bulgaria, according to a pre-war alliance agreement between Bulgaria and Serbia. But the Serbian army entered the city and refused to hand it to Bulgaria. From that moment, the city started to lose its importance and the population started rapidly decreasing, emigrating for Bulgaria and the New World. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia.
During World War I Bitola was on the Thessaloniki front line. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In 1915 Bulgarian forces took the city and the Serb forces were forced to either surrender or try a dangerous escape through the Albanian mountains. In 1916, Bitola was occupied by the Allied Powers which entered the city from the South fighting the Bulgarian army. In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose Bitola was divided into French, Russian, Italian and Serbian regions, under the command of French general Maurice Sarrail. Maurice-Paul-Emmanuel Sarrail (1856&ndash1929 was a French general of the First World War. Until Bulgaria's surrender in late autumn 1918, Bitola remained a front line city and was almost every day bombarded by airplanes and battery and suffered almost total destruction.
After the end of World War I (1918) Bitola was included in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija The city became a neglected border town, just 14 kilometres from Greece. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Bitola's decline continued throughout this period, together with the general decline in Vardarska Banovina (Vardar Banovina), which remained one of the poorest regions in Yugoslavia.
During the World War II (1941-1945), the Germans and later Bulgarians took control of the city. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including But in September 1944, Bulgaria switched sides in the war and withdrew from Yugoslavia, and Bitola was occupied by Macedonian Pro-Titoist Partisans. On 4 November, the 7th Macedonian Liberation Brigade entered Bitola victoriously. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani After the end of the war, a Macedonian state was established for the first time in modern history, within Yugoslavia. This had cost about 25. 000 human lives. In 1945, the first Gymnasium (high school) "Josip Broz Tito", using the Macedonian language, was opened in Bitola.
After the Expulsion of 1492, Spanish-speaking Jews harassed and persecuted by the Inquisition, arrived in waves from the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal). The history of Jews in the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia began in Roman times when Jews first arrived in the region in the The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March, 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. A majority settled in Salonika, but a large community grew in Monastir and made up over ten percent of the city's population in 1900. Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia The local Jewish population referred to themselves as Monastirli, and a Monastirli synagogue exists to this day in modern Thessaloniki. Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), Thessalonica, or Salonica is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Macedonia
There was little evidence of anti-Semitism among other local communities. The Jews and the Aromanians were the only communities who did not make a national claim on Macedonian territory and were generally seen as neutral in these disputes. Aromanians (or Macedo-Rumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans
Most Jews of Monastir were murdered during the Holocaust, and at present none remain in the city. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as
Clock Tower. It is unknown when Bitola's clock tower was built. A clock tower is a Tower built with one or more (often four Clock faces. Written sources from the 16th century mention a clock tower, but it is not clear if it is the same one. Some believe it was built at the same time as St. Dimitrija Church, in 1830. Legend says that the Ottoman authorities collected around 60,000 eggs from nearby villages and mixed them in the mortar to make the walls stronger. Mortar is a workable paste formed by mixture of Cement, Water and fine aggregate Masonry to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between
The tower has a rectangular base and is about 30 meters high. Towers are tall human-made Structures that are always taller than they are wide usually by a significant Margin. Near the top is a rectangular terrace with an iron fence. On each side of the fence is an iron console construction which holds the lamps for lighting the clock. The clock is on the highest of three levels. The original clock was replaced during World War II with a working one, given by the Nazis because the city had maintained German graves from World War I.
The massive tower is composed of walls, massive spiral stairs, wooden mezzanine constructions, pendentives (triangular pass from square to cupola) and cupola. During the construction of the tower, the facade was simultaneously decorated with simple stone plastic.
St. Dimitrija Church was built in 1830 with voluntary contributions of local merchants and craftsmen. It is plain on the outside, as all churches in the Ottoman Empire had to be, but of rare beauty inside, lavishly decorated with chandeliers, a carved bishop throne and an engraved iconostasis. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A chandelier is a branched decorative ceiling-mounted light fixture with two or more arms bearing lights In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (the plural is iconostases) also called the Templon, is a wall of Icons and religious paintings According to some theories, the iconostasis is a work of the Miyak engravers. Its most impressive feature is the arc above the imperial quarters with modeled figures of Jesus and the apostles. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
Other engraved wood items include the bishop’s throne made in the spirit of Miyak engravers, several icon frames and five more-recent pillars shaped like thrones. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs This article is about royal thrones for the order of Angels by the same name see Thrones. The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath The frescos originate from two periods: the end of the 19th century, and the end of World War I to the present. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The present is the Time that is perceived directly not as a recollection or a speculation The icons and frescos were created thanks to voluntary contributions of local businessmen and citizens. The authors of many of the icons had a vast knowledge of iconography schemes of the New Testament. The icons show a great sense of color, dominated by red, green and ochra shades. The abundance of golden ornaments is noticeable and points to the presence of late-Byzantine artwork and baroque style. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The icon of St. Dimitrij is signed with the initials "D. A. Z. ", showing that it was made by iconographer Dimitar Andonov the zograph in 1889. There are many other items, including the putiri made by local masters, a darohranilka of Russian origin, and several paintings of scenes from the New Testament, brought from Jerusalem by pilgrims.
The opening scenes of the film The Peacemaker were shot in the "St. The Peacemaker is a 1997 thriller and Action movie starring George Clooney and Nicole Kidman. Dimitrija" church in Bitola, as well as some Welcome to Sarajevo scenes. Welcome to Sarajevo is a British War film from 1997. It is directed by Michael Winterbottom.
Ajdar-kadi (Turkish judge) Mosque is one of the most attractive monuments of Islamic architecture in Bitola. It was built in the early 1560s, as the project of the famous architect Mimar Sinan, ordered by the Bitola kadija Ajdar-kadi. Koca Mi‘mār Sinān Āġā ( Ottoman Turkish: خوجه معمار سنان آغا ( April 15, 1489 - April 09, Over time, it was abandoned and heavily damaged, but recent restoration and conservation has restored to some extent its original appearance.
Jeni mosque is located in the center of the city. It has a square base, topped with a cupola. Near the mosque is a minaret, 40 m high. Today, the mosque's rooms house permanent and temporary art exhibitions. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed that it has been built upon an old church.
Ishak mosque is the inheritance of the famous kadi Ishak Çelebi. In its spacious yard are several tombs, attractive because of the soft, molded shapes of the sarcophagi.
The old bazaar (Macedonian: Старата Чаршија) is mentioned in a description of the city from the 16th and the 17th century. The present bezisten does not differ much in appearance from the original one. The bezisten had 86 shops and 4 large iron gates. The shops used to sell textiles, and today sell food products.
Deboj Bath is a Turkish bath (hamam). The Turkish bath (hamam from حمّام) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the When it was constructed is not known. It was heavily destroyed, but after repairs it regained its original appearance: beautiful facade, two large cupolas and several minor ones.
Bitola is the main economic and industrial center of southwestern Republic of Macedonia. The Republic of Macedonia (Република Many of the largest companies in the Republic are based here. The Pelagonija agricultural combine is the largest producer of food in the country. The Streževo water system is the largest in the Republic of Macedonia and has the best technological facilities. Tap water ( running water) is part of indoor Plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century The Republic of Macedonia (Република The three thermoelectric power stations of REK Bitola produce nearly 80% of electricity in the state. The Frinko refrigerate factory was a leading electrical and metal company. Bitola also has significant capacity in the textile and food industries.
There are ten Consulates General in Bitola. The Consulates are:
There are three Bitola Television Stations: TERA, Orbis and Medi, four regional radio stations: the state Radio Bitola, and the private Radio 105, Aktuel Bombarder and Radio Delfin as well as a local weekly newspaper - Bitolski Vesnik. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country
The "Heraclea Festival" or also know as "Heraclea Evenings" is a summer event that takes places throughout the whole summer and its main concentration is on theater, art, and music. At the moment, the Heraclea Festival is highly appraised European Festival with a determined future for its artistic conception and tendency for a new vision for the next millennium.
In memories of the first cameramen on the Balkans, Milton Manaki, every September the Film and Photo festival "Brothers Manaki" takes place. The brothers Ianachia ( Avdella, 1878 – Thessaloniki, 1954 and Milton Manachia ( Avdella, 1882 – Bitola, 1964 were pioneering It is a combination of documentary and full-length films that are being shown. The festival is a world class event and it is a must see.
Every year, the traditional folk festival "Ilinden Days" takes place in Bitola. It is a 4-5 day festival of music, songs, and dances that is dedicated to the Ilinden Uprising against the Turks, where the main concentration is placed on the folk culture of Macedonia. Folk dances and songs are presented with many folklore groups and organizations taking part in it.
In the last few years, the Art manifestation "Small Monmartre of Bitola" that is organized by the art studio "Kiril and Metodij" has turned into a successful children's art festival. Children from all over the world come to express their imagination through art, creating important and priceless art that is presented in the country and around the world. "Small Monmartre of Bitola" is a winner of numerous awards and nominations.
Bitola, Sirok-sokak, love, friends, singing, drinking. . . . remembering the old days in cosmopolitan Bitola, the most modern city since the time of the Consuls. This is the reason the festival "Serenada on Sirok sokak" was created by artist and musicians from Bitola and since then it is organized every year. About 25-30 songs are performed in 2 days, and what is significant about the festival is that artist perform live. Awards are given according to audience decision. The general manager of festival is Mile Serdenkov.
Every May, Bitola welcomes the International children's song festival "Si-Do" that in resent years has gained much support from the audience. Detski Muzicki Festival Si-Do is a children's festival held annually in Bitola, Republic of Macedonia.
Children from differend countries such as EU,Russia,Ukrain,Serbia,Croatia,BiH and Macedonia participate on this event which is usually consisted of 18-22 songs. This festival is supported by the association of culture "ProMedia" from Bitola which organized this event under a different topic every year. The only award at this festival is for interpretation.
It is an international festival dedicated mainly to classical music where many creative and reproductive artist from all over the world take place. In addition to the classical music concerts, there are also few nights for pop-modern music, theater plays, art exhibitions, and a day for literature presentation during the event. In the last few years there have been artists from Russia, Slovakia, Poland,and many other countries. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland For the reason of Bitola being called the city with most pianos, there is one night of the festival dedicated to piano competitions. One award is given for the best young piano player, and another for competitors under 30.
The festival "Interfest" for adults, and "Si-do" , for children is where the talent of Bitola in modern music is found. Artists from this category that come from Bitola are Karolina Goceva, Suzana Turundjieva and others. } Karolina Gočeva (Каролина Гочева) (born April 28, 1980, in Bitola, SFR Yugoslavia, present-day Republic of Macedonia
St. Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola (Macedonian: Универзитет Св. The St Clement of Ohrid University of Bitola ( Macedonian: Универзитет „Св Macedonian () is the official Language of the Republic of Macedonia and is a part of the Eastern group of South Slavic languages. Климент Охридски - Битола) was founded in 1979, as a result of dispersed processes that occurred in education in the 1970s, and increasing demand of highly skilled professionals outside the country's capital. Since 1994, it has carried the name of the Slavic educator St. Clement of Ohrid. Saint Clement of Ohrid (Свети Климент Охридски sve'ti 'kliment 'oxridski (ca The university has institutes in Bitola, Ohrid, and Prilep, and headquarters in Bitola. Ohrid (Охрид) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia. Prilep (Прилеп) is a city of 66246 citizens in the Republic of Macedonia and the fourth largest city in the country With its additions in education and science, it has established itself, and cooperates with University of St. Cyril and Methodius from Skopje and other universities in the Balkans and Europe. The Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (Универзитет „Св Skopje (Скопје; Shkup or Shkupi is the Capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population The following institutes and scientific organizations are part of the university:
The city also has seven high schools and ten primary schools. Prilep (Прилеп) is a city of 66246 citizens in the Republic of Macedonia and the fourth largest city in the country Ohrid (Охрид) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia. The ten Primary Schools in Bitola are:
Some notable people born in Bitola are:
Bitola participates in town twinning to foster good international relations. Below is a list of notable people born in Bitola, Republic of Macedonia or its surroundings Nikolce Noveski, footballer Karolina The brothers Ianachia ( Avdella, 1878 – Thessaloniki, 1954 and Milton Manachia ( Avdella, 1882 – Bitola, 1964 were pioneering Nikolče Noveski (Николче Новески (born April 28, 1979 in Bitola, SFR Yugoslavia) is a footballer from the Republic } Karolina Gočeva (Каролина Гочева) (born April 28, 1980, in Bitola, SFR Yugoslavia, present-day Republic of Macedonia Hristijan Spirovski (Христијан Спировски (born November 24, 1987, Melbourne, Australia) is an Ethnic Macedonian Its current partners include: