|Ville de Besançon|
|City flag||City coat of arms|
|Citadel Vauban of Besançon|
|Time Zone||CET (GMT +1)|
|Mayor||Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS)|
|Land area¹||65. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. A citadel is a fortress for protecting a Town, sometimes incorporating a Castle. Sébastien Le Prestre Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban ( May 15, 1633 – March 30, 1707) commonly referred to A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, Franche-Comté ( Franc-Comtois: Fràntche-Comté; Franco-Provençal: Franche-Comtât) the former "Free County" of Burgundy In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government The Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste, PS is the largest left-wing political party in France. 05 km²|
|- Ranking||29th in France|
|- Density||1,766/km² (2004)|
|Urban Area||122 km² (1999)|
|- Population||134,376 (1999)|
|Metro Area||1,652 km² (1999)|
|- Population||222,381 (1999)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0. As of January 1, 2008, 64473140 people live in the French Republic. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume In France an unité urbaine (literally "urban unit" is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office for the measurement of contiguously The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open|
|2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) only counted once. C D E|
Besançon (pronounced [bəzɑ̃ˈsɔ̃] in French and Arpitan; German: Bisanz), is the capital and principal city of the Franche-Comté région of northeastern France, with approximately 220,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 1999. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Franco-Provençal ( Francoprovençal) or Arpitan ( Vernacular: frp francoprovençâl arpitan patouès; francoprovenzale arpitano dialetto The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Franche-Comté ( Franc-Comtois: Fràntche-Comté; Franco-Provençal: Franche-Comtât) the former "Free County" of Burgundy France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous Located close to the border with Switzerland, it is the préfecture (capital) of the Doubs (Dubs in Arpitan language) département. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A prefecture ( préfecture) in France can refer to: the Chef-lieu de département, the town in which the administration of a ''département'' Franco-Provençal ( Francoprovençal) or Arpitan ( Vernacular: frp francoprovençâl arpitan patouès; francoprovenzale arpitano dialetto In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division
Sited with three sides within an oxbow of the Doubs River (a tributary of the Rhône River) with the fourth side closed by a mountain, in the first century BC through the modern era, the town held a significant military vantage point aided by the fact that to the immediate south, the Alps rise abruptly presenting a significant natural barrier. The Doubs is a 453 km long River in eastern France and western Switzerland, left tributary of the Saône. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. In historic times the town was first recorded in the journals of Julius Caesar as the largest town of the Sequani, a smaller Gaulic tribe, in his commentaries detailing his conquest of Gaul; he gave the name of the town as Vesontio (possibly Latinized) and mentions that it was surrounded by a wooden palisade. Sequani, in ancient geography were a Gallic people who occupied the upper basin of the Arar ( Saone) their territory corresponding to Franche-Comté Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Over the centuries, the name permutated to become Besantio, Besontion, Bisanz in Middle High German and gradually arrived at the modern French Besançon. Middle High German (MHG German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350 French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The locals retain their ancient heritage referring to themselves as Bisontins (feminine: Bisontine).
As part of the Holy Roman Empire since 1034, the city became the Archbishopric of Besançon, and was granted the status of Imperial Free City (an autonomous city-state under the Holy Roman Emperor) in 1184. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states In 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa held an Imperial Diet (Reichstag) in Bisanz. Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 &ndash 10 June 1190) was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned The Reichstag ( German for "Imperial Diet " was the Parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, There, Cardinal Orlando Bandinelli, (the future Pope Alexander III, then adviser of Pope Adrian IV), openly asserted before the Emperor that the Imperial dignity was a Papal beneficium (in the more general sense of favour, not the strict feudal sense of fief), which incurred the wrath of the German princes. Pope Alexander III (c 1100/1105 &ndash August 30, 1181) born Rolando (or Orlando) Bandinelli, was Pope from 1159 Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c 1100&ndash 1 September, 1159) born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope Originally a benefice was a gift of land ( Precaria) for life as a reward for services rendered Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing He would have fallen on the spot under the battle-axe of his life-long foe, Otto of Wittelsbach, had Frederick not intervened; the Imperial Chancellor Rainald of Dassel then inaugurated a German policy which insisted upon the rights and the power of the German kings, the strengthening of the Church in the German Empire, the lordship of Italy and the humiliation of the Papacy. Otto of Wittelsbach can refer to several people Otto IV Count of Wittelsbach, father of Otto I of Wittelsbach Duke of Bavaria Otto I Wittelsbach Rainald of Dassel (c 1120 &ndash August 14, 1167 near Rome) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1159 to 1167 and Archchancellor of The Archbishops were elevated to Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1288. The Holy Roman Empire comprised a number of political entities which were deemed to be sovereign after the Treaty of Westphalia ( 1648) The close connection to the Empire is reflected by the city's coat of arms.
In the 15th century, Besançon came under the influence of the dukes of Burgundy. Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) After the marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, the city was in effect a Habsburg fief, which took it from Austrian to Spanish influence. In 1526 the city obtained the right to mint coins. It continued to strike coins until 1673. Nevertheless, all coins are in the name of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The Spaniards originally built the main defense complex, "la Citadelle" from 1668, following a design by the French military architect Vauban. Sébastien Le Prestre Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban ( May 15, 1633 – March 30, 1707) commonly referred to In 1674, French troops took the city and Vauban himself got to upgrade its fortifications, which took some 30 years. At the Treaty of Nijmegen the city was awarded to France. The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen ( Négotiations de Nimegue or Négotiations de la Paix de Nimègue) were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city
Surrounding the central city are walls built in that era, and between the train station and the central city is a complex moat system through which traffic has been directed. All of these fortifications are built with Vauban's classic star points. Surrounding the city a large number of fortifications were built at the time of Vauban, including the Fort de Trois Châtels, Fort Chaudanne, Fort du Petit Chaudanne, Fort Griffon, Fort des Justices, Fort Beauregard and Fort de Brégille, but the crown jewel of these is la Citadelle.
Built upon a mountaintop, bounded by sheer cliffs on one side, the Doubs river on the others, and the Boucle or Shield, the city centre surrounded by the Doubs, giving it a fantastic defensive stance. The Doubs is a 453 km long River in eastern France and western Switzerland, left tributary of the Saône. Upon this hilltop, Vauban built the largest of his structures in the region. The Citadelle has a dual dry moat, with an outer and inner court. In the evenings, the Citadelle is illuminated and stands above the city as a landmark and a crowning achievement to Vauban's ingenuity.
The Citadelle was used by the Nazis during World War II. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nevertheless, action was limited to a bombing of the railway complex in 1943 and four days of ultimately futile German resistance to U. S. attacks in 1944. Across the Doubs sits the Forts Brégille and Beauregard. The Brégille Heights were reached by a funicular built in 1913. A funicular, also known as a funicular railway, incline, inclined railway, inclined plane, or cliff railway, is a type of self-contained It passed from private ownership during its usage to the SNCF until 1987 when it was finally shut down. SNCF ( Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company is a French public enterprise To this day the tracks, stations and even roadsigns of the funicular remain in place.
Besançon is located in the north-east quarter of France on the Doubs River. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Doubs is a 453 km long River in eastern France and western Switzerland, left tributary of the Saône. It is about 325 km (215 mi) east of the national capital of Paris, 100 km (60 mi) east of Dijon in Burgundy, 125 km (75 mi) northwest of Lausanne in Switzerland, and 100 km (60 mi) southwest of Belfort in Franche-Comté. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Dijon ( diʒɔ̃ is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or departement and of the Bourgogne region Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Lausanne ( pronounced, Losanna is a city in Romandy, the French -speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Belfort (Beffert is a town and commune of northeastern France, Préfecture (capital of the Territoire de Belfort Franche-Comté ( Franc-Comtois: Fràntche-Comté; Franco-Provençal: Franche-Comtât) the former "Free County" of Burgundy It is located at the edge of the Jura Mountains. The Jura Mountains are a small Mountain range located north of the Alps, separating the Rhine and Rhone rivers and forming part of
The city initially developed in a natural meander (or oxbow loop) of the Doubs River with a diameter of almost 1 km (3,281 ft). A meander in general is a bend in a sinuous watercourse also known as an oxbow loop or simply an Oxbow. The Doubs is a 453 km long River in eastern France and western Switzerland, left tributary of the Saône. The flat inner loop has an elevation of about 250 m (820 ft) and is bounded to the south by a hill called Mont Saint-Étienne, which has a maximum height of 371 m (1,217ft). The city is surrounded by six other hills which range in elevation from 400 m (1,312 ft) to 500 m (1,640 ft).
Besançon is under the influence of both an oceanic climate (notable precipitations in quantity as much as in frequency) and a continental climate with hard winters (snow, frost) and warm and dry summers. An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the Climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year The year-round average is 10. 2 °C (50 °F). The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The warmest month is July (18. 9°C or 66°F) and the coldest is January (1. 6°C or 35°F). Besançon receives about 1108 mm (44 inches) of precipitation per year. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric The wettest month is May (111. 4 mm or 4. 4 in); the driest is July (80. 5 mm or 3. 2 in). The highest temperature ever, recorded on 31 July 1983, was 38. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) 8 °C (101. 8 °F), and the lowest was a −20. 7 °C (−5. 3 °F) reached on 1 January 1985. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar)
|Avg temperature °C (°F)||1. 6 (35)||3. 3 (38)||6. 1 (43)||9. 4 (49)||13. 3 (56)||16. 5 (62)||18. 9 (66)||18. 3 (65)||15. 7 (60)||11. 3 (52)||5. 6 (42)||2. 1 (36)||10. 2 (50)|
|Avg rainfall mm (in)||91. 1 (3. 6)||81. 8 (3. 2)||83. 5 (3. 3)||91. 6 (3. 6)||111. 4 (4. 4)||100. 1 (3. 9)||80. 5 (3. 2)||86. 9 (3. 4)||93. 2 (3. 7)||85. 8 (3. 4)||103. 7 (4. 1)||99. 0 (3. 9)||1108 (43. 6)|
|Source: Météo France|
As of the French Census of 1999, the population of the City of Besançon was 117,733, lower than the historical peak of 120,315 in 1975. From the mid-17th until the beginning of the 20th century French censuses became increasingly more frequent and organized As of February 2004 estimates, the population of the city proper was 114,900. The Besançon agglomeration or urban area (unité urbaine) covers 122 km², 11 municipalities (communes) and has a population of 134,376. In France an unité urbaine (literally "urban unit" is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office for the measurement of contiguously A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. The metropolitan area (aire urbaine) covers 1,652 km², 234 municipalities (communes) and has 222,381 inhabitants. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The aire urbaine is an INSEE (the national statistics office of France statistical region comprising a Couronne périurbaine commuter belt around a contiguous A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. It's the 37th of France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. It increased by 11. 4% between 1990 and 1999.
|City of Besançon||28 436||29 718||36 461||46 786||54 404||57 556||57 978||55 652||65 022|
|City of Besançon||63 508||73 445||95 642||113 220||120 315||113 283||113 828||117 733||115 400|
|Urbanized Area||116 200||126 349||120 715||122 623||134 376|
Besançon is the capital of the Franche-Comté région of France, a région including the four départements of Doubs, Haute-Saône, Jura and Territoire de Belfort. Franche-Comté ( Franc-Comtois: Fràntche-Comté; Franco-Provençal: Franche-Comtât) the former "Free County" of Burgundy France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, Haute-Saône ( Hiôta-Sona in Arpitan language is a French department of the Franche-Comté ( Franche-Comtât Jura is a department in the east of France named after the Jura mountains (not to be confused with the Swiss canton of Jura The Territoire de Belfort is a department in the Franche-Comté region of eastern France. As such, it is the seat of the Franche-Comté regional council, and the regional préfecture (government offices).
Mayor of the City of Besançon is Jean-Louis Fousseret.
The city is famous for its microtechnology and watch industries. Microtechnology is Technology with features near one Micrometre (one millionth of a Metre, or 10-6 metre or 1μm A watch is a timepiece that is made to be worn on a person The term now usually refers to a wristwatch, which is worn on the wrist with a strap or Bracelet. It is host of the biannual Micronora trade fair, one of Europe's major events in the field of microtechnologies. The city has a little-known speciality, automatic ticketing machines for car parking, airports, date stamping etc.
The watch industry, for which Besançon remains the French capital, endured a major crisis in the 1970s when the advent of far-eastern quartz watches knocked out the traditional watch industry in the space of just a few years. A watch is a timepiece that is made to be worn on a person The term now usually refers to a wristwatch, which is worn on the wrist with a strap or Bracelet. This industrial crisis was epitomised by the famous "Lip" affair, by the name of one of Besançon's most prestigious brands of watches. LIP is a French clock company whose turmoil became emblematic of the conflicts between workers and management in France Refusing to be beaten, the workers of Lip took over their factory and set it up as a worker's cooperative. The event branded Besançon as a city of the radical left, and though it produced a lot of notoriety and sympathy for the workers, it did little to help revive the watch industry, with the cooperative going out of business after a short period. The city took a long time to recover from the collapse of the watch industry and its other major industry of the industrial age, artificial textiles.
Since the 1980s, Besançon's watch industry has clawed its way back on the basis of its historic reputation and quartz watches, establishing itself in a number of niche markets including customized watches, high quality watches, and fashion articles. Since the 1990s, the town has developed a reputation as one of France's leading centres technology in all fields, including telecommunications and biotechnology.
Besançon is the seat of the Université de Franche-Comté. As of 2006, there were approximately 20,000 students enrolled at the university, including around 3,000 foreign students. The city is also home of the École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques (ENSMM), a technological school with a strong reputation in the fields of microtechnology and mechanics and the worldwide famous Centre for Applied Linguistics which teaches ten languages to non-native speakers (French, Arabic, Chinese, English, German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish) and any other known language on request and which welcomes more than 3000 students every year from all over the world. The École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques (ENSMM is one of the French " Grandes Écoles " of Engineering (Equivalent Institute of Technology Microtechnology is Technology with features near one Micrometre (one millionth of a Metre, or 10-6 metre or 1μm Mechanics ( Greek) is the branch of Physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to Forces or displacements
The city has one of the most beautiful historic centres of any major town in France. The old town, "la Boucle", is enclosed in a broad horse-shoe of the river Doubs, which is blocked off at the neck by Vauban's imposing Citadelle. The Doubs is a 453 km long River in eastern France and western Switzerland, left tributary of the Saône. The historic centre presents a remarkable ensemble of classic stone buildings, some dating back to the Middle Ages. Among the most visited historic monuments are:
Besançon also has one of the finest city art galleries in France outside Paris. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Musée des Beaux Arts has a collection built up since 1694, and expanded over time by a remarkable series of bequests. The building itself was totally rebuilt in the 1960s by the architect Miquel, a pupil of Le Corbusier, its interior taking the form of a gently rising concrete walkway that takes visitors up from classical antiquity to the modern age. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss Among its treasures are a fine collection of classical antiquities and ancient Egyptian artefacts, as well as a very rich collection of paintings including works by Bellini, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Titian, Rubens, Jordaens, Ruysdael, Cranach, Zurbaran, Goya, Philippe de Champaigne, Fragonard, Boucher, David, Ingres, Géricault, Courbet, Constable, Bonnard, Matisse, Picasso and many others. Giovanni Bellini (c 1430 – 1516 was an Italian Renaissance painter probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters Agnolo di Cosimo ( November 17, 1503 &ndash November 23, 1572) usually known as Il Bronzino, or Agnolo Bronzino (mistaken Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Jacob Jordaens ( May 19, 1593 - October 18, 1678) was one of three Flemish Baroque painters, along with Peter Paul Rubens Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruisdael (or Ruysdael) (c 1628 - March 14, 1682) the most celebrated of the Dutch landscapists, was Lucas Cranach the Elder ( Lucas Cranach der Ältere, 4 October 1472 &ndash 16 October 1553) was a German painter Francisco de Zurbarán ( November 7 1598 &ndash August 27 1664) was a Spanish painter. Philippe de Champaigne ( 26 May 1602 - 12 August 1674) was a Baroque era painter of the French school. Jean-Honoré Fragonard ( April 5, 1732 &ndash August 22, 1806) was a French painter and Printmaker whose late Rococo Jacques-Louis David (August 30 1748 &ndash December 29 1825 was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style considered to be Théodore Géricault ( September 26, 1791 &ndash January 26, 1824) was an important French painter and lithographer known for For the French Admiral see Admiral Courbet (1828-1885 Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( 10 June 1819 &ndash John Constable ( 11 June 1776 &ndash 31 March 1837 Pierre Bonnard (3 October 1867 &ndash 23 January 1947 was a French painter and Printmaker, a founding member of Les Nabis. Henri Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954 was a French Artist, known for his use of Colour and his fluid brilliant and original draughtsmanship Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Perhaps the most remarkable of the city's masterpieces is the massive Virgin and saints altarpiece in the St. An altarpiece is a picture or Relief representing a religious subject and suspended in a frame behind the Altar of a church Jean cathedral, by the Italian Renaissance painter Fra Bartolomeo. Fra Bartolomeo or Fra Bartolommeo ( di Pagholo) ( March 28, 1472 &ndash October 6, 1517) also known as Baccio della
Several major events occur annually in Besançon. Franche-Comté ( Franc-Comtois: Fràntche-Comté; Franco-Provençal: Franche-Comtât) the former "Free County" of Burgundy Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants Climatology (from Greek grc κλίμα klima, "region zone" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of Climate, scientifically One of the best-known is the Besançon Franche-Comté Music Festival, taking place in September, one of the oldest and most prestigious Classical music festivals. The Besançon International Music Festival ( Festival de musique de Besançon Franche-Comté) is one of the oldest and most prestigious festivals of Classical music Besançon hosts other music festivals such has the Musiques de Rues Festival (street music) in October, the Franch Country Festival (country music) in August, the Jazz en Franche-Comté Festival in June or the Herbe en Zik Festival (french rock and variety) in May. The Musiques de Rues Festival ( Musiques de Rues Nouveau Territoire des Arts Sonores) is a festival of street music taking place in the city of Besançon, France
The major sports in Besançon are handball and basketball. Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Soccer is important also but the city's club, called Besançon Racing Club, plays only in the fourth national division. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Besançon Racing Club ( Besançon RC) is a French football club based in Besançon.
|Besançon Racing Club||Soccer||Championnat de France Amateurs||Stade Léo Lagrange|
|Entente Sportive Bisontine Masculin||Team handball||Nationale 1||Gymnase des Montboucons|
|Entente Sportive Bisontine Feminin||Team handball||Division 1 (women's)||Palais des Sports|
|Besançon Basket Comté Doubs||Basketball||Pro A||Palais des Sports|
Besançon is situated at the crossing of two major lines of communication, the NE-SW route, following the valley of the river Doubs, and linking Germany and North Europe with Lyon and southwest Europe, and the N-S route linking northern France and the Low Countries with Switzerland. Besançon Racing Club ( Besançon RC) is a French football club based in Besançon. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Championnat de France Amateurs is a French football competition the equivalent of the fourth division below the Championnat National. Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Division 1 is the third level in the league system of Swedish football and comprises 28 Swedish football teams Palais des Sports is an indoor sporting arena located in Besançon, France. Besançon Basket Comté Doubs is a Basketball club based in Besançon, France that plays in the Ligue Nationale de Basketball. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m The LNB ( Ligue Nationale de Basketball) is the top men's French professional Basketball league Palais des Sports is an indoor sporting arena located in Besançon, France. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A key staging post on the Strasbourg-Lyon (Germany-Spain) route, it also has direct high-speed train (TGV) links with Paris, Charles de Gaulle International Airport, and Lille. The TGV ( t rain à g rande v itesse, French for "high-speed train" is France 's High-speed rail service Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport Paris-Charles de Gaulle also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French in the Paris area is Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country Unusually for a town of its size, it does not have a commercial airport, though two international airports, EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg and Lyon Saint-Exupéry International Airport, can be reached in about 2 hours. EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg is an international airport near Basel ( Switzerland) Mulhouse ( France) and Freiburg (
As well as being famed as one of France's finest "villes d'art" (art cities), Besançon is the seat of one of France's older universities, of France's National School of Mechanics and Micromechanics, and one of the best known French language schools in France, the CLA. The École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniques (ENSMM is one of the French " Grandes Écoles " of Engineering (Equivalent Institute of Technology It is also reputed to be France's most environmentally-friendly city, with a public transport network that has often been cited as a model. On account of the topography, the historic city centre lies at the edge of the modern city, and hiking tracks lead straight from the centre and up into the surrounding hills. The city council has been in the hands of the Socialists and parties of the left since the Second World War. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands is also Dame of Besançon.
The Christmas carol "Berger, Secoue Ton Sommiel Profond", known in English as "Shepherds, Shake Off Your Drowsy Sleep" originated in Besançon in the seventeenth century. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Besançon was the birthplace of:
[1. Jean Claude Eugène Péclet ( February 10, 1793 - December 6, 1857) was a French Physicist. A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning In Fluid dynamics, the Péclet number is a Dimensionless number relating the rate of Advection of a flow to its rate of Diffusion, Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (ˈpruːd ɒn in British English, dɔ̃ in French) ( 15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was Hilaire de Chardonnet (born Louis-Marie Hilaire Bernigaud de Chardonnet ( May 1 1839 - March 11 1924) was a French engineer and The pont Mirabeau was built between 1895 and 1897. It was listed a historical monument in 1975. Pont Alexandre III is an Arch bridge that spans the Seine, connecting the Champs-Élysées quarter and the Invalides and Eiffel Tower Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Tristan Bernard ( September 7, 1866 – December 7, 1947) was a French Playwright, Novelist, Journalist and Jean de Gribaldy ( July 18 1922 - January 2 1987) was a French road Cyclist and Directeur sportif. A directeur sportif ( French for sporting director, although the original French term is often used in English-language media plural directeurs sportifs Raymond Blanc (born November 19, 1949) is a French Chef, born in Besançon, France and now based in the United Kingdom Morrade Hakkar (born January 19, 1972 in Besançon France) is a middleweight boxer who has held a number of regional championship belts during Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar 's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul. Besançon (bəzɑ̃ˈsɔ̃ in French and Arpitan; German: Bisanz) is the capital and principal city of the Franche-Comté 38] When he had proceeded three days' journey, word was brought to him that Ariovistus was hastening with all his forces to seize on Vesontio, which is the largest town of the Sequani, and had advanced three days' journey from its territories. Caesar thought that he ought to take the greatest precautions lest this should happen, for there was in that town a most ample supply of every thing which was serviceable for war; and so fortified was it by the nature of the ground, as to afford a great facility for protracting the war, inasmuch as the river Doubs almost surrounds the whole town, as though it were traced round it with a pair of compasses. A mountain of great height shuts in the remaining space, which is not more than 600 feet (180 m), where the river leaves a gap, in such a manner that the roots of that mountain extend to the river's bank on either side. A wall thrown around it makes a citadel of this [mountain], and connects it with the town.
Eventually he saw the white walls beyond the distant mountain; it was the citadel of Besancon. Henri-Marie Beyle ( January 23, 1783 &ndash March 23, 1842) better known by his Pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century Le Rouge et le Noir ( The Red and the Black) is a Novel by Stendhal, published in 1830 A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is a specialized and often live-in Higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students "What a difference," he said, sighing, "if I could come into this fine city as a sub-lieutenant of one of these regiments of the post. " Besancon is not only one of the prettiest cities in France, but it abounds in brave and intelligent men. Julien, however, was only a little peasant, without any means of approaching distinguished personages.
This century was two years old. Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Rome was replacing Sparta;
Already Napoleon was emerging from under Bonaparte.
And already the First Consul's tight mask
Had been split in several places by the Emperor's brow.
It was then that in Besancon, that old Spanish town,
Cast like a seed into the flying wind,
A child was born of mixed blood -- Breton and Lorraine --
Pallid, blind and mute,. . .
That child, whom Life was scratching from its book,
And who had not another day to live,
Balzac's novel Albert Savaron takes place in Besançon.
Colonel Sainte-Hermine, the fictional hero of Alexandre Dumas' "The Last Cavalier," is a native of Besançon.
Tver (Тверь is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Tver Oblast. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Kuopio is a Finnish City and Municipality located in the province of Eastern Finland and the region of Northern Savonia. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Huddersfield ( is a large Market town within the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England, 190 miles (306km north Kirklees is a Metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Bielsko-Biała (Bielitz-Biala Bílsko-Bělá is a city in southern Poland with 176987 inhabitants (2006 Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Neuchâtel ( literally: New Castle in Old French) is the Capital of the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel on Lake Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Bistriţa (Bistritz archaic Nösen; Beszterce is the capital City of Bistriţa-Năsăud County, Transylvania, Romania. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Hadera (חֲדֵרָה Ḥadera الخضيرة Al-Ḫuḍayraḧ El-Khdera is a city located in the Haifa District of Israel approximately half-way between For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Burkina Faso (bɚˌkiːnəˈfɑːsoʊ burr-KEE-na FAH-soh) also known by its short-form name Burkina, is a Landlocked nation in West Africa Man is a Town and department (département in the west of central Côte d'Ivoire. Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Charlottesville is an Independent city located within the confines of Albemarle County in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The United States of America —commonly referred to as the