|Republic of Biafra|
|← ||1967 – 1970|| →|
Peace, Unity, Freedom
Land of the Rising Sun (national anthem)
|Map of Biafra inside Nigeria|
|Language(s)||English (official), Igbo|
|President||Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu|
|Historical era||Cold War|
| - Established||May 30, 1967|
| - Disestablished||January 15, 1970|
| - 1967 est. ||}These lists of unrecognized or partially recognized countries give an overview of contemporary geopolitical entities that wish to be recognized as Sovereign Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal The Flag of the now-defunct Republic of Biafra consists of a horizontal tricolor of red black and green charged with a golden rising sun over a golden bar A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " Land of the Rising Sun " was the national anthem of the African state Biafra. Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital Locator Map Enugu-Nigeriapng|thumb|250px|Location of Enugu in Nigeria]] Enugu (or Enugwu) is the Capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Igbo (Igbo Asusu Igbo) is a language spoken in Nigeria by around 20-35 million people the Igbo, especially in the southeastern region For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Republic of Biafra was a Secessionist state in south-eastern Nigeria. General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Ikemba Nnewi, known as Emeka Ojukwu, (born November 4, 1933) was the leader of the Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. ||13,500,000 |
For the American musician, see Jello Biafra
. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Biafran pound was the Currency of the breakaway Republic of Biafra between 1967 and 1970 Eric Reed Boucher (born June 17, 1958) more widely known by the Stage name Jello Biafra, is a musician who first gained
The Republic of Biafra was a short-lived secessionist state in southern Nigeria. Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio is the act of withdrawing from an organization union or especially a political entity Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal It existed from May 30, 1967 to January 15, 1970. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The country was named after the Bight of Biafra, the bay of the Atlantic to its south. The Bight of Bonny (also known as the Bight of Biafra) is a bight off the West African coast in the easternmost part (beyond the Bight of Benin to the West 
Biafra was recognized by a small number of countries during its existence: Gabon, Haiti, Côte d'Ivoire, Tanzania and Zambia. Gabon (gəˈbɒn or /gaˈbõ/ in French) is a country in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Republic Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Despite a lack of official recognition, other nations provided assistance to Biafra. France, Rhodesia and South Africa provided covert military assistance. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The aid of Portugal and JCA proved to be crucial to the republic's survival. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal's São Tomé and Príncipe, a pair of islands south of Biafra, became a center of humanitarian relief efforts; Biafran currency was printed in Lisbon, which was also the location of Biafra's major overseas office. São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an Island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Israel also gave Biafra arms that it captured in the 1967 Six-Day War, although that same conflict ruled out further assistance. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt In contrast, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union provided military support for Nigeria, and the war of Biafran secession ended in a humanitarian catastrophe as Nigerian blockades stopped all supplies, military and civilian alike, from entering the region. The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, 6 July 1967 &ndash 13 January 1970 was a political conflict caused by the attempted Secession Hundreds of thousands – perhaps millions – of people died in the resulting famine.
On 15 January 1966, a coup d'etat in the Nigerian government was attempted and mostly successfully initiated by young military officers with promising futures. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Politics of Nigeria take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Nigeria They were mainly of the Igbo people. The Igbo [iɡɓo] ( Igbo: Igbo, sometimes Nd'Igbo) sometimes referred to (usually formerly as the Ibo, Eboe, Ebo The Igbos were referred to as "Ibo" at the time of the conflict. Since mostly Igbo officers in the Nigerian army survived, in the months of May and September 1966, Igbo migrants living in northern Nigeria were the targets of mass killings. Most of Nigeria's Igbo people, who were then estimated at 7 million, though not statistically accurate, lived in what was then the Eastern Region, which had as military governor the Igbo Lieutenant Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Ikemba Nnewi, known as Emeka Ojukwu, (born November 4, 1933) was the leader of the  He declared the region an independent state with a capital at Enugu. Locator Map Enugu-Nigeriapng|thumb|250px|Location of Enugu in Nigeria]] Enugu (or Enugwu) is the Capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria.
Nigeria responded initially with an economic blockade and brought military force to bear starting on June 5, 1967. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. In the ensuing civil war, raids were made by Biafran troops west into Nigeria in July and August. The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, 6 July 1967 &ndash 13 January 1970 was a political conflict caused by the attempted Secession Nigerian troops soon recovered, however, advancing into Biafra and forcing the repeated transfer of the Biafran capital from Enugu to Aba and then Umuahia by the end of the year, and to Owerri in 1969. Aba is a city in Abia State, southern Nigeria, located on the Aba River. Umuahia is a town which is the capital of Abia State in southeastern Nigeria. Owerri is a city in southeastern Nigeria. It is the capital of Imo State and is set in the heart of the Igboland Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This was despite the daring efforts of Count Carl Gustaf von Rosen and a small air force, which had a disproportionate effect on the military situation. Count Carl Gustaf Ericsson von Rosen ( August 19 1909 &ndash July 13 1977) was a Swedish pioneer aviator son of the explorer Its most famous aircraft were small Swedish MFI-9s, but it also had a typical rebel collection of Western influenced aircraft including Douglas C-47s, North American B-25 Mitchells, and Douglas A-26 Invaders. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout See also Martin B-26 Marauder WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page A Nigerian Airways Fokker F27 Friendship which had been hijacked in April 1967 was the first Biafran aircraft. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout "A DC-3 and a de Havilland Dove were impounded soon after independence, as were several light helicopters of various types. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout "
The independent state of the Republic of Biafra in June 1967.
By 1970, Biafra had been ravaged by war and was in great need of food supplies. Nigeria banned all Red Cross aid in 1969, though it partially relented two weeks later after widespread international criticism, allowing limited, pre-inspected airlifts of food and other supplies. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated  Amid economic and military collapse, Ojukwu fled the country and the rest of the republic's territory was re-incorporated into Nigeria. Many people died in the conflict, mostly through starvation and illness. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of The number of deaths is often cited at one million. 
Nigeria later renamed the Bight of Biafra as the Bight of Bonny. The Bight of Bonny (also known as the Bight of Biafra) is a bight off the West African coast in the easternmost part (beyond the Bight of Benin to the West
An excerpt from the last wartime speech of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, head of the Biafran state, follows:
In the three years of war, necessity gave birth to invention. General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Ikemba Nnewi, known as Emeka Ojukwu, (born November 4, 1933) was the leader of the During those three years, we built bombs, we built rockets, we designed and built our own delivery systems. We guided our rockets, we guided them far, and we guided them accurately. For three years, blockaded without hope of imports, we maintained engines, machines, and technical equipment. The state extracted and refined petrol, individuals refined petrol in their back gardens, we built and maintained airports, we maintained them under heavy bombardment. We spoke to the world through a telecommunications system engineered by local ingenuity. The world heard us and spoke back to us. We built armoured cars and tanks. We modified aircraft from trainer to fighters, from passenger aircraft to bombers. In three years of freedom, we had broken the technological barrier. In three years, we became the most civilized, the most technologically advanced black people on earth.
A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. Pictures of the famine caused by Nigerian blockade garnered sympathy for the Biafrans worldwide.
The international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières ("Doctors Without Borders") came out of the suffering in Biafra. Médecins Sans Frontières (pronounced) or Doctors Without Borders, is a secular humanitarian-aid Non-governmental organization best known During the crisis, French medical volunteers, in addition to Biafran health workers and hospitals, were subjected to attacks by the Nigerian army, and witnessed civilians being murdered and starved by the blockading forces. French doctor Bernard Kouchner also witnessed these events, particularly the huge number of starving children, and when he returned to France, he publicly criticised the Nigerian government and the Red Cross for their seemingly complicit behaviour. Bernard Kouchner (born November 1 1939 in Avignon) is a French Politician, diplomat, and doctor. With the help of other French doctors, Kouchner put Biafra in the media spotlight and called for an international response to the situation. These doctors, led by Kouchner, concluded that a new aid organisation was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritise the welfare of victims. 
In their book Smallpox and its Eradication, Fenner and colleagues describe how vaccine supply shortages during the Biafra smallpox campaign led to the development of the focal vaccination technique, later adopted worldwide by the World Health Organization, which led to the early and cost effective interruption of smallpox transmission in west Africa and elsewhere.
On 29 May 2000, the Lagos Guardian newspaper reported that the now ex-president Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement the dismissal of all military persons who fought for the breakaway state of Biafra during Nigeria's 1967-1970 civil war. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. The Guardian is an independent newspaper published in Nigeria by Guardian Newspapers Limited. General (rtd Olusegun Aremu Okikiola Matthew Obasanjo, GCFR (Oluṣẹgun Mathew Okikiọla Arẹmu Ọbasanjọ olúʃɛ̙́ɡũ ɒ̙básandʒɒ̙́ (born circa March In a national broadcast, he said the decision was based on the belief that "justice must at all times be tempered with mercy". It is also thought, that during the previous year, there had been a public resurgence of pro-Biafra sentiment among a section of the Igbo, who claimed that in the Nigerian federation, they have been marginalised. 
Violence between Christians and Muslims (usually Igbo Christians and Hausa or Fulani Muslims) has been incessant since the end of the civil war in 1970. The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of
In July 2006 the Center for World Indigenous Studies reported that government sanctioned killings were taking place in the southeastern city of Onitsha, because of a shoot-to-kill policy directed toward Biafran loyalists, particularly members of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB). The Center for World Indigenous Studies was founded in 1984 by Dr Onitsha is a City, commercial centre and River port on the eastern bank of the Niger river in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria The Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB is a secessionist movement with the aim of securing the resurgence of the defunct state of Biafra 
Meaning of the word "Biafra" and location of Biafra
Little is known about the literal meaning of the word Biafra. Manuel Alvares (1526-1583) in his work "Ethiopia Minor and a geographical account of the Province of Sierra Leone", writes about the "Biafar heathen" in chapter 13. The word Biafar thus appears to have been a common word in the Portuguese language back in the 16th century.
Historical maps of Biafra
Ancient maps on Africa from the 15th-19th centuries reveal some interesting information about Biafra:
- The original word used by European travellers was not Biafra but Biafara, Biafar and sometimes also Biafares.
- The exact original region of Biafra is not restricted to Eastern Nigeria alone. According to the maps, European travellers used the word Biafara to describe the entire region east of the River Niger going down to the Mount Cameroun region, thus including Cameroun and a large area around Gabon.
Maps indicating the word Biafara (sometimes also Biafares or Biafar) with corresponding year:
Maps from the 19th century indicating Biafra as the region around today's Cameroon:
- Land of the Rising Sun (national anthem), Biafra's national anthem, based on Jean Sibelius' Finlandia Hymn
- Auberon Waugh, who named one of his children "Biafra Waugh" in 1968
- List of A-26 Invader operators
- Manillas - An early form of coinage from this area
- Nigerian Civil War
- Radio Northsea International - media reports and publications suggest that the financing of this radio ship was derived from income earned by its Swiss owners for their logistic support provided to the government of Biafra. " Land of the Rising Sun " was the national anthem of the African state Biafra. The Finlandia Hymn (in Finnish Finlandia-hymni) refers to a serene Hymn -like section of the patriotic Symphonic poem Auberon Alexander Waugh (ˈɔːbərən ˈwɔː ( November 17, 1939 &ndash January 16, 2001) was a British author and Journalist. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. See also A-26 Invader The List of A-26 Invader operators lists the nations their air force units and civilian companies that have operated the Douglas Manillas are penannular (almost ring-like armlets mostly in Bronze or Copper, very rarely Gold, which served as a form of Money or Barter The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, 6 July 1967 &ndash 13 January 1970 was a political conflict caused by the attempted Secession Mebo Telecommunications AG (formed in 1969 and registered in Zürich on March 24, 1971) is owned by Swiss businessmen Erwin Meister See also Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and section 'Accused': "In the run-up to the trial, the Prosecution had considered bringing charges against Swiss businessman, Edwin Bollier, of the electronics firm Mebo Ag. The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years four months and 13 days after the blowing up of Pan Am Flight 103 on Edwin Bollier and his partner Erwin Meister, founded Mebo Telecommunications AG in Zürich, Switzerland in 1969 Mebo Telecommunications AG (formed in 1969 and registered in Zürich on March 24, 1971) is owned by Swiss businessmen Erwin Meister But the Prosecution decided that, unless evidence to incriminate Bollier were to be adduced during the trial, he would not be included as a co-conspirator in causing the bombing. "
- Republic of Benin - A nation (not to be confused with modern Benin) that declared its "independence" while under Biafran occupation. The short-lived Republic of Benin, in Nigeria's coastal Bight of Benin, was named after its capital Benin City. Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa.
- Ambazonia, a linguistically similar neighboring region in Cameroon which experienced similar separatist sentiment. Ambazonia or Ambazania is the name given to the Southern Cameroons by organisations that struggle for the dissolution of the 1961 union of the Southern Cameroons
- ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. McFarland & Company, 58. ISBN 0786422483.
- ^ "Biafra," Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Accessed 20 November 2006. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ Hanbury, Prof H G (January 1967). "OE News - News from All Quarters". Epsom College is a co-educational Public School in Epsom, Surrey, England for 13 pupils aged 18 The Epsomian XCVII (1): 35. “Colonel C O Ojukwu, Military Governor of Eastern Region, Nigeria was vigorously commended in The Daily Telegraph, by Prof J G Hanbury, QC, for his refusal to go to Lagos for a constitutional conference, at the risk of probable assassination. For "The Daily Telegraph" in Australia see The Daily Telegraph (Australia. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Prof Hanbury considers that as 'an intensely patriotic Nigerian,' Col Ojukwu 'will spare no effort to hold the federation together,' but if there is no way open except secession 'he will take steps to placate the minority in Rivers and Calabar provinces and may hope to carry the East to new prosperity'”
- ^ Hagedorn, Dan and Hellström, Leif (1994). ""Foreign Invaders - The Douglas Invader in foreign military and US clandestine service". Earl Shilton, Leicester, England: Midland Publishing Limited.
- ^ "1969: Nigeria bans Red Cross aid to Biafra," BBC. Accessed November 20, 2006. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ "Biafra: Thirty years on," BBC. 13 January 2000. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Accessed November 20, 2006. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ "The Promise that was and still is Biafra. " U. O. May 11, 1995. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Accessed November 20, 2006. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ Bortolotti, Dan (2004). Hope in Hell: Inside the World of Doctors Without Borders, Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-865-6.
- ^ Emerging Genocide in Nigeria, Chronicles of brutality in Nigeria 2000-2006
- Secret papers reveal Biafra intrigue. A 2000 BBC article describing the Biafran war as a power contest between Britain, France, and the USSR.
- Biafra: Killer Cessnas and Crazy Swedes,. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus by Gary Brecher A 2004 article on the history of Biafra, including Carl Gustaf von Rosen's support for Biafra and the mass starvation that marked the end of the war. Gary Brecher is the author of The War Nerd, a twice-monthly column discussing current wars and other military conflicts published in the The eXile Count Carl Gustaf Ericsson von Rosen ( August 19 1909 &ndash July 13 1977) was a Swedish pioneer aviator son of the explorer
- Hot Biafra Nights by Zach Dundas. A 2000 interview of author Andrew Vachss, who went to Biafra to serve in the relief effort in 1969. Andrew Henry Vachss (born 1942) is an American Crime fiction Author, child protection consultant and Attorney exclusively representing
- Requiem Biafra by Joe Achuzia, ISBN 978-156-256-0. (1986)
- The Biafra Story by Frederick Forsyth, ISBN 0-85052-854-2. Frederick Forsyth, CBE (born August 25, 1938) is an English author and occasional political commentator (1969)
- Biafra: A People Betrayed by Kurt Vonnegut, from Wampeters, Foma and Granfalloons, ISBN 0-385-33381-1. Kurt Vonnegut Jr (November 11 1922 – April 11 2007 (ˈvɒnəgət was a prolific and genre-bending American Novelist known for works blending Satire, Black (1974)
- Surviving in Biafra: The Story of the Nigerian Civil War by Alfred Obiora Uzokwe, ISBN 0-595-26366-6. (2003)
- The Banknotes of Biafra by Peter Symes [Printed privately] (2000) 
- Surviving the iron curtain: A microscopic view of what life was like, inside a war-torn region by Chief Uche Jim Ojiaku, ISBN-10: 1424170702; ISBN-13: 978-1424170708 (2007)
- The Last Adventurer by Rolf Steiner.
- "Chapter Nine: Tanzania Recognizes Biafra", pp. 268 - 304, in Godfrey Mwakikagile, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third Edition, New Africa Press, Pretoria, South Africa, 2006, ISBN 978-0980253412; "Part One: The Nigeria Civil War: Implosion of A Federal State and Its Implications for Africa Today," pp. Godfrey Mwakikagile is a Tanzanian writer who was born in Kigoma in western Tanganyika on 4 October 1949. 1 - 80, in Godfrey Mwakikagile, Ethnic Politics in Kenya and Nigeria: A Comparative Study, First Edition, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , Huntington, New York, 2001; Godfrey Mwakikagile, Africa and America in The Sixties: A Decade That Changed The Nation and The Destiny of A Continent, First Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0980253429.
- Half of a Yellow Sun by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, a novel in which life in East Nigeria for the Igbo people is juxtaposed with their life during war torn Biafra. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (born September 15, 1977) is an acclaimed Nigerian writer ISBN 978-0-00-720028-3. (2006)
- The Ship's Cat by Jock Brandis, a fictional account of the Oxfam Air Relief flights that penetrated the military blockade around Biafra. The Ship's Cat is a book about a group of idealistic westerners aiding the effort of Biafran Independence in 1967. Jock Brandis is an author film technician inventor and alleged air pirate Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice
- Any Human Heart by William Boyd includes a section describing Nigerian life and the collapse of the Biafran republic
- Sugar Baby by Chinua Achebe is a short story that takes place in Biafra
- Girls at War by Chinua Achebe is a short story collection about the Biafran War
- Destination Biafra by Buchi Emecheta a novel set during the Biafran War
- Estragement by Elechi Amadi a novel about the aftermath of the Biafran War
- Titi: Biafran Maid in Geneva by Chike Momah : a novel that portrays the Biafran War from the perspective of an African community in Geneva. Any Human Heart, William Boyd (writer 's 2002 novel took thirty months to research William Boyd may refer to William Boyd 3rd Earl of Kilmarnock (died 1717 Scottish nobleman William Boyd 4th Earl of Kilmarnock (1704-1746 Dr Buchi Emecheta (born July 21 1944 in Nigeria) is a prolific African Novelist who has published over 20 books plays and shorts including Elechi Amadi (born May 12, 1934) is a Nigerian writer He has authored three African novels The Concubine The Great Ponds and The
External links The Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB is a secessionist movement with the aim of securing the resurgence of the defunct state of Biafra
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