Bibliography (from Greek: βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia, literally book writing), as a practice, is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology. The University Library of Graz is the biggest scientific and public library in Styria and the third biggest in Austria. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together On the whole, bibliography is not concerned with the literary content of books, but rather the "bookness" of books. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter
A bibliography, the product of the practice of bibliography, is a systematic list of books and other works such as journal articles. An academic journal is a peer-reviewed Periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular Academic discipline is published An article is a stand-alone section of a larger written work These nonfictional Prose compositions appear in Magazines Newspapers Academic journals Bibliographies range from "works cited" lists at the end of books and articles to complete, independent publications. A citation is a reference to a source (not always the original source published or unpublished(citation needed As separate works, they may be in bound volumes such as those shown on the right, or computerised bibliographic databases. A bibliographic or library database is a Database of bibliographic records A library catalog, while not referred to as a bibliography, is bibliographic in nature. A library catalog (or library catalogue) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a Library or group of libraries such as a network of libraries
Bibliographic works differ in the amount of detail depending on the purpose, and can be generally divided into two categories: enumerative bibliography (also called compilative, reference or systematic), which results in an overview of publications in a particular category, and analytical, or critical, bibliography, which studies the production of books. To publish is to make content Publicly known. The term is most frequently applied to the distribution of text or images on paper or to the placing of content  Bibliographical works are almost always considered to be tertiary sources. The term tertiary source is a relative term What is considered tertiary depends on what is considered primary and secondary
A bibliography is a list, either indicative or comprehensive, of writings sharing a common factor: this may be a topic, a language, a period, or some other theme. One particular instance of this is the list of sources used or considered in preparing a work, sometimes called a reference list.
Citation formats vary, but an entry for a book in a bibliography usually contains the following information:
An entry for a journal or periodical article usually contains:
A bibliography may be arranged by author, topic, or some other scheme. A citation is a reference to a source (not always the original source published or unpublished(citation needed Annotated bibliographies give descriptions about how each source is useful to an author in constructing a paper or argument. An annotated bibliography is a Bibliography that gives a summary of the Research that has been done These descriptions, usually a few sentences long, provide a summary of the source and describe its relevance.
Bibliographies differ from library catalogs by including only relevant items rather than all items present in a particular library. A library catalog (or library catalogue) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a Library or group of libraries such as a network of libraries However, the catalogs of some national libraries effectively serve as national bibliographies, as the national libraries own almost all their countries' publications. A national library is a Library specifically established by the Government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country
The critical study of bibliography can be subdivided into descriptive (or physical), historical, and textual bibliography. Descriptive bibliography is the close examination of a book as a physical object, recording its size, format, binding, and so on, while historical bibliography takes a broader view of the context in which a book is produced, in particular, printing, publishing and bookselling. Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a Book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of Paper or other material Textual bibliography is another name for textual criticism. Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of Literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of Transcription errors in
A number of related terms have developed for listings of other media and artistic expression: