Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container
is standard procedure. Hazard symbols are easily recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials or locations A sharps container is a container that is filled with used medical needles (and other sharp medical instruments such as an IV catheter
Biohazard Placard - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin. , DOT § 172. 323 10-1-2007 Edition
A biological hazard or biohazard is an organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually A virus (from the Latin virus meaning Toxin or Poison) is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low It can also include substances harmful to animals. The term and its associated symbol is generally used as a warning, so that those potentially exposed to the substances will know to take precautions. Hazard symbols are easily recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials or locations There is also a biohazard HCS/WHMIS logo which utilizes the same symbol.
In Unicode, the biohazard sign is U+2623 (☣). In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's
Biohazardous agents are classified for transportation by UN number:
- UN 2814 (Infectious Substance, Affecting Humans)
- UN 2900 (Infectious Substance, Affecting Animals)
- UN 3373 (Diagnostic Specimen or Clinical Specimen or Biological Substance, Category B)
- UN 3291 (Medical Waste)
Levels of biohazard
The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorizes various diseases in levels of biohazard, Level 1 being minimum risk and Level 4 being extreme risk. UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify Hazardous substances, and articles (such as explosives flammable liquids toxic substances etc Medical waste, also known as clinical waste, normally refers to waste products that cannot be considered general waste produced from healthcare premises such as hospitals A Biosafety Level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous Biological agents in an enclosed facility The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated
- Biohazard Level 1: Several kinds of bacteria and viruses including Bacillus subtilis, canine hepatitis, Escherichia coli, varicella (chicken pox), as well as some cell cultures and non-infectious bacteria. Bacillus subtilis Sporejpg|thumb|right|Sporulating Bacillus subtilis ]] Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, Catalase -positive The Canidae (ˈkænədiː ′kanə′dē family is a part of the order Carnivora within the Mammals (Class Mammalia Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to the Liver characterized by the presence of Inflammatory cells in the tissue of Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with Varicella zoster virus (VZV Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with Varicella zoster virus (VZV At this level precautions against the biohazardous materials in question are minimal, most likely involving gloves and some sort of facial protection. Usually, contaminated materials are left in open (but separately indicated) trash receptacles. Decontamination procedures for this level are similar in most respects to modern precautions against everyday viruses (i. e. : washing one's hands with anti-bacterial soap, washing all exposed surfaces of the lab with disinfectants, etc). In a lab environment, all materials used for cell and/or bacteria cultures are decontaminated via autoclave. An autoclave is a pressurized device designed to heat aqueous solutions above their Boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure to achieve sterilization
- Biohazard Level 2: Various bacteria and viruses that cause only mild disease to humans, or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab setting, such as hepatitis A, B, and C, influenza A, Lyme disease, salmonella, mumps, measles, scrapie, and HIV. Technically an aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas Hepatitis A, (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute Infectious disease of the Liver caused by Hepatitis A virus which is Hepatitis C is a blood-borne infectious disease that is caused by the Hepatitis C virus ( HCV) affecting the Liver. Influenzavirus A is a Genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of Viruses Influenzavirus A includes only one Species: Influenza A virus Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an Emerging infectious disease caused by at least three Species of Bacteria belonging to the Genus Salmonella is a Genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever Mumps or epidemic Parotitis is a Viral disease of the Human species Measles (rubeola is a Disease caused by a virus specifically a Paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Scrapie is a fatal degenerative Disease that affects the Nervous systems of Sheep and Goats It is one of several Transmissible spongiform Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome "Routine diagnostic work with clinical specimens can be done safely at Biosafety Level 2, using Biosafety Level 2 practices and procedures. Research work (including co-cultivation, virus replication studies, or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done in a BSL-2 facility, using BSL-3 practices and procedures. Virus production activities, including virus concentrations, require a BSL-3 facility and use of BSL-3 practices and procedures", see Recommended Biosafety Levels for Infectious Agents.
- Biohazard Level 3: Various bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in humans, but for which vaccines or other treatment exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, variola virus (smallpox), tuberculosis, typhus, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, yellow fever, and malaria. Anthrax is an acute Disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms West Nile virus (or WNV is a Virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE antigenic complex of viruses it is found in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a Mosquito -borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria Rift Valley Fever (RVF is a viral Zoonosis (affects primarily domestic Livestock, but can be passed to humans causing Fever. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported Rickettsial illness in the United States. Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including
- Biohazard Level 4: Exclusively viruses that cause severe to fatal disease in humans, and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such as Bolivian and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers, dengue fever, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and other various hemorrhagic diseases. Bolivian hemorrhagic fever ( BHF) also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a Hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic Infectious Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a Hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic Infectious disease The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg haemorrhagic fever (also known as green monkey disease) Ebola is the common term for a group of Viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, and for the disease which they Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family of Viruses There Bunyaviridae family is divided into 5 genera Lassa fever is an acute viral Hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the town of Lassa in Borno State, Nigeria located in the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a widespread Tick -borne Viral disease, a Zoonosis of domestic Animals and wild animals The viral hemorrhagic Fevers ( VHFs') are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses that are caused by five distinct families of When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a Hazmat suit and a self-contained oxygen supply is mandatory. A hazmat suit is a garment worn as protection from '''haz'''ardous '''mat'''erials or substances The entrance and exit of a Level Four biolab will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, and other safety precautions designed to destroy all traces of the biohazard. Ultraviolet ( UV) light is Electromagnetic radiation with a Wavelength shorter than that of Visible light, but longer than X-rays Multiple airlocks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent both doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and coming from a Biosafety Level 4 lab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release. A Biosafety Level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous Biological agents in an enclosed facility
- Baldwin, C. A biological agent is an Infectious disease or Toxin that can be used in Bioterrorism or Biological warfare. A Biosafety Level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous Biological agents in an enclosed facility Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations L. , & Runkle, R. S. (1967). Biohazards symbol: development of a biological hazards warning signal. Science, 158, 264–265. Pubmed unique identifier 6053882.
- Preston, Richard. (1994). The Hot Zone. Anchor Books: Division of Random House; New York.
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |