Bid rigging is an illegal agreement between two or more competitors. It is a form of collusion, which is illegal in most countries. Collusion is an agreement usually secretive which occurs between two or more persons to deceive mislead or defraud others of their legal rights or to obtain an objective forbidden It is a form of price fixing and market allocation, and it involves an agreement in which one party of a group of bidders will be designated to win the bid. Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price It is often practised where contracts are determined by a call for bids, for example in the case of government construction contracts. A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Calls for bids or calls for tenders or invitations to tender (ITT (often called tenders for short are special procedures to generate competing offers
There are some very common bid-rigging practices:
These forms of bid-rigging are not mutually exclusive of one another, and two or more of these practices could occur at the same time. For example, if one member of the bidding ring is designated to win a particular contract, that bidder's conspirators could avoid winning either by not bidding ("bid suppression"), or by submitting a high bid ("cover bidding").
Bid-rigging is a form of fraud, and almost always results in economic harm to the agency which is seeking the bids, and to the public, who ultimately bear the costs as taxpayers or consumers.
In the United States, bid-rigging is a criminal offence under section 1 of the Sherman Act. The Sherman Antitrust Act ( Sherman Act, July 2, 1890, ch 647,) was the first United States Federal statute to limit Cartels and In Canada, it is a criminal offence under section 47 of the Competition Act. In the UK, individuals can be prosecuted criminally under the Enterprise Act. In Japan it is a violation of both the Anti-Monopoly Law as well as Public Law, but is rampant nationwide in construction and engineering works.
(Japanese bid rigging) or prearranged business agreement in which contractors privately form an agreement in advance on bid prices, etc. is still a habitual practice of the Japanese construction industry, although it is both a violation of Japanese criminal law and the Japan Anti-Monopoly Law. It has been shown by a number of academic studies both in Japan and in the USA to be a system which considerably inflates the cost of construction projects, and in the Japanese public sector, considerably wasteful of annual tax money amounting to billions of Japanese Yen. The US Government, specifically the United States Trade Representative Office and Department of Commerce, made fierce efforts in the late 1980s and early 1990s to urge the Japanese government to scrap "dango" as a de-facto non-tariff barrier to foreign firms in the Japanese construction market. Despite years of negotiations, including promises by the Japanese government in the S. I. I. (Structural Impediment Initiative) trade talks, the practice was never stamped out and continued to flourish. In 2006 alone, the governors of Wakayama and Miyazaki Prefectures, and former governor of Fukushima Prefecture in Japan were all nabbed or forced to resign due to nefarious connections to the Japanese construction industry involving"bid rigging instigated by government agencies. is the capital city of Wakayama Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> is a prefecture of Japan located in the Tōhoku region on the island of "