Fossil range: Late Jurassic – Recent
Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus
About two dozen - see section below
Birds (class Aves) are bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Ma (million years ago to  Ma that is from the end of the Triassic to the beginning The Double-crested Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax auritus) is a member of the Cormorant family of Seabirds It occurs along inland waterways as well as in Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes Archosaurs ( Greek for 'ruling lizards' are a group of Diapsid Reptiles represented by Modern birds and Crocodilians This group also Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used A class is the Taxonomic rank in the Biological classification of organisms in Biology below phylum and above order. Bipedalism is a form of Terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs In Biology, a warm-blooded Animal species is one whose members maintain thermal Homeostasis; that is they keep their body temperature at a roughly constant Vertebrates are members of the Subphylum Vertebrata, Chordates with backbones or spinal columns The grouping sometimes includes In most Birds and Reptiles an egg ( Latin ovum) is the Zygote, resulting from Fertilization of the Ovum. There are around 10,000 living species, making them the most diverse tetrapod vertebrates. Tetrapods ( Greek τετραποδη tetrapoda, Latin Quadruped, "four-footed" are Vertebrate Animals They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Birds range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) Bee Hummingbird to the 2. The Bee Hummingbird ( Mellisuga helenae) is a Hummingbird, and the smallest of all Birds It can be found in Cuba (where it is called the 7 m (9 ft) Ostrich. The Ostrich ( Struthio camelus) is a large Flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East) The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period, around 150–200 Ma (million years ago), and the earliest known bird is the Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx, c 155–150 Ma. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Ma (million years ago to  Ma that is from the end of the Triassic to the beginning Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird Most paleontologists regard birds as the only clade of dinosaurs that survived the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event approximately 65. Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor The Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred approximately ( Ma) was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically 5 Ma.
Modern birds are characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. A body plan, or bauplan, is essentially the blueprint for the way the body of an organism is laid out Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of Birds All birds have forelimbs modified as wings and most can fly, with some exceptions including ratites, penguins, and a number of diverse endemic island species. Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird species A ratite is any of a diverse group of large Flightless birds of Gondwanan origin most of them now extinct Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost This article is a parent page for a series of articles providing information about Endemism among birds in the World's various zoogeographic zones Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems that are highly adapted for flight. Digestion is the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange. Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animal species; a number of bird species have been observed manufacturing and using tools, and many social species exhibit cultural transmission of knowledge across generations. Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of Oscine Passerine Birds that contains the Crows Ravens rooks Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic
Many species undertake long distance annual migrations, and many more perform shorter irregular movements. Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of Birds Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability Birds are social; they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs, and participate in social behaviours including cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. Bird vocalization includes both Bird calls and bird songs In non-technical use bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear Helpers at the nest is a term used in Behavioural ecology and Evolutionary biology to describe a social structure in which juveniles of one or both sexes remain Flocking - the collective motion of a large number of self-propelled entities - is a behaviour exhibited by many living beings such as birds Fish, Bacteria Mobbing behavior is an antipredator behavior which occurs when individuals of a certain species mob a Predator by cooperatively attacking or The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Recent discoveries have led biologists to talk about the three varieties of Monogamy: social monogamy sexual monogamy and genetic monogamy Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous ("many females") or, rarely, polyandrous ("many males"). Polygyny (which comes from neo- Greek: πολύ poly "many" + γυνή gyny "woman" is a specific form of Polygamy, In Social anthropology and Sociobiology, polyandry ( Greek: poly - many andros - man refers to a form of polygamous Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Incubation is the process by which Birds hatch their eggs, and to the development of the Embryo within the egg Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching.
Many species are of economic importance, mostly as sources of food acquired through hunting or farming. Some species, particularly songbirds and parrots, are popular as pets. SongBird is a Dutch Record label owned by Tijs Verwest and Arny Bink Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions Other uses include the harvesting of guano (droppings) for use as a fertiliser. Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Birds figure prominently in all aspects of human culture from religion to poetry to popular music. Birds in legends mythology and religion Swan Maiden - a mythical creature who shapeshifts from human form to swan form About 120–130 species have become extinct as a result of human activity since the 17th century, and hundreds more before then. In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Currently about 1,200 species of birds are threatened with extinction by human activities, though efforts are underway to protect them. Bird conservation is a field in the science of Conservation biology related to threatened Birds Humans have had a profound effect on many bird species
The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. The Evolution of Birds is thought to have begun in the Jurassic Period with the earliest birds derived from theropod Dinosaurs Birds Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird Francis Willughby ( November 22, 1635 – July 3, 1672) was an English ornithologist and ichthyologist. John Ray ( November 29, 1627 &ndash January 17, 1705) was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the  Carolus Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for  Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. A class is the Taxonomic rank in the Biological classification of organisms in Biology below phylum and above order. Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by (and named for Carolus Linnaeus, although it has changed considerably since his time Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Phylogenetic nomenclature (PN is an alternative to rank-based nomenclature. A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily  Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, together are the sole living members of the reptile clade Archosauria. Crocodilia is an order of large Reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the late Cretaceous Period ( Campanian stage Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Archosaurs ( Greek for 'ruling lizards' are a group of Diapsid Reptiles represented by Modern birds and Crocodilians This group also Phylogenetically, Aves is commonly defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird  Archaeopteryx, from the Kimmeridgian stage of the Late Jurassic (some 155–150 million years ago), is the earliest known bird under this definition. The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. It spans the time between 155 The Late Jurassic (or Malm) Epoch of the Jurassic Period is the unit of geologic time from 161 Others, including Jacques Gauthier and adherents of the Phylocode system, have defined Aves to include only the modern bird groups, excluding most groups known only from fossils, and assigning them, instead, to the Avialae in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs. Jacques Armand Gauthier is a vertebrate paleontologist, comparative morphologist, and systematist and one of the founders of the use of Cladistics in biology The International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature, known for short as the PhyloCode, is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing Phylogenetic Avialae ("bird wings" is a Clade containing Birds ( Aves) and their most immediate Dinosaurian relatives
All modern birds lie within the subclass Neornithes, which has two subdivisions: the Paleognathae, containing mostly flightless birds like ostriches, and the wildly diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds. A class is the Taxonomic rank in the Biological classification of organisms in Biology below phylum and above order. Modern birds (subclass Neornithes) are the members of class Aves that have survived into recent times and have coexisted with Humans Modern birds are The Paleognathae or paleognaths ("old jaws" are one of the two living Superorders of Birds The other living superorder is Neognathae The Ostrich ( Struthio camelus) is a large Flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East) Neognaths ( Neognathae) are Birds within the Subclass Neornithes of the class Aves.  These two subdivisions are often given the rank of superorder, although Livezey & Zusi assigned them "cohort" rank. Taxonomic rank ( rank, category, taxonomic category is an abstract term used in the Scientific classification, or Taxonomy, of organisms This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used  Depending on the taxonomic viewpoint, the number of known living bird species varies anywhere from 9,800 to 10,050. Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the Science of finding describing and categorising Organisms thus giving rise to taxonomic groups or taxa 
Fossil evidence and intensive biological analyses have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt that birds are theropod dinosaurs. The origin of birds has been a contentious topic within Evolutionary biology for many years but more recently a scientific consensus has emerged which holds that Birds Confuciusornis is a genus of crow-sized primitive Birds from the Early Cretaceous of China, approximately 120 million years ago China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily More specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others. Maniraptora ("hand snatchers" is a Clade of Coelurosaurian Dinosaurs which includes the Birds and the dinosaurs that were more closely Dromaeosauridae is a family of Bird -like Theropod Dinosaurs They were small to medium-sized feathered Carnivores that flourished in the Oviraptoridae is a group of bird-like Maniraptoran Dinosaurs They are currently known from Mongolia and China, although there is an unpublished  As scientists discover more non-avian theropods that are closely related to birds, the previously clear distinction between non-birds and birds has become blurred. Recent discoveries in the Liaoning Province of northeast China, which demonstrate that many small theropod dinosaurs had feathers, contribute to this ambiguity. ( is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The realization that Dinosaurs are closely related to Birds raised the obvious possibility of feathered dinosaurs. 
The consensus view in contemporary paleontology is that the birds, Aves, are the closest relatives of the deinonychosaurs, which include dromaeosaurids and troodontids. Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The Deinonychosauria ("fearsome claw lizards" were a successful Clade of theropods in the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods Dromaeosauridae is a family of Bird -like Theropod Dinosaurs They were small to medium-sized feathered Carnivores that flourished in the Troodontidae is a family of Bird -like theropod Dinosaurs In previous decades troodontid fossils were few and scrappy and they have therefore Together, these three form a group called Paraves. Paraves is a stem–based Clade containing Birds (clade Aves and other closely related Dinosaurs The paravians include the Avialae, such The basal dromaeosaur Microraptor has features which may have enabled it to glide or fly. In Phylogenetics, a basal Clade is the earliest clade to branch in a larger clade it appears at the base of a cladogram Dromaeosauridae is a family of Bird -like Theropod Dinosaurs They were small to medium-sized feathered Carnivores that flourished in the Microraptor (meaning "small thief" is a Genus of small Dromaeosaurid Dinosaur. The most basal deinonychosaurs are very small. This evidence raises the possibility that the ancestor of all paravians may have been arboreal, and/or may have been able to glide. Arborea is a town in the Province of Oristano, Sardinia, Italy, whose economy is largely based on agriculture with production of vegetables 
The Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx is well-known as one of the first transitional fossils to be found and it provided support for the theory of evolution in the late 19th century. The Late Jurassic (or Malm) Epoch of the Jurassic Period is the unit of geologic time from 161 Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird Transitional fossils are the Fossilized remains of transitional forms of life that illustrate an evolutionary transition eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Archaeopteryx has clearly reptilian characters: teeth, clawed fingers, and a long, lizard-like tail, but it has finely preserved wings with flight feathers identical to those of modern birds. Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird It is not considered a direct ancestor of modern birds, but is the oldest and most primitive member of Aves or Avialae, and it is probably closely related to the real ancestor. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Avialae ("bird wings" is a Clade containing Birds ( Aves) and their most immediate Dinosaurian relatives It has even been suggested that Archaeopteryx was a dinosaur that was no more closely related to birds than were other dinosaur groups, and that Avimimus was more likely to be the ancestor of all birds than Archaeopteryx. Avimimus (ˌeɪvɨˈmaɪməs AY-vi-MYE-mus meaning "bird mimic" because it resembled a Bird ( Latin avis = bird + mimus 
There have been many controversies in the study of the origin of birds. Early disagreements included whether birds evolved from dinosaurs or more primitive archosaurs. Archosaurs ( Greek for 'ruling lizards' are a group of Diapsid Reptiles represented by Modern birds and Crocodilians This group also Within the dinosaur camp there were disagreements as to whether ornithischian or theropod dinosaurs were the more likely ancestors. Ornithischia (ɔrnɪˈθɪskiə) or Predentata is an extinct order of beaked herbivorous Dinosaurs The name ornithischia Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily  Although ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs share the hip structure of modern birds, birds are thought to have originated from the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs, and therefore evolved their hip structure independently. Ornithischia (ɔrnɪˈθɪskiə) or Predentata is an extinct order of beaked herbivorous Dinosaurs The name ornithischia Saurischia (sɔːˈrɪskiə, from the Greek sauros ( σαυρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion ( ισχιον) meaning 'hip joint' Two structures in biology are said to be analogous if they perform the same or similar function by a similar mechanism but evolved separately  In fact, a bird-like hip structure evolved a third time among a peculiar group of theropods known as the Therizinosauridae. Therizinosauridae ("reaper lizards" is a family of advanced herbivorous or omnivorous Theropod Dinosaurs Therizinosaurid Fossil remains
Scientists Larry Martin and Alan Feduccia believe that birds are not dinosaurs, but that birds evolved from early archosaurs like Longisquama. Larry Martin (born 1943 is an American vertebrate Paleontologist and Curator of the Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center at the University Alan Feduccia is a paleornithologist, specializing in the origins and Phylogeny of Birds He is the S Archosaurs ( Greek for 'ruling lizards' are a group of Diapsid Reptiles represented by Modern birds and Crocodilians This group also Longisquama insignis is an extinct Lizard -like Reptile known from a poorly preserved and incomplete fossil The majority of their publications argued that the similarities between birds and maniraptoran dinosaurs were convergent, and that the two were unrelated. Maniraptora ("hand snatchers" is a Clade of Coelurosaurian Dinosaurs which includes the Birds and the dinosaurs that were more closely In the late 1990s the evidence that birds were maniraptorans became almost indisputable, so Martin and Feduccia adopted a modified version of a hypothesis by dinosaur artist Gregory S. Paul; where maniraptorans are secondarily flightless birds but, in their version, birds evolved directly from Longisquama. Maniraptora ("hand snatchers" is a Clade of Coelurosaurian Dinosaurs which includes the Birds and the dinosaurs that were more closely Gregory S Paul (born 1954) is a Freelance Paleontologist, Author and Illustrator. Longisquama insignis is an extinct Lizard -like Reptile known from a poorly preserved and incomplete fossil Thus birds are still not dinosaurs, but neither are most of the known species that are currently classified as theropod dinosaurs. Theropods (ˈθɪərəpɒd theropoda /θiːˈrɒpədə/ 'beast feet' are a group of Bipedal Saurischian Dinosaurs Although they were primarily Maniraptorans are, instead, flightless, archosaurian, birds. Maniraptora ("hand snatchers" is a Clade of Coelurosaurian Dinosaurs which includes the Birds and the dinosaurs that were more closely Archosaurs ( Greek for 'ruling lizards' are a group of Diapsid Reptiles represented by Modern birds and Crocodilians This group also  This theory is contested by most paleontologists. Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal.  The features cited as evidence of flightlessness are interpreted by mainstream paleontologists as exaptations, or "pre-adaptations", that maniraptorans inherited from their common ancestor with birds. Exaptation, cooption, and preadaptation are related terms referring to shifts in the function of a trait during Evolution. Maniraptora ("hand snatchers" is a Clade of Coelurosaurian Dinosaurs which includes the Birds and the dinosaurs that were more closely
Protoavis texensis, was described in 1991 as a bird older than Archaeopteryx. Protoavis ("First Bird " is the name given to Archosaurian fossil bones from the Late Triassic found near Post Texas Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird Critics have indicated that the fossil is poorly preserved, extensively reconstructed, and may be a chimera (made up of fossilized bones from several different kinds of animals). The braincase is most likely that of a very early coelurosaur
Birds diversified into a wide variety of forms during the Cretaceous Period. For the prehistoric gliding reptile see Coelurosauravus. Coelurosauria (sɨˌljʊərəˈsɔriə is defined as the clade containing all Theropod Birds are generally believed to have evolved from certain feathered Theropod dinosaurs and there is no real dividing line between birds and Dinosaurs except Archaeopteryx, sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird" is the earliest and most primitive Bird Pygostylia is a group of birds which includes Confuciusornis and all of the more derived birds the Ornithothoraces. Confuciusornithidae is a family of primitive Birds from the early Cretaceous Period of China. Ornithothoraces is a Clade of Birds which includes all enantiornithines and Modern birds (Neornithes Enantiornithes is an extinct group of primitive Birds They were the most abundant and diverse avialans of the Mesozoic. Ornithurae (meaning "bird tails" in Greek) is the name of a natural group of Birds coined by Ernst Haeckel in 1866 Hesperornithes is an extinct and highly specialized Clade of Cretaceous toothed Birds Hesperornithine birds apparently limited to former aquatic habitats Modern birds (subclass Neornithes) are the members of class Aves that have survived into recent times and have coexisted with Humans Modern birds are The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of  Many groups retained primitive characteristics, such as clawed wings and teeth, though the latter were lost independently in a number of bird groups, including modern birds (Neornithes). A symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is in Cladistics a trait which is shared (a symmorphy between two or more taxa, but which is also shared Modern birds (subclass Neornithes) are the members of class Aves that have survived into recent times and have coexisted with Humans Modern birds are While the earliest forms, such as Archaeopteryx and Jeholornis, retained the long bony tails of their ancestors, the tails of more advanced birds were shortened with the advent of the pygostyle bone in the clade Pygostylia. Pope's nose redirects here It may also refer to the license plate light on early Volkswagen Beetles Pygostyle refers to a number of the A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor
The first large, diverse lineage of short-tailed birds to evolve were the Enantiornithes, or "opposite birds", so named because the construction of their shoulder bones was in reverse to that of modern birds. Enantiornithes is an extinct group of primitive Birds They were the most abundant and diverse avialans of the Mesozoic. Enantiornithes occupied a wide array of ecological niches, from sand-probing shorebirds and fish-eaters to tree-dwelling forms and seed-eaters.  More advanced lineages also specialised in eating fish, like the superficially gull-like subclass of Ichthyornithes ("fish birds"). Gulls (often informally Seagulls) are birds in the family Laridae Ichthyornis is a Genus of Seabird from the Late Cretaceous of North America.  One order of Mesozoic seabirds, the Hesperornithiformes, became so well adapted to hunting fish in marine environments that they lost the ability to fly and became primarily aquatic. Hesperornithes is an extinct and highly specialized Clade of Cretaceous toothed Birds Hesperornithine birds apparently limited to former aquatic habitats Despite their extreme specialisations, the Hesperornithiformes represent some of the closest relatives of modern birds. 
Containing all modern birds, the subclass Neornithes is, due to the discovery of Vegavis, now known to have evolved into some basic lineages by the end of the Cretaceous and is split into two superorders, the Paleognathae and Neognathae. The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird Taxonomy proposed by Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist. Dinosauria is a Clade of Archosaurs within the Phylum Chordata. Vegavis is a Genus of extinct Bird that lived during the Late Cretaceous ( Maastrichtian stage of Antarctica, some The Paleognathae or paleognaths ("old jaws" are one of the two living Superorders of Birds The other living superorder is Neognathae Neognaths ( Neognathae) are Birds within the Subclass Neornithes of the class Aves. The paleognaths include the tinamous of Central and South America and the ratites. The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of Bird, members of a South American Bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a A ratite is any of a diverse group of large Flightless birds of Gondwanan origin most of them now extinct The basal divergence from the remaining Neognathes was that of the Galloanserae, the superorder containing the Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans and screamers) and the Galliformes (the pheasants, grouse, and their allies, together with the mound builders and the guans and their allies). Most or all Birds collectively referred to as fowl belong to one of two orders namely the gamefowl or landfowl ( Galliformes) and the waterfowl The order Anseriformes contains about 150 living Species of Birds in three extant families the Anhimidae (the screamers Anseranatidae For duck as a food see Duck (food; for other meanings see Duck (disambiguation. Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. Swans are Birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and Ducks Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in The Screamers are a small family of Birds the Anhimidae For a long time they were thought to be related to the Galliformes because of similar bills Galliformes are an order of Birds containing turkeys, Grouse, Chickens Quails and Pheasants More than 250 Pheasants are a group of large Birds in the order Galliformes. Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes. Often considered a family Tetraonidae, the American Ornithologists' Union The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky medium-large chicken-like Birds with small heads and large feet in the family The guans are a number of bird genera which make up the largest group in the family Cracidae. The dates for the splits are much debated by scientists. It is agreed that the Neornithes evolved in the Cretaceous, and that the split between the Galloanseri from other Neognathes occurred before the K–T extinction event, but there are different opinions about whether the radiation of the remaining Neognathes occurred before or after the extinction of the other dinosaurs. The Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred approximately ( Ma) was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace  This disagreement is in part caused by a divergence in the evidence; molecular dating suggests a Cretaceous radiation, while fossil evidence supports a Tertiary radiation. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately Attempts to reconcile the molecular and fossil evidence have proved controversial. 
The classification of birds is a contentious issue. Sibley and Ahlquist's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds (1990) is a landmark work on the classification of birds, although it is frequently debated and constantly revised. Charles Gald Sibley ( August 7, 1917 – April 12, 1998) was an American Ornithologist and Molecular biologist Jon Edward Ahlquist specialized in Molecular phylogenetics and Ornithology, collaborating extensively with Charles Sibley, primarily at Yale University Most evidence seems to suggest that the assignment of orders is accurate, but scientists disagree about the relationships between the orders themselves; evidence from modern bird anatomy, fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem, but no strong consensus has emerged. More recently, new fossil and molecular evidence is providing an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders.
based on Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy
This is a list of the taxonomic orders in the subclass Neornithes, or modern birds. The Paleognathae or paleognaths ("old jaws" are one of the two living Superorders of Birds The other living superorder is Neognathae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large Flightless birds of Gondwanan origin most of them now extinct The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of Bird, members of a South American Bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera Neognaths ( Neognathae) are Birds within the Subclass Neornithes of the class Aves. Most or all Birds collectively referred to as fowl belong to one of two orders namely the gamefowl or landfowl ( Galliformes) and the waterfowl The order Anseriformes contains about 150 living Species of Birds in three extant families the Anhimidae (the screamers Anseranatidae Galliformes are an order of Birds containing turkeys, Grouse, Chickens Quails and Pheasants More than 250 The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird Taxonomy proposed by Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist. This list uses the traditional classification (the so-called Clements order), revised by the Sibley-Monroe classification. Dr James Franklin ( Jim) Clements ( October 31, 1927 – June 9, 2005) was an ornithologist and Author The list of birds gives a more detailed summary of the orders, including families. A Phylogenetic tree of the modern birds based on a recent study
The radically different Sibley-Monroe classification (Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy), based on molecular data, found widespread adoption in a few aspects, as recent molecular, fossil, and anatomical evidence supported the Galloanserae for example. The Paleognathae or paleognaths ("old jaws" are one of the two living Superorders of Birds The other living superorder is Neognathae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large Flightless birds of Gondwanan origin most of them now extinct The Ostrich ( Struthio camelus) is a large Flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East) The Emu ( Dromaius novaehollandiae, is the largest Bird native to Australia and the only extant member of the Genus KIWI (1029 FM, "Radio Lobo" is a commercial Radio station located in McFarland California, broadcasting to the Bakersfield California The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of Bird, members of a South American Bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera Neognaths ( Neognathae) are Birds within the Subclass Neornithes of the class Aves. The order Anseriformes contains about 150 living Species of Birds in three extant families the Anhimidae (the screamers Anseranatidae Galliformes are an order of Birds containing turkeys, Grouse, Chickens Quails and Pheasants More than 250 Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large Birds It includes about 350 Species and has members in all parts of the world Gulls (often informally Seagulls) are birds in the family Laridae The buttonquails or hemipodes are a small family of Birds which resemble but are unrelated to the true Quails They inhabit warm grasslands in Asia The loons (eg North America or divers (eg UK/Ireland are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds some of which visit the sea when migrating Procellariiformes is an order of Seabirds that comprises four families: the Albatrosses procellariids, Storm-petrels and Diving Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large Seabirds allied to the procellariids, Storm-petrels and Diving-petrels This article is about the petrel seabirds For other uses see Petrel (disambiguation. Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide A pelican is a large water Bird with a distinctive pouch under the beak belonging to the Bird family Pelecanidae. Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic Seabirds There are three species in one Genus Phaethon Traditionally the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large long-legged wading birds with large bills Storks Herons Egrets Storks are large long-legged long-necked wading Birds with long stout bills, belonging to the family Ciconiidae. The New World vulture family Cathartidae contains seven Species found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas. Flamingos or flamingoes ( are gregarious Wading birds in the Genus Phoenicopterus and family The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 Species of Birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. A falcon (fɔlkən or fælkən is any Species of raptor in the Genus Falco. Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera The term hawk can be used in several ways In strict usage in Europe and Asia, to mean any of the Species in the Subfamily The diverse order Gruiformes contains a considerable number of living and extinct Bird families with on first sight little in common Cranes are large long-legged and long-necked Birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. Sandgrouse is also the name of the journal of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East - see Sandgrouse (journal The sandgrouse are a The Bird order Columbiformes includes the very widespread and successful Doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae and the Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 Species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions The Near passerine Bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below Musophagidae - turacos and allies The cuckoos are a family Cuculidae, of Near passerine Birds The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos also includes the The turacos, Plantain -eaters and go-away-birds make up the Bird family Musophagidae (literally "banana-eaters" The Hoatzin ( Opisthocomus hoazin) also known as the Hoactzin, Stinkbird, or Canje "Pheasant", is an unusual species The Hoatzin ( Opisthocomus hoazin) also known as the Hoactzin, Stinkbird, or Canje "Pheasant", is an unusual species The Owls are an order of birds of prey. Most are Solitary, and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e The Caprimulgiformes is an order of Birds that includes a number of Birds with global distribution (except Antarctica) This article is about the bird For the aircraft see Gloster Nightjar. The swifts are a family Apodidae, of highly aerial Birds They are superficially similar to Swallows but are actually not closely related to those Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful Near passerine Birds including the Kingfishers the Hoopoe, the Bee-eaters the Kingfishers are small bright colored Birds of the three families Alcedinidae ( River kingfishers, Halcyonidae ( Tree kingfishers, and Cerylidae ( Water Six families of largely arboreal Birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae which includes the Woodpeckers The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. The trogons and quetzals are Birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family the Trogonidae. The mousebirds are a small group of (possibly Near passerine) Birds which have no real close affinities to other groups though they and the parrots and cockatoos The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird Taxonomy proposed by Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist. Most or all Birds collectively referred to as fowl belong to one of two orders namely the gamefowl or landfowl ( Galliformes) and the waterfowl 
Birds live and breed in most terrestrial habitats and on all seven continents, reaching their southern extreme in the Snow Petrel's breeding colonies up to 440 kilometres (270 mi) inland in Antarctica. The Snow Petrel ( Pagodroma nivea) is a small pure white Fulmarine petrel with black underdown coal-black eyes small black bill and bluish gray feet  The highest bird diversity occurs in tropical regions. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. It was earlier thought that this high diversity was the result of higher speciation rates in the tropics, however recent studies found higher speciation rates in the high latitudes that were offset by greater extinction rates than in the tropics. Speciation is the Evolutionary process by which new biological Species arise In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa.  Several families of birds have adapted to life both on the world's oceans and in them, with some seabird species coming ashore only to breed and some penguins have been recorded diving up to 300 metres (980 ft). Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost 
Many bird species have established breeding populations in areas to which they have been introduced by humans. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but Some of these introductions have been deliberate; the Ring-necked Pheasant, for example, has been introduced around the world as a game bird. The Common Pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) is a bird in the Pheasant family (Phasianidae Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison)  Others have been accidental, such as the establishment of wild Monk Parakeets in several North American cities after their escape from captivity. The Monk Parakeet or Quaker Parrot ( Myiopsitta monachus) is a Species of Parrot, in most treatments the only member of the  Some species, including Cattle Egret, Yellow-headed Caracara and Galah, have spread naturally far beyond their original ranges as agricultural practices created suitable new habitat. The Cattle Egret ( Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of Heron ( family Ardeidae) found in the tropics subtropics and warm The Yellow-headed Caracara, Milvago chimachima, is a Bird of prey in the family Falconidae The Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla, (gəˈlaː is also known as the Rose-breasted Cockatoo or Galah Cockatoo. Avian Range Expansion describes how Birds expand their Habitat.
Compared with other vertebrates, birds have a body plan that shows many unusual adaptations, mostly to facilitate flight. Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of Birds A covert feather on a Bird is one of a set of Feathers called coverts which as the name implies cover other feathers A body plan, or bauplan, is essentially the blueprint for the way the body of an organism is laid out Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird species
The skeleton consists of very lightweight bones. They have large air-filled cavities (called pneumatic cavities) which connect with the respiratory system. In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange.  The skull bones are fused and do not show cranial sutures. This article is about joints in the bones of the cranium There is also an article about sutures as features of a wide range of animals.  The orbits are large and separated by a bony septum. In Anatomy, the orbital bone is the cavity or socket of the Skull in which the Eye and its appendages are situated A septum ( Latin: something that encloses; plural Septa) is a partition separating two cavities or spaces The spine has cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions with the number of cervical (neck) vertebrae highly variable and especially flexible, but movement is reduced in the anterior thoracic vertebrae and absent in the later vertebrae. In Human anatomy, the vertebral column ( backbone or spine) is a column of 34 Vertebrae the Sacrum, Intervertebral  The last few are fused with the pelvis to form the synsacrum. The pelvis (pl pelvises or pelves) or pelvic girdle is the irregular bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known The synsacrum is a skeletal structure mainly described in birds and Dinosaurs in which the Sacrum is extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially-fused  The ribs are flattened and the sternum is keeled for the attachment of flight muscles except in the flightless bird orders. The sternum (from Greek στέρνον sternon, "chest" or breastbone) is a long flat Bone located in the center of the thorax (chest The forelimbs are modified into wings. 
Like the reptiles, birds are primarily uricotelic, that is, their kidneys extract nitrogenous wastes from their bloodstream and excrete it as uric acid instead of urea or ammonia. Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles Uric acid (or urate) is an Organic compound of Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3 Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Uric acid is excreted along with feces as a semisolid waste since birds do not have a separate bladder or uretral opening.  However, birds such as hummingbirds can be facultatively ammonotelic, excreting most of the nitrogenous wastes as ammonia.  They also excrete creatine, rather than creatinine like mammals. Creatine is Nitrogenous Organic acid that occurs naturally in Vertebrates and helps to supply energy to Muscle and nerve cells Creatinine is a break-down product of Creatine phosphate in Muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass  This material, as well as the output of the intestines, emerges from the bird's cloaca. In zoological anatomy a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal and urinary tracts of certain animal species  The cloaca is a multi-purpose opening: waste is expelled through it, birds mate by joining cloaca, and females lay eggs from it. Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of Birds In addition, many species of birds regurgitate pellets. A pellet, in Ornithology, is the mass of undigested parts of a bird's food that some bird species occasionally Regurgitate.  The digestive system of birds is unique, with a crop for storage and a gizzard that contains swallowed stones for grinding food to compensate for the lack of teeth. Digestion is the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed A crop (or croup) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the Alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to Digestion that is found in many animals The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ in the digestive tract found in Birds Reptiles  Most birds are highly adapted for rapid digestion to aid with flight.  Some migratory birds have the additional ability to reduce parts of the intestines prior to migration. 
Birds have one of the most complex respiratory systems of all animal groups. In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange.  Upon inhalation, 75% of the fresh air bypasses the lungs and flows directly into a posterior air sac which extends from the lungs and connects with air spaces in the bones and fills them with air. Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of Birds The other 25% of the air goes directly into the lungs. When the bird exhales, the used air flows out of the lung and the stored fresh air from the posterior air sac is simultaneously forced into the lungs. Thus, a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation.  Sound production is achieved using the syrinx, a muscular chamber with several tympanic membranes which is situated at the lower end of the trachea, from where it separates. Syrinx ( Greek for Pan pipes) is the name for the vocal organ of birds  The bird's heart has four chambers and the right aortic arch gives rise to systemic circulation (unlike in the mammals where the left arch is involved). Systemic circulation is the portion of the Cardiovascular system which carries Oxygenated Blood away from the heart to the Body, and returns  The postcava receives blood from the limbs via the renal portal system. Unlike in mammals, the red blood cells in birds have a nucleus. Red blood cells are the most common type of Blood cell and the Vertebrate body's principal means of delivering Oxygen to the body tissues via the Blood In Cell biology, the nucleus (pl nuclei; from Latin la ''nucleus'' or la ''nuculeus'' "little nut" or kernel is a membrane-enclosed 
The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size. The nervous system is a Network of specialized cells that communicate information about an animal's surroundings and itself  The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the flight-related functions, while the cerebellum coordinates movement and the cerebrum controls behaviour patterns, navigation, mating and nest building. The cerebellum ( Latin: "little brain" is a region of the Brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception The telencephalon (tɛlɛnˈsɛfəlɒn cerebrum, or forebrain is the most Anterior or especially in humans most Dorsal region of the Most birds have a poor sense of smell with notable exceptions including kiwis, New World vultures and tubenoses. Olfaction (also known as olfactics or smell) refers to the Sense of smell. KIWI (1029 FM, "Radio Lobo" is a commercial Radio station located in McFarland California, broadcasting to the Bakersfield California The New World vulture family Cathartidae contains seven Species found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas. Procellariiformes is an order of Seabirds that comprises four families: the Albatrosses procellariids, Storm-petrels and Diving  The avian visual system is usually highly developed. The visual system is the part of the Nervous system which allows organisms to see. Water birds have special flexible lenses, allowing accommodation for vision in air and water.  Some species also have dual fovea. The fovea, also known as the fovea centralis, is a part of the Eye, located in the center of the Macula region of the Retina. Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones. Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying Color information or possessing four different cones. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Cone cells, or cones, are Photoreceptor cells in the Retina of the Eye which function best in relatively bright Light.  This allows them to perceive ultraviolet light, which is involved in courtship. Many birds show plumage patterns in ultraviolet that are invisible to the human eye; some birds whose sexes appear similar to the naked eye are distinguished by the presence of ultraviolet reflective patches on their feathers. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Male Blue Tits have an ultraviolet reflective crown patch which is displayed in courtship by posturing and raising of their nape feathers. The Blue Tit, Cyanistes caeruleus, is a 105 to 12 cm (42 to 4  Ultraviolet light is also used in foraging—kestrels have been shown to search for prey by detecting the UV reflective urine trail marks left on the ground by rodents. The name kestrel is given to several different members of the Falcon genus Falco.  The eyelids of a bird are not used in blinking. Instead the eye is lubricated by the nictitating membrane, a third eyelid that moves horizontally. The nictitating membrane is a transparent or Translucent third Eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the Eye for protection and to moisten  The nictitating membrane also covers the eye and acts as a contact lens in many aquatic birds. A contact lens (also known simply as a contact) is a corrective, cosmetic, or therapeutic lens usually placed on the Cornea  The bird retina has a fan shaped blood supply system called the pecten. The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive part inside the inner layer of the Eye. The pecten or pecten oculi is a Vascular section of the Choroid in the Eye of a Bird.  Most birds cannot move their eyes, although there are exceptions, such as the Great Cormorant. The Great Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo) known as the Great Black Cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere the Black Cormorant in Australia and the  Birds with eyes on the sides of their heads have a wide visual field, while birds with eyes on the front of their heads, such as owls, have binocular vision and can estimate the depth of field. The term visual field is sometimes used as a Synonym to Field of view, though they do not designate the same thing Binocular vision is vision in which both Eyes are used together  The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds, such as the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The ear is the sense organ that detects Sounds The Vertebrate ear shows a common biology from Fish to Humans with variations The pinna ( Latin for Feather) is the visible part of the Ear that resides outside of the head (this may also be referred to as the auricle or Asio is a genus of Typical owls, or true owls in family Strigidae. The American horned owls and the Old World eagle-owls make up the Genus Bubo, at least as traditionally circumscribed Scops-owls are Strigidae (typical Owls belong to the Genus Otus. The Owls are an order of birds of prey. Most are Solitary, and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e The inner ear has a cochlea, but it is not spiral as in mammals. The cochlea is the auditory portion of the Inner ear. Its core component is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing, which is distributed along 
A few species are able to use chemical defenses against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant oil against an aggressor, and some species of pitohuis from New Guinea secrete a powerful neurotoxin in their skin and feathers. Procellariiformes is an order of Seabirds that comprises four families: the Albatrosses procellariids, Storm-petrels and Diving Stomach oil is the light Oil composed of neutral dietary Lipids found in the fore-gut or proventriculus of birds in the order Procellariiformes Pitohui is a genus of birds endemic to New Guinea, belonging to the family Pachycephalidae. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known A neurotoxin is a Toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells ( Neurons, usually by interacting with Membrane proteins such as Ion channels 
Birds have two sexes: male and female. Birds' sex is determined by Z and W sex chromosomes, rather than the X and Y chromosomes seen in mammals. The ZW sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring in Birds, some Fish, and some Insects (including Butterflies Males carry two Z chromosomes (ZZ), and females carry a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ).  In nearly all species, an individual's sex is determined at fertilization. However, one recent study demonstrated temperature-dependent sex determination among Australian Brush-turkeys, for which higher temperatures during incubation resulted in a higher female-to-male sex ratio. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD also called environmental sex determination, is where the surrounding temperature determines the sex of an organism The Australian Brush-turkey Alectura lathami, also frequently called the Scrub Turkey or Bush Turkey, is a common widespread species of mound-building 
Feathers are a feature unique to birds. Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering or Plumage, on Birds They are considered the most complex integumentary structures They facilitate flight, provide insulation that aids in thermoregulation, and are used in display, camouflage, and signaling. Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird species Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different  There are several types of feathers, each serving its own set of purposes. Feathers are epidermal growths attached to the skin and arise only in specific tracts of skin called pterylae. The distribution pattern of these feather tracts (pterylosis) is used in taxonomy and systematics. The arrangement and appearance of feathers on the body, called plumage, may vary within species by age, social status, and sex. Plumage refers both to the layer of Feathers that cover a Bird and the pattern colour and arrangement of those feathers Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different Sex in the same Species. 
Plumage is regularly moulted; the standard plumage of a bird that has moulted after breeding is known as the "non-breeding" plumage, or – in the Humphrey-Parkes terminology – "basic" plumage; breeding plumages or variations of the basic plumage are known under the Humphrey-Parkes system as "alternate" plumages. In Biology, moulting (or molting, also known as shedding or for some species Ecdysis) signifies the manner in which an animal routinely Humphrey-Parkes terminology is a system of Nomenclature for the Plumage of Birds Before the Humphrey-Parkes system plumage was named after the belief that  Moulting is annual in most species, although some may have two moults a year, and large birds of prey may moult only once every few years. Moulting patterns vary across species. Some drop and regrow wing flight feathers, starting sequentially from the outermost feathers and progressing inwards (centripetal), while others replace feathers starting from the innermost ones (centrifugal). Flight feathers are the long stiff asymmetrically shaped but symmetrically paired Feathers on the Wings or Tail of a Bird; those on the A small number of species, such as ducks and geese, lose all of their flight feathers at once, temporarily becoming flightless.  Centripetal moults of tail feathers are seen for example in the Phasianidae. The Phasianidae is a family of Birds which consists of the Pheasants and Partridges and including the junglefowl Old World quail francolins  Centrifugal moult is seen, for instance, in the tail feathers of woodpeckers and treecreepers, although it begins with the second innermost pair of tail-feathers and finishes with the central pair of feathers so that the bird maintains a functional climbing tail. The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. The treecreepers (Certhiidae are a family of small Passerine birds widespread in wooded regions of the Northern Hemisphere and Sub-Saharan Africa  The general pattern seen in passerines is that the primaries are replaced outward, secondaries inward, and the tail from center outward.  Before nesting, the females of most bird species gain a bare brood patch by losing feathers close to the belly. brood patch is a patch of featherless skin that is visible on the underside of Birds during the nesting season The skin there is well supplied with blood vessels and helps the bird in incubation. 
Feathers require maintenance and birds preen or groom them daily, spending an average of around 9% of their daily time on this.  The bill is used to brush away foreign particles and to apply waxy secretions from the uropygial gland; these secretions protect the feathers' flexibility and act as an antimicrobial agent, inhibiting the growth of feather-degrading bacteria. Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their The uropygial gland, or more informally the preen gland is a Gland found in the large majority of birds that secretes an oil ( preen oil) that birds use The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have  This may be supplemented with the secretions of formic acid from ants, which birds receive through a behaviour known as anting, to remove feather parasites. Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest Carboxylic acid. In the Behavior called anting, Birds rub insects on their feathers usually Ants which secrete liquids containing chemicals such as Formic acid 
The scales of birds are composed of the same keratin as beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and metatarsus, but may be found further up on the ankle in some birds. The metatarsus consists of the five long Bones of the Foot, which are numbered from the medial side ( ossa metatarsalia I Most bird scales do not overlap significantly, except in the cases of kingfishers and woodpeckers. Kingfishers are small bright colored Birds of the three families Alcedinidae ( River kingfishers, Halcyonidae ( Tree kingfishers, and Cerylidae ( Water The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds.
Bird embryos begin development with smooth skin. On the feet, the corneum, or outermost layer, of this skin may keratinize, thicken and form scales. The stratum corneum ("horny layer" is the outermost layer of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the Skin) These scales can be organized into;
The rows of scutes on the anterior of the metatarsus can be called an acrometatarsium or acrotarsium. In fields of Anatomy, anatomical terms of location are descriptive terms to help identify relative positions or directions within a species The metatarsus consists of the five long Bones of the Foot, which are numbered from the medial side ( ossa metatarsalia I
Feathers can be intermixed with scales on some birds' feet. Feather follicles can lie between scales or even directly beneath them, in the deeper dermis layer of the skin. The dermis is a layer of Skin beneath the epidermis that consists of Connective tissue, and cushions the body from stress and strain In this last case, feathers may emerge directly through scales, and be encircled at the plane of emergence entirely by the keratin of the scale. 
The scales of birds are thought to be homologous to those of reptiles and mammals. In Evolutionary biology, homology has come to mean any similarity between characters that is due to their shared ancestry.
Most birds can fly, which distinguishes them from almost all other vertebrates. Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird species The Restless Flycatcher, Myiagra inquieta, is a Passerine Bird in the family Monarchidae. A number of Animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding Flight is the primary means of locomotion for most bird species and is used for breeding, feeding, and predator avoidance and escape. Birds have various adaptations for flight, including a lightweight skeleton, two large flight muscles (the pectoralis—accounting for 15% of the total mass of the bird—and the supracoracoideus), and a modified forelimb (wing) that serves as an aerofoil. WING "ESPN 1410" is a commercial AM radio station in Dayton Ohio operating with 5000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios offices and transmitter located on David An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a Wing or blade (of a Propeller, rotor  Wing shape and size generally determine a bird species' type of flight; many birds combine powered, flapping flight with less energy-intensive soaring flight. About 60 extant bird species are flightless, as were many extinct birds. Flightless birds are birds which lack the ability to fly relying instead on their ability to run or swim and are thought to have evolved from their flying ancestors  Flightlessness often arises in birds on isolated islands, probably due to limited resources and the absence of land predators.  Though flightless, penguins use similar musculature and movements to "fly" through the water, as do auks, shearwaters and dippers. This article is about a family of birds For the American ornithological journal see The Auk. Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged Seabirds There are more than 20 Species of shearwaters a few larger ones in the genus Calonectris Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the Bird family Cinclidae 
Most birds are diurnal, but some birds, such as many species of owls and nightjars, are nocturnal or crepuscular (active during twilight hours), and many coastal waders feed when the tides are appropriate, by day or night. In Animal behavior, diurnality indicates an Animal that is active during the Daytime and rests during the Night. The Owls are an order of birds of prey. Most are Solitary, and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e This article is about the bird For the aircraft see Gloster Nightjar. As an Animal behavior, nocturnality describes sleeping during the Daytime and being active at Night - the opposite of the diurnal Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during Twilight, hence at Dawn and at Dusk. Waders, called shorebirds in North America (where "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading Birds such as Storks and 
Birds' diets are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds. Nectar is a Sugar -rich liquid produced by plants It is produced either by the Flowers in which it attracts pollinating animals or by extrafloral Carrion (from the Latin caro, meaning meat refers to the carcass of a dead animal  Because birds have no teeth, their digestive system is adapted to process unmasticated food items that are swallowed whole. Digestion is the breaking down of chemicals in the body into a form that can be absorbed
Birds that employ many strategies to obtain food or feed on a variety of food items are called generalists, while others that concentrate time and effort on specific food items or have a single strategy to obtain food are considered specialists.  Birds' feeding strategies vary by species. Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Nectar feeders such as hummingbirds, sunbirds, lories, and lorikeets amongst others have specially adapted brushy tongues and in many cases bills designed to fit co-adapted flowers. Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. The sunbirds and '''spiderhunters''' are very small Passerine Birds which feed largely on Nectar, although they will also take insects especially  Kiwis and shorebirds with long bills probe for invertebrates; shorebirds' varied bill lengths and feeding methods result in the separation of ecological niches. KIWI (1029 FM, "Radio Lobo" is a commercial Radio station located in McFarland California, broadcasting to the Bakersfield California Waders, called shorebirds in North America (where "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading Birds such as Storks and In Ecology, a niche (pronounced nich nēsh or nish A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living  Loons, diving ducks, penguins and auks pursue their prey underwater, using their wings or feet for propulsion, while aerial predators such as sulids, kingfishers and terns plunge dive after their prey. The loons (eg North America or divers (eg UK/Ireland are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia The 15 or so living species of diving duck, commonly called pochards or scaups, are part of the diverse and very large Duck, Goose Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost This article is about a family of birds For the American ornithological journal see The Auk. The Bird family Sulidae comprises the Gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal Seabirds that plunge-dive for fish Kingfishers are small bright colored Birds of the three families Alcedinidae ( River kingfishers, Halcyonidae ( Tree kingfishers, and Cerylidae ( Water Terns are Seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily (Sterninae of the gull family Laridae (van Tuinen et al Flamingos, three species of prion, and some ducks are filter feeders. Flamingos or flamingoes ( are gregarious Wading birds in the Genus Phoenicopterus and family The prions are small Petrels in the Genus Pachyptila. Together with the Blue Petrel, they form one of the four groups within the Procellariidae Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are Animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water typically by passing the water  Geese and dabbling ducks are primarily grazers. Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. The Anatinae is a Subfamily of the family Anatidae ( Swans geese and Ducks. Some species, including frigatebirds, gulls, and skuas, engage in kleptoparasitism, stealing food items from other birds. The frigatebirds are a family Fregatidae, of Seabirds There are five Species in the single Genus Fregata. Gulls (often informally Seagulls) are birds in the family Laridae Skuas are Seabirds in the family Stercorariidae. The three smaller skuas are called jaegers in North America Kleptoparasitism or cleptoparasitism (literally Parasitism by Theft) is a form of Feeding where one animal takes Prey from another Kleptoparasitism is thought to be a supplement to food obtained by hunting, rather than a significant part of any species' diet; a study of Great Frigatebirds stealing from Masked Boobies estimated that the frigatebirds stole at most 40% of their food and on average stole only 5%. The Great Frigatebird ( Fregata minor) is a large dispersive Seabird in the Frigatebird family. The Masked Booby, Sula dactylatra, is a large Seabird of the Gannet family Sulidae.  Other birds are scavengers; some of these, like vultures, are specialised carrion eaters, while others, like gulls, corvids, or other birds of prey, are opportunists. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed Vultures are scavenging Birds feeding mostly on the carcasses of dead Animals Vultures are found on every continent except Antarctica and Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of Oscine Passerine Birds that contains the Crows Ravens rooks 
Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of seasonal temperatures, therefore optimising availability of food sources and breeding habitat. Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of Birds Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. These migrations vary among the different groups. Many landbirds, shorebirds, and waterbirds undertake annual long distance migrations, usually triggered by the length of daylight as well as weather conditions. Waders, called shorebirds in North America (where "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading Birds such as Storks and These birds are characterised by a breeding season spent in the temperate or arctic/antarctic regions and a non-breeding season in the tropical regions or opposite hemisphere. The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Before migration, birds substantially increase body fats and reserves and reduce the size of some of their organs.  Migration is highly demanding energetically, particularly as birds need to cross deserts and oceans without refuelling. Landbirds have a flight range of around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) and shorebirds can fly up to 4,000 km (2,500 mi), although the Bar-tailed Godwit is capable of non-stop flights of up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi). The Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica, is a large Wader in the family Scolopacidae, which breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra  Seabirds also undertake long migrations, the longest annual migration being those of Sooty Shearwaters, which nest in New Zealand and Chile and spend the northern summer feeding in the North Pacific off Japan, Alaska and California, an annual round trip of 64,000 km (39,800 mi). Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment The Sooty Shearwater ( Puffinus griseus) is a medium-large Shearwater in the Seabird family Procellariidae. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.  Other seabirds disperse after breeding, travelling widely but having no set migration route. Albatrosses nesting in the Southern Ocean often undertake circumpolar trips between breeding seasons. 
Some bird species undertake shorter migrations, travelling only as far as is required to avoid bad weather or obtain food. Irruptive species such as the boreal finches are one such group and can commonly be found at a location in one year and absent the next. Finches are Passerine Birds often Seed -eating found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. This type of migration is normally associated with food availability.  Species may also travel shorter distances over part of their range, with individuals from higher latitudes travelling into the existing range of conspecifics; others undertake partial migrations, where only a fraction of the population, usually females and subdominant males, migrates.  Partial migration can form a large percentage of the migration behaviour of birds in some regions; in Australia, surveys found that 44% of non-passerine birds and 32% of passerines were partially migratory.  Altitudinal migration is a form of short distance migration in which birds spend the breeding season at higher altitudes elevations and move to lower ones during suboptimal conditions. It is most often triggered by temperature changes and usually occurs when the normal territories also become inhospitable due to lack of food.  Some species may also be nomadic, holding no fixed territory and moving according to weather and food availability. Parrots as a family are overwhelmingly neither migratory nor sedentary but considered to either be dispersive, irruptive, nomadic or undertake small and irregular migrations. The true parrots are about 330 species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae family, one of the two "traditional" families in the biological order In Biological classification, family ( Latin 
The ability of birds to return to precise locations across vast distances has been known for some time; in an experiment conducted in the 1950s a Manx Shearwater released in Boston returned to its colony in Skomer, Wales within 13 days, a distance of 5,150 km (3,200 mi). The Manx Shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized Shearwater in the Seabird family Procellariidae. Skomer is a 292 km² Island off the coast of southwest Wales, one of a chain lying within a kilometre off the Pembrokeshire  Birds navigate during migration using a variety of methods. For diurnal migrants, the sun is used to navigate by day, and a stellar compass is used at night. In Animal behavior, diurnality indicates an Animal that is active during the Daytime and rests during the Night. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. Birds that use the sun compensate for the changing position of the sun during the day by the use of an internal clock. Chronobiology is a field of Science that examines periodic (cyclic phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar and lunar related rhythms  Orientation with the stellar compass depends on the position of the constellations surrounding Polaris. In common usage a constellation is a group of celestial bodies that are connected together in some arrangement typically stars to form a visible figure or picture Polaris (α UMi / α Ursae Minoris / Alpha Ursae Minoris commonly North(ern Star or Pole Star, and sometimes Lodestar  These are backed up in some species by their ability to sense the Earth's geomagnetism through specialised photoreceptors. Earth 's magnetic field (and the surface magnetic field) is approximately a Magnetic dipole, with one pole near the North pole (see A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of Neuron (nerve cell found in the Eye 's Retina that is capable of 
Birds communicate using primarily visual and auditory signals. Animal communication is any Behaviour on the part of one Animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific (within species).
Birds sometimes use plumage to assess and assert social dominance, to display breeding condition in sexually selected species, or to make threatening displays, as in the Sunbittern's mimicry of a large predator to ward off hawks and protect young chicks. The Sunbittern, Eurypyga helias is a Bittern -like Bird of tropical regions of the Americas, and the sole member of the family The term hawk can be used in several ways In strict usage in Europe and Asia, to mean any of the Species in the Subfamily  Variation in plumage also allows for the identification of birds, particularly between species. Visual communication among birds may also involve ritualised displays, which have developed from non-signalling actions such as preening, the adjustments of feather position, pecking, or other behaviour. These displays may signal aggression or submission or may contribute to the formation of pair-bonds.  The most elaborate displays occur during courtship, where "dances" are often formed from complex combinations of many possible component movements; males' breeding success may depend on the quality of such displays. 
Bird calls and songs, which are produced in the syrinx, are the major means by which birds communicate with sound. The House Wren, Troglodytes aedon, is a very small Songbird of the Wren family, Troglodytidae Bird vocalization includes both Bird calls and bird songs In non-technical use bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear Syrinx ( Greek for Pan pipes) is the name for the vocal organ of birds Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies This communication can be very complex; some species can operate the two sides of the syrinx independently, allowing the simultaneous production of two different songs.  Calls are used for a variety of purposes, including mate attraction, evaluation of potential mates, bond formation, the claiming and maintenance of territories, the identification of other individuals (such as when parents look for chicks in colonies or when mates reunite at the start of breeding season), and the warning of other birds of potential predators, sometimes with specific information about the nature of the threat.  Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory communication. The Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand drive air through their feathers, woodpeckers drum territorially, and Palm Cockatoos use tools to drum. Coenocorypha is a Genus of tiny Birds also known as the New Zealand snipes, which are found in the Outlying Islands of New Zealand A snipe is any of nearly 20 wading bird species in three genera in the family Scolopacidae. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. The Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus, also known as the Goliath Cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the Cockatoo family and 
While some birds are essentially territorial or live in small family groups, other birds may form large flocks. A flock is a group of Birds conducting flocking behavior in flight or while foraging The principal benefits of flocking are safety in numbers and increased foraging efficiency. Safety in numbers is the hypothesis that by being part of a large physical group or mass an individual is proportionally less likely to be the victim of a mishap Accident  Defence against predators is particularly important in closed habitats like forests, where ambush predation is common and multiple eyes can provide a valuable early warning system. Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals that capture prey by stealth or cunning not by speed or necessarily by strength This has led to the development of many mixed-species feeding flocks, which are usually composed of small numbers of many species; these flocks provide safety in numbers but reduce potential competition for resources. A mixed-species feeding flock, mixed-species foraging flock or mixed hunting party is a flock of Birds of different Species that  Costs of flocking include bullying of socially subordinate birds by more dominant birds and the reduction of feeding efficiency in certain cases. 
Birds sometimes also form associations with non-avian species. Plunge-diving seabirds associate with dolphins and tuna, which push shoaling fish towards the surface. Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment Dolphins are Marine mammals that are closely related to Whales and Porpoises There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera. Tuna, are several Species of ocean-dwelling Fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus.  Hornbills have a mutualistic relationship with Dwarf Mongooses, in which they forage together and warn each other of nearby birds of prey and other predators. Mutualism is a Biological interaction between individuals of two different Species, where both individuals derive a fitness benefit for example increased The Common Dwarf Mongoose ( Helogale parvula) sometimes just called the Dwarf Mongoose, is a small African carnivore belonging to the Birds of prey are Birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing using their keen senses especially vision 
The high metabolic rates of birds during the active part of the day is supplemented by rest at other times. Sleeping birds often use a type of sleep known as vigilant sleep, where periods of rest are interspersed with quick eye-opening 'peeks', allowing them to be sensitive to disturbances and enable rapid escape from threats.  Swifts have been widely believed to be able to sleep while flying; however, this has not been confirmed by experimental evidence. The swifts are a family Apodidae, of highly aerial Birds They are superficially similar to Swallows but are actually not closely related to those However, there may be certain kinds of sleep which are possible even when in flight.  Some birds have also demonstrated the capacity to fall into slow-wave sleep one hemisphere of the brain at a time. Slow-wave sleep (SWS is stages three and four of Non-rapid eye movement sleep. A cerebral hemisphere ( hemispherium cerebrale) is defined as one of the two regions of the Brain that are delineated by the body's median plane. The birds tend to exercise this ability depending upon its position relative to the outside of the flock. This may allow the eye opposite the sleeping hemisphere to remain vigilant for predators by viewing the outer margins of the flock. This adaptation is also known from marine mammals. Marine mammals are a diverse group of roughly 120 species of Mammal that are primarily Ocean -dwelling or depend on the ocean for food  Communal roosting is common because it lowers the loss of body heat and decreases the risks associated with predators. Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different  Roosting sites are often chosen with regard to thermoregulation and safety. 
Many sleeping birds bend their heads over their backs and tuck their bills in their back feathers, although others place their beaks among their breast feathers. Anatomy Stegosaurus --> Beaks can vary significantly in size and shape from species to species Many birds rest on one leg, while some may pull up their legs into their feathers, especially in cold weather. Perching birds have a tendon locking mechanism that helps them hold on to the perch when they are asleep. Many ground birds, such as quails and pheasants, roost in trees. A few parrots of the genus Loriculus roost hanging upside down. The hanging parrots are birds in the Parrot genus Loriculus. This is a group of small parrots from tropical southern Asia.  Some hummingbirds go into a nightly state of torpor accompanied with a reduction of their metabolic rates. Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. Torpor is a (usually short-term state of decreased physiological activity in an animal usually characterized by a reduced body temperature and rate of metabolism  This physiological adaptation shows nearly a hundred other species, including owlet-nightjars, nightjars, and woodswallows. An adaptation is a characteristic of an Organism that has been favored by Natural selection and Owlet-nightjars are small Nocturnal Birds related to the Nightjars and Frogmouths Most are native to New Guinea, but some species This article is about the bird For the aircraft see Gloster Nightjar. Woodswallows are soft-plumaged somber-coloured Passerine birds found in Australia and the islands nearby One species, the Common Poorwill, even enters a state of hibernation. The Common Poorwill, Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, is a nocturnal Bird of the family Caprimulgidae the Nightjars It is found from British Columbia For the ability of certain operating systems see Hibernate (OS feature Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression  Birds do not have sweat glands, but they may cool themselves by moving to shade, standing in water, panting, increasing their surface area, fluttering their throat or by using special behaviours like urohydrosis to cool themselves. Urohydrosis (sometimes misspelt "urohidrosis" is the habit in some birds of releasing feces or urine onto the scaly portions of the leg as a cooling mechanism using Evaporative
Ninety-five percent of bird species are socially monogamous. Recent discoveries have led biologists to talk about the three varieties of Monogamy: social monogamy sexual monogamy and genetic monogamy These species pair for at least the length of the breeding season or—in some cases—for several years or until the death of one mate.  Monogamy allows for biparental care, which is especially important for species in which females require males' assistance for successful brood-rearing. In Evolutionary biology, parental investment (PI is any Parental expenditure (time energy etc  Among many socially monogamous species, extra-pair copulation (infidelity) is common.  Such behaviour typically occurs between dominant males and females paired with subordinate males, but may also be the result of forced copulation in ducks and other anatids.  For females, possible benefits of extra-pair copulation include getting better genes for her offspring and insuring against the possibility of infertility in her mate.  Males of species that engage in extra-pair copulations will closely guard their mates to ensure the parentage of the offspring that they raise. 
Other mating systems, including polygyny, polyandry, polygamy, polygynandry, and promiscuity, also occur. Polygyny (which comes from neo- Greek: πολύ poly "many" + γυνή gyny "woman" is a specific form of Polygamy, In Social anthropology and Sociobiology, polyandry ( Greek: poly - many andros - man refers to a form of polygamous The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning "the practice of multiple marriage" is used in related ways in Social anthropology, Sociobiology, and Promiscuity refers to sexual behavior of a man or woman who casually has sex with many partners  Polygamous breeding systems arise when females are able to raise broods without the help of males.  Some species may use more than one system depending on the circumstances.
Breeding usually involves some form of courtship display, typically performed by the male.  Most displays are rather simple and involve some type of song. Bird vocalization includes both Bird calls and bird songs In non-technical use bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear Some displays, however, are quite elaborate. Depending on the species, these may include wing or tail drumming, dancing, aerial flights, or communal lekking. A lek is a gathering of Males of certain animal species for the purposes of competitive Mating display Females are generally the ones that drive partner selection, although in the polyandrous phalaropes, this is reversed: plainer males choose brightly coloured females. A phalarope is any of three living Species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the Bird family Scolopacidae  Courtship feeding, billing and allopreening are commonly performed between partners, generally after the birds have paired and mated. Anatomy Stegosaurus --> Beaks can vary significantly in size and shape from species to species 
Many birds actively defend a territory from others of the same species during the breeding season; maintenance of territories protects the food source for their chicks. A bird nest is the spot in which a Bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young Species that are unable to defend feeding territories, such as seabirds and swifts, often breed in colonies instead; this is thought to offer protection from predators. Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment The swifts are a family Apodidae, of highly aerial Birds They are superficially similar to Swallows but are actually not closely related to those In Biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual Organisms of the same Species living closely together usually Colonial breeders defend small nesting sites, and competition between and within species for nesting sites can be intense. 
All birds lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate. The amniotes are a group of Tetrapod Vertebrates that include the Synapsida ( Mammals and Mammal-like reptiles and Sauropsida Calcium carbonate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula Ca[[Carbon C]] O 3  Hole and burrow nesting species tend to lay white or pale eggs, while open nesters lay camouflaged eggs. Camouflage is a method of cryptic or concealing coloration that allows an otherwise visible Organism There are many exceptions to this pattern, however; the ground-nesting nightjars have pale eggs, and camouflage is instead provided by their plumage. This article is about the bird For the aircraft see Gloster Nightjar. Species that are victims of brood parasites have varying egg colours to improve the chances of spotting a parasite's egg, which forces female parasites to match their eggs to those of their hosts. Brood parasites are organisms that use the strategy of brood-parasitism, a kind of Kleptoparasitism found among Birds Fish or Insects 
Bird eggs are usually laid in a nest. A bird nest is the spot in which a Bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young Most species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds, or burrows.  Some bird nests, however, are extremely primitive; albatross nests are no more than a scrape on the ground. Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large Seabirds allied to the procellariids, Storm-petrels and Diving-petrels Most birds build nests in sheltered, hidden areas to avoid predation, but large or colonial birds—which are more capable of defence—may build more open nests. During nest construction, some species seek out plant matter from plants with parasite-reducing toxins to improve chick survival, and feathers are often used for nest insulation.  Some bird species have no nests; the cliff-nesting Common Guillemot lays its eggs on bare rock, and male Emperor Penguins keep eggs between their body and feet. The Common Guillemot or Common Murre ( Uria aalge) is a large Auk. The Emperor Penguin ( Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living Penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica. The absence of nests is especially prevalent in ground-nesting species where the newly hatched young are precocial. In Biology, the term precocial refers to species in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching
Incubation, which optimises temperature for chick development, usually begins after the last egg has been laid.  In monogamous species incubation duties are often shared, whereas in polygamous species one parent is wholly responsible for incubation. Warmth from parents passes to the eggs through brood patches, areas of bare skin on the abdomen or breast of the incubating birds. brood patch is a patch of featherless skin that is visible on the underside of Birds during the nesting season Incubation can be an energetically demanding process; adult albatrosses, for instance, lose as much as 83 grams (2. 9 oz) of body weight per day of incubation.  The warmth for the incubation of the eggs of megapodes comes from the sun, decaying vegetation or volcanic sources. The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky medium-large chicken-like Birds with small heads and large feet in the family  Incubation periods range from 10 days (in woodpeckers, cuckoos and passerine birds) to over 80 days (in albatrosses and kiwis). The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. The cuckoos are a family Cuculidae, of Near passerine Birds The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos also includes the KIWI (1029 FM, "Radio Lobo" is a commercial Radio station located in McFarland California, broadcasting to the Bakersfield California 
At the time of their hatching, chicks range in development from helpless to independent, depending on their species. The Seychelles Sunbird ( Cinnyris dussumieri) is a small passerine from the family of Sunbirds It is named after the French explorer Jean-Jacques Dussumier Spiders are Predatory Invertebrate Animals that have two body segments, eight legs no chewing mouth parts and no wings Helpless chicks are termed altricial, and tend to be born small, blind, immobile and naked; chicks that are mobile and feathered upon hatching are termed precocial. Altricial means "requiring nourishment" and refers to a pattern of growth and development in organisms which are incapable of moving around on their own soon after hatching or Blindness is the condition of lacking Visual perception due to Physiological or Neurological factors In Biology, the term precocial refers to species in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching Altricial chicks need help thermoregulating and must be brooded for longer than precocial chicks. Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different Chicks at neither of these extremes can be semi-precocial or semi-altricial.
The length and nature of parental care varies widely amongst different orders and species. At one extreme, parental care in megapodes ends at hatching; the newly-hatched chick digs itself out of the nest mound without parental assistance and can fend for itself immediately. The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky medium-large chicken-like Birds with small heads and large feet in the family  At the other extreme, many seabirds have extended periods of parental care, the longest being that of the Great Frigatebird, whose chicks take up to six months to fledge and are fed by the parents for up to an additional 14 months. The Great Frigatebird ( Fregata minor) is a large dispersive Seabird in the Frigatebird family. Fledge is the stage in a young Bird 's life when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight 
In some species, both parents care for nestlings and fledglings; in others, such care is the responsibility of only one sex. The Great Blue Heron, Ardea herodias, is a wading Bird in the Heron family Ardeidae, common over most of North and Central In some species, other members of the same species—usually close relatives of the breeding pair, such as offspring from previous broods—will help with the raising of the young. Helpers at the nest is a term used in Behavioural ecology and Evolutionary biology to describe a social structure in which juveniles of one or both sexes remain  Such alloparenting is particularly common among the Corvida, which includes such birds as the true crows, Australian Magpie and Fairy-wrens, but has been observed in species as different as the Rifleman and Red Kite. The "Corvida" were one of two " Parvorders quot contained within the suborder Passeri, as proposed in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy. Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of Oscine Passerine Birds that contains the Crows Ravens rooks The Australian Magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen is a medium-sized black and white bird native to Australia and southern New Guinea Malurus is a genus of Bird in the Maluridae family It contains the following species White-shouldered Fairy-wren ( Malurus The Rifleman ( Acanthisitta chloris) ( Māori: Tītipounamu) is a small insectivorous Passerine bird that is endemic to New Zealand The Red Kite ( Milvus milvus) is a medium-large Bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such Among most groups of animals, male parental care is rare. In birds, however, it is quite common—more so than in any other vertebrate class.  Though territory and nest site defence, incubation, and chick feeding are often shared tasks, there is sometimes a division of labour in which one mate undertakes all or most of a particular duty. 
The point at which chicks fledge varies dramatically. Fledge is the stage in a young Bird 's life when the feathers and wing muscles are sufficiently developed for flight The chicks of the Synthliboramphus murrelets, like the Ancient Murrelet, leave the nest the night after they hatch, following their parents out to sea, where they are raised away from terrestrial predators. Synthliboramphus is a small genus of Seabirds in the Auk family from the North Pacific. The Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, is a Bird in the Auk family  Some other species, such as ducks, move their chicks away from the nest at an early age. In most species, chicks leave the nest just before, or soon after, they are able to fly. The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging.  Chicks may also follow their parents during their first migration. Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of Birds Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability 
Brood parasitism, in which an egg-layer leaves her eggs with another individual's brood, is more common among birds than any other type of organism. Brood parasites are organisms that use the strategy of brood-parasitism, a kind of Kleptoparasitism found among Birds Fish or Insects  After a parasitic bird lays her eggs in another bird's nest, they are often accepted and raised by the host at the expense of the host's own brood. Brood parasites may be either obligate brood parasites, which must lay their eggs in the nests of other species because they are incapable of raising their own young, or non-obligate brood parasites, which sometimes lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics to increase their reproductive output even though they could have raised their own young. Conspecificity is a concept in Biology. Two or more individual Organisms Populations or Taxa are termed conspecific if they belong  One hundred bird species, including honeyguides, icterids, estrildid finches and ducks, are obligate parasites, though the most famous are the cuckoos. Honeyguides, ( family Indicatoridae) are Near passerine Bird species of the order Piciformes. The Icterids are a group of small to medium often colourful Passerine Birds restricted to the New World. The estrildid finches are small Passerine Birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. The Black-headed Duck ( Heteronetta atricapilla) is a South American duck allied to the Stiff-tailed ducks in the Subfamily The cuckoos are a family Cuculidae, of Near passerine Birds The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos also includes the  Some brood parasites are adapted to hatch before their host's young, which allows them to destroy the host's eggs by pushing them out of the nest or to kill the host's chicks; this ensures that all food brought to the nest will be fed to the parasitic chicks. 
Birds occupy a wide range of ecological positions. The Adélie Penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) is a type of Penguin common along the entire Antarctic coast and nearby islands  While some birds are generalists, others are highly specialised in their habitat or food requirements. Even within a single habitat, such as a forest, the niches occupied by different species of birds vary, with some species feeding in the forest canopy, others beneath the canopy, and still others on the forest floor. In Ecology, a niche (pronounced nich nēsh or nish A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living Forest birds may be insectivores, frugivores, and nectarivores. An insectivore is a type of carnivore with a diet that consists chiefly of Insects and similar small creatures A frugivore is an Animal that feeds primarily or in some cases exclusively on Fruit. In Zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which eats the sugar-rich Nectar produced by Flowering plants Aquatic birds generally feed by fishing, plant eating, and piracy or kleptoparasitism. Kleptoparasitism or cleptoparasitism (literally Parasitism by Theft) is a form of Feeding where one animal takes Prey from another Birds of prey specialise in hunting mammals or other birds, while vultures are specialised scavengers. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed
Some nectar-feeding birds are important pollinators, and many frugivores play a key role in seed dispersal.  Plants and pollinating birds often coevolve, and in some cases a flower's primary pollinator is the only species capable of reaching its nectar. In a broad sense biological co-evolution is "the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object" 
Birds are often important to island ecology. Birds have frequently reached islands that mammals have not; on those islands, birds may fulfill ecological roles typically played by larger animals. For example, in New Zealand the moas were important browsers, as are the Kereru and Kokako today. The Moa were ten species (in six genera of flightless Birds endemic to New Zealand. The kererū or New Zealand Pigeon ( Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) is a Bird endemic to New Zealand. The Kōkako ( Callaeas cinerea) is a forest Bird which is endemic to New Zealand.  Today the plants of New Zealand retain the defensive adaptations evolved to protect them from the extinct moa.  Nesting seabirds may also affect the ecology of islands and surrounding seas, principally through the concentration of large quantities of guano, which may enrich the local soil and the surrounding seas. Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals 
Since birds are highly visible and common animals, humans have had a relationship with them since the dawn of man.  Sometimes, these relationships are mutualistic, like the cooperative honey-gathering among honeyguides and African peoples such as the Borana. Mutualism is a Biological interaction between individuals of two different Species, where both individuals derive a fitness benefit for example increased Honeyguides, ( family Indicatoridae) are Near passerine Bird species of the order Piciformes. Borana is also an alternate Spanish name of the Boran sub-family of the larger Witotoan language family  Other times, they may be commensal, as when species such as the House Sparrow have benefited from human activities. In Ecology, commensalism is a kind of symbiotic relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird The House Sparrow ( Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World Sparrow family Passeridae, considered by some to be a relative of the Several bird species have become commercially significant agricultural pests, and some pose an aviation hazard. A bird strike (sometimes birdstrike, bird hit, or BASH (Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard in Aviation is a collision between an airborne animal (usually  Human activities can also be detrimental, and have threatened numerous bird species with extinction.
Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. In Medicine ( Pulmonology) psittacosis &mdash also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis &mdash is a zoonotic Salmonellosis is an Infection with Salmonella Bacteria. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop Diarrhea, Fever Campylobacteriosis is an Infection by the Campylobacter Bacterium, most commonly C Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers Giardiasis — popularly known as beaver fever or backpacker's diarrhea — is a disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia Cryptosporidiosis is a Parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a Protozoan Parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. Some of these are zoonotic diseases that can also be transmitted to humans. A zoonosis (ˌzoʊəˈnoʊsɨs or zoonose is any Infectious disease that is able to be transmitted (by a vector) from other Animals both wild and domestic 
Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003, 76 million tons of poultry and 61 million tons of eggs were produced worldwide. Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or  Chickens account for much of human poultry consumption, though turkeys, ducks, and geese are also relatively common. Many species of birds are also hunted for meat. Bird hunting is primarily a recreational activity except in extremely undeveloped areas. The most important birds hunted in North and South America are waterfowl; other widely hunted birds include pheasants, wild turkeys, quail, doves, partridge, grouse, snipe, and woodcock. Pheasants are a group of large Birds in the order Galliformes. A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized Birds in the Pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. Partridges are Birds in the Pheasant family Phasianidae. They are a non-migratory Old World group Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes. Often considered a family Tetraonidae, the American Ornithologists' Union A snipe is any of nearly 20 wading bird species in three genera in the family Scolopacidae. The woodcocks are a group of seven extant very similar wading Bird Species in the Genus Scolopax, characterised by a long slender  Muttonbirding is also popular in Australia and New Zealand. Muttonbirding is a seasonal harvesting activity which may be recreational or commercial of the chicks of Petrels especially Shearwater species for food oil and  Though some hunting, such as that of muttonbirds, may be sustainable, hunting has led to the extinction or endangerment of dozens of species. 
Other commercially valuable products from birds include feathers (especially the down of geese and ducks), which are used as insulation in clothing and bedding, and seabird feces (guano), which is a valuable source of phosphorus and nitrogen. Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Guano War, was fought in part over the control of guano deposits. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia 
Birds have been domesticated by humans both as pets and for practical purposes. Colourful birds, such as parrots and mynas, are bred in captivity or kept as pets, a practice that has led to the illegal trafficking of some endangered species. The true parrots are about 330 species of bird belonging to the Psittacidae family, one of the two "traditional" families in the biological order Distinguish from Miner and Minor. The mynas (also spelt mynahs) are birds of the Starling family Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding birds and the culture that forms around it  Falcons and cormorants have long been used for hunting and fishing, respectively. A falcon (fɔlkən or fælkən is any Species of raptor in the Genus Falco. The Bird family Phalacrocoracidae is represented by some 40 Species of cormorants and shags. Messenger pigeons, used since at least 1 AD, remained important as recently as World War II. The homing pigeon is a variety of domesticated Rock Pigeon ( Columba livia domestica) that has been selectively Today, such activities are more common either as hobbies, for entertainment and tourism, or for sports such as pigeon racing. Pigeon racing is a sport involving the release of specially trained Racing pigeons which then return to their homes over a carefully measured distance
Amateur bird enthusiasts (called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, birders) number in the millions. Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of Birds with the naked eye or through a visual enhancement device like Binoculars.  Many homeowners erect bird feeders near their homes to attract various species. A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply Bird food to Birds The success of a bird feeder in attracting Bird feeding has grown into a multimillion dollar industry; for example, an estimated 75% of households in Britain provide food for birds at some point during the winter. Bird feeding is the activity of feeding wild birds History James Fisher noted that the first person to feed wild birds was the sixth century monk St Serf of Fife who tamed 
Birds play prominent and diverse roles in folklore, religion, and popular culture. The Master of the Playing Cards was the first major master in the history of Printmaking. In religion, birds may serve as either messengers or priests and leaders for a deity, such as in the Make-make religion in which the Tangata manu of Easter Island served as chiefs, or as attendants, as in the case of Hugin and Munin, two Common Ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse god Odin. See also List of deities A deity is a Postulated Preternatural or Supernatural Being, who is always The Tangata manu ( bird-man) was the winner of a traditional competition on Rapa Nui ( Easter Island) Huginn and Muninn, sometimes anglicised Hugin and Munin, are a pair of Ravens associated with the Norse god Odin. Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including the jötnar (giants the dividing line between these groups is less Odin (ˈoʊdɪn from Old Norse Óðinn) is considered the chief god in Norse paganism.  They may also serve as religious symbols, as when Jonah (Hebrew: יוֹנָה, dove) embodied the fright, passivity, mourning, and beauty traditionally associated with doves. According to the Hebrew Bible ( Tanakh / Old Testament) and Qur'an, Jonah (; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or  Birds have themselves been deified, as in the case of the Common Peacock, which is perceived as Mother Earth by the Dravidians of India. The Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus, also known as the Common Peafowl or the Blue Peafowl, is one of the Species of bird in the genus Pavo Dravidian peoples refers to the peoples that natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  Some birds have also been perceived as monsters, including the mythological Roc and the Māori's legendary Pouākai, a giant bird capable of snatching humans. A roc or rukh (from Persian رخ rokh, asserted by Louis Charles Casartelli to be an abbreviated form of Persian Simurgh) is an enormous This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. 
Birds have been featured in culture and art since prehistoric times, when they were represented in early cave paintings. Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times  Birds were later used in religious or symbolic art and design, such as the magnificent Peacock Throne of the Mughal and Persian emperors. The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tâvus (تخت طاووس in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal Throne of India later used to describe The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia  With the advent of scientific interest in birds, many paintings of birds were commissioned for books. Among the most famous of these bird artists was John James Audubon, whose paintings of North American birds were a great commercial success in Europe and who later lent his name to the National Audubon Society. John James Audubon ( April 26 1785 – January 27 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, hunter The National Audubon Society is an American non-profit Environmental organization dedicated to conservancy  Birds are also important figures in poetry; for example, Homer incorporated Nightingales into his Odyssey, and Catullus used a sparrow as an erotic symbol in his Catullus 2. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos) also known as Rufous and Common Nightingale, is a small Passerine Bird that was formerly The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. For persons with a Cognomen "Catulus" see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca The "true sparrows" the Old World sparrows in the family Passeridae, are small Passerine Birds Generally sparrows tend to be Catullus 2 is a renowned poem by the Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus ( c.  The relationship between an albatross and a sailor is the central theme of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, which led to the use of the term as a metaphor for a 'burden'. Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large Seabirds allied to the procellariids, Storm-petrels and Diving-petrels Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 21 October 1772 &ndash 25 July 1834) was an English Poet, Critic and philosopher The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (original The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major Poem by the English Poet The word albatross is sometimes used to mean an encumbrance or a wearisome burden  Other English metaphors derive from birds; vulture funds and vulture investors, for instance, take their name from the scavenging vulture. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States As the name suggests these funds are metaphorically Vultures patiently circling waiting to pick over the remains of a rapidly weakening company or in the case of Sovereign debt 
Perceptions of various bird species often vary across cultures. Owls are associated with bad luck, witchcraft, and death in parts of Africa, but are regarded as wise across much of Europe. The Owls are an order of birds of prey. Most are Solitary, and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers  Hoopoes were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt and symbols of virtue in Persia, but were thought of as thieves across much of Europe and harbingers of war in Scandinavia. The Hoopoe (ˈhuːpuː Upupa epops is a colourful bird that is found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive 'crown' of feathers Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well 
Though human activities have allowed the expansion of a few species, such as the Barn Swallow and European Starling, they have caused population decreases or extinction in many other species. Bird conservation is a field in the science of Conservation biology related to threatened Birds Humans have had a profound effect on many bird species Prehistoric birds are various taxa of Birds that became Extinct before recorded History, or more precisely before they could be studied This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since the year 1500 A The Barn Swallow ( Hirundo rustica) is the most widespread species of Swallow in the world The European Starling, Common Starling or just Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a Passerine Bird in the family In Biology and Ecology, extinction is the cessation of existence of a Species or group of taxa. Over a hundred bird species have gone extinct in historical times, although the most dramatic human-caused avian extinctions, eradicating an estimated 750–1800 species, occurred during the human colonisation of Melanesian, Polynesian, and Micronesian islands. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over Micronesia, from the Greek mikros (μικρός (meaning small) and nesos (νῆσος (meaning island) is a Subregion  Many bird populations are declining worldwide, with 1,221 species listed as threatened by Birdlife International and the IUCN in 2007. Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc BirdLife International (formerly known as the International Council for Bird Preservation, not to be confused with Birds International) is the international conservation  The most commonly cited human threat to birds is habitat loss.  Other threats include overhunting, accidental mortality due to structural collisions or long-line fishing bycatch, pollution (including oil spills and pesticide use), competition and predation from nonnative invasive species, and climate change. A bird strike (sometimes birdstrike, bird hit, or BASH (Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard in Aviation is a collision between an airborne animal (usually For other meanings of "longline" see Longline. Longline fishing is a commercial Fishing technique that uses hundreds or even Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions Governments and conservation groups work to protect birds, either by passing laws that preserve and restore bird habitat or by establishing captive populations for reintroductions. "Conservation Biology" redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Conservation Biology (journal. In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation " It is the process of protecting an endangered Plant or Animal Species Restoration ecology is the study of renewing a degraded damaged or destroyed Ecosystem through active human intervention Ex-situ conservation means literally "off-site conservation " Such projects have produced some successes; one study estimated that conservation efforts saved 16 species of bird that would otherwise have gone extinct between 1994 and 2004, including the California Condor and Norfolk Island Green Parrot. The California Condor ( Gymnogyps californianus) is a North American Species of Bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae UserPolbot. -->The Norfolk Island Green Parrot ( Cyanoramphus cookii) is a species of Parrot in the