Biblical Hebrew, also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of the Hebrew language in which the Hebrew Bible and various Israelite inscriptions were written. The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. It is believed to be the language which the ancient Israelites spoke.
It is not spoken in its pure form today, although it is often studied by religious Jews, Christian theologians, linguists, and Israeli archaeologists to help them gain a deeper understanding of the Hebrew Bible and Semitic philology. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East, Classical Hebrew is also generally taught in public schools in Israel.
Biblical Hebrew can be read by anyone familiar with modern Hebrew. Biblical Hebrew and modern Hebrew differ with respect to grammar, vocabulary, and phonology. Although Modern and Biblical Hebrew's grammatical laws often differ, Biblical Hebrew is sometimes used in Modern Hebrew literature. Elements of Biblical Hebrew are also often used in conversation and in the Israeli media.
This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. These flourished between the 12th and 6th centuries BCE and comprise all of the Hebrew Bible but for several Aramaic sections and isolated loanwords. The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic
The precise meaning of the term Biblical Hebrew varies with context and may refer to any of the following:
From a linguistic point of view, the Classical Hebrew language is usually divided into two periods: Biblical Hebrew, and Roman Era Hebrew, having very distinct grammatical patterns. Tiberian Hebrew is an extinct (yet very well documented Oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields
Biblical Hebrew is further divided into the so called 'Golden Age' Hebrew (before 500 BCE) and 'Silver Age' Hebrew (500 BCE to 60 BCE). Year 60 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Gaius Julius Caesar suppressed an uprising and Silver Age Hebrew has many borrowings from Aramaic, for example the use of the conditional particle ˈilluː (אִלּוּ) replacing luː (לוּ). Aramaic is a Semitic language with Another shibboleth between the two, is the use of the relative pronoun ʔaˈʃer (אֲשֶר) (introducing a Restrictive clause, 'that') in the earlier period, being replaced with the clitic ʃe- (-שֶ) in the later, both being used in Mishnaic and Modern Hebrew. Shibboleth (ˈʃɪbəlɛθ or ˈʃɪbələθ is any practice which is indicative of one's social or regional origin A relative pronoun is a Pronoun that marks a Relative clause within a larger sentence. In Linguistics, a clitic is a grammatically independent and phonologically dependent Word.
Roman Era Hebrew, or Mishnaic Hebrew, was further influenced by Greek and Persian, mainly through the dialect of Aramaic which was the Lingua franca of the area at the time. The Roman Era is a period in Western history when Ancient Rome was the centre of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the The term Mishnaic Hebrew refers to the Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, excepting quotations from the Hebrew Bible Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Aramaic is a Semitic language with A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely
Modern adaptions of Classical Hebrew are in active use today, mostly in the form of various modern Jewish dialects of Hebrew, as well as Samaritan Hebrew language, which is used primarily by the Samaritans. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of The Samaritan Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew as pronounced and written by the Samaritans It is used in the reading tradition of the Samaritan
As Biblical-Hebrew vocalization is derived from the Masoretic system applied to ancient texts, Biblical Hebrew is somewhat a mixture of these elements. It is the mixed language that is discussed in this article.
Most words in Biblical Hebrew are derived from a three letter root usually given in the Qal perfect 3rd masculine singular form. There are exceptions to this rule though most of these are loan words from non-semitic roots. For most English speaking readers who use the Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon it is this three letter root word that must be looked up to find a definition.
The phonology as reconstructed for Biblical Hebrew is as follows (from Lambdin, with modifications):
|Name||Letter||Phoneme and Allophone (IPA)|
|bêhṯh||ב||/b/ - [v] allophonically|
|gîmel||ג||/ɡ/ - [ɣ] allophonically|
|dāleṯ||ד||/d/ - [ð] allophonically|
|hē'||ה||/h/, null at the end of words. The Samaritan Hebrew language is a descendant of Biblical Hebrew as pronounced and written by the Samaritans It is used in the reading tradition of the Samaritan The term Mishnaic Hebrew refers to the Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, excepting quotations from the Hebrew Bible Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Tiberian Hebrew is an extinct (yet very well documented Oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was Yemenite Hebrew, also referred to as Temani Hebrew, is the pronunciation system for Biblical and liturgical Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews. Sephardi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Thomas Oden Lambdin is one of the leading scholars of the Semitic and Egyptian languages|
|wāw||ו||/w/, null after /o/ or /u/|
|yōhḏh||י||/j/, null after /ɛ/, /e/, or /i/|
|kaph||כ, ך||/k/ - [x] allophonically|
|sāmeḵh Samaritam Sin´gath/Sin´kath||ס||/s/|
|pē'||פ, ף||/p/ - [f] allophonically|
|tṣāḏēh Samaritan tṣāḏ||צ, ץ||/sˁ/|
|qōph||ק||/kˁ/ (But Like /q/)|
|rēhšh||ר||/r/ (Prob. Trilled like Arabic. )|
|tāw Samaritam tāph-Tāf||ת||/t/ - [θ] allophonically|
Biblical Hebrew had a vowel system based on the cardinal vowels /i u e o a/, which occurred in short, long, and extra-long forms. Some follow Lambdin's use of macrons to mark long vowels and circumflexes to mark extra-long ones. A macron, from Greek el μακρόv ( makrón) meaning "long" is a Diacritic ¯ placed over or under a Vowel which was originally Pitch The circumflex accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it occurred (subject to certain rules on the accented syllable Aside from these vowels, there were also four "reduced", extra-short ones, ə, ă, ĕ, and ŏ (all but the schwa, /ə/ seem to have been allophonic). The International Phonetic Alphabet uses a Breve,, to indicate a speech sound (usually a Vowel) with less than normal duration In Linguistics, specifically Phonetics and Phonology, schwa can mean the following An unstressed and toneless neutral In Phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar speech sounds ( Phones that belong to the same Phoneme.