20th century philosophy
Russell in 1907
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell
|Birth||May 18, 1872|
Trellech, Monmouthshire, UK
|Death||February 2, 1970 (aged 97)|
Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales, UK
Nobel Prize in Literature
|Main interests||Ethics, epistemology, logic, mathematics, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, religion|
|Notable ideas||Logical atomism, theory of descriptions, knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description, Russell's paradox, Russell's teapot. See also [[Analytic philosophy]] and [[Continental philosophy]] The 20th century brought with it upheavals that produced a series of conflicting developments within Philosophy Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year for the village in Carmarthenshire, see Trelech Trellech (occasionally spelt Trelech, Treleck or Trelleck Ancient county See also Monmouthshire (historic The ancient county of Monmouthshire was formed from the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Penrhyndeudraeth ( peninsula with two beaches in Welsh) is a Village in Gwynedd, Wales. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of Philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature origins and usage of Language. Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of Analytic philosophy. The theory of descriptions is one of the philosopher Bertrand Russell 's most significant contributions to the Philosophy of language. The contrasting expressions " knowledge by acquaintance " and " Knowledge by description " were promoted by Bertrand Russell, who was extremely critical The contrasting expressions " knowledge by description " and " Knowledge by acquaintance " were promoted by Bertrand Russell, who was extremely critical Part of the Foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox (also known as Russell's antinomy) discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901 showed that the Russell's teapot, sometimes called the Celestial Teapot, was an analogy first coined by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872–1970 intended to refute the idea|
|Influenced by||Plato · Leibniz ·|
Hume · Moore ·
Mill · Frege ·
A.N. Whitehead ·
Paine · Peano ·
|Influenced||Wittgenstein · Ayer ·|
Carnap · Gödel ·
Popper · Quine ·
Chomsky · Austin · Kripke · Schlick · Tarski · Waismann · Davidson · Eddington · Turing · Arendt · Vuillemin · McDowell · Kumar ·
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872–2 February 1970), was a philosopher, historian, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy "GE Moore" redirects here For the cofounder of Intel see Gordon Moore. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege ( 8 November 1848, Wismar, Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin  &ndash 26 July 1925 Alfred North Whitehead, OM ( February 15 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England &ndash December 30 1947, Thomas Paine (January 29 1737 &ndash June 8 1809 was an English Pamphleteer, Revolutionary, radical, Inventor, and Intellectual Giuseppe Peano ( August 27, 1858 &ndash April 20, 1932) was an Italian Mathematician, whose work was of exceptional Sir Alfred Jules ("Freddie" Ayer ( October 29, 1910 &ndash June 27, 1989) better known as A Rudolf Carnap ( May 18, 1891 &ndash September 14, 1970) was an influential German -born philosopher who was active in Kurt Gödel (kʊɐ̯t ˈgøːdl̩ (April 28 1906 – January 14 1978 was an Austrian American Logician, Mathematician and Philosopher Sir Karl Raimund Popper ( July 28 1902  &ndash September 17 1994) was an Austrian and British Philosopher and a professor Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25 1908 Akron, Ohio &ndash December 25 2000 (known to intimates as "Van" Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political John Langshaw Austin ( March 26, 1911 – February 8, 1960) was a British philosopher of language, born in Lancaster and Saul Aaron Kripke (born on November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore New York) is an American philosopher and Logician now Emeritus Moritz Schlick ( April 14, 1882 &ndash June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of Logical positivism Alfred Tarski ( January 14, 1901, Warsaw, Russian ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley California Friedrich Waismann ( March 21, 1896 - November 4, 1959) was an Austrian mathematician physicist and philosopher Donald Herbert Davidson ( March 6, 1917  &ndash August 30, 2003) was an American Philosopher, who served as Slusser Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944 was an English Astrophysicist of the early 20th century Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (ˈt(jʊ(ərɪŋ (23 June 1912 &ndash 7 June 1954 was an English Mathematician Jules Vuillemin (February 15 1920 - January 16 2001 was a French philosopher succeeding to Maurice Merleau-Ponty at the College de France from 1962 to his death John Henry McDowell (born 1942 in Boksburg, South Africa) is a Philosopher, formerly a Fellow of University College, Oxford Satish Kumar is an Indian currently living in England who has been a Jain monk and a nuclear disarmament advocate and is the current editor of Resurgence The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Mathematical logic is a subfield of Logic and Mathematics with close connections to Computer science and Philosophical logic. A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. Although usually regarded as English, he was born in Wales. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English
A prolific writer, he was a populariser of philosophy and a commentator on a large variety of topics. A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Continuing a family tradition in political affairs, he was a prominent anti-war activist, championing free trade between nations and anti-imperialism. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions The term anti-war usually refers to the opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of Imperialism.  He authored the essay On Denoting and was co-author (with Alfred North Whitehead) of Principia Mathematica, an attempt to ground mathematics on the laws of logic. " On Denoting " written by Bertrand Russell, is one of the most significant and influential philosophical essays of the 20th century The Principia Mathematica is a 3-volume work on the Foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Both works have had a considerable influence on logic, set theory, linguistics and analytic philosophy. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of Philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century
Bertrand Russell was born at the height of Britain's economic and political ascendancy. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This is a history of the economy of the United Kingdom and of the countries that joined to form it in 1707 and 1801 When he died almost a century later, the British Empire had all but vanished, its power had been dissipated by two world wars and its imperial system had been brought to an end. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations Among his post–Second World War political activities, Russell was a vigorous proponent of nuclear disarmament, antagonist to communist totalitarianism and an outspoken critic of the Vietnam War. Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of Nuclear weapons. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia  Previously he had been imprisoned and deprived of his Fellowship of Trinity College because of his activity as a vigorous peace campaigner and opponent of conscription during the First World War. In 1920, Russell visited the emerging Soviet Union which subsequently met with his disapproval, but he also campaigned vigorously against Adolf Hitler in the 1930s. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
In 1950, Lord Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Humanitarianism is an active belief in Humanism (the idea of the value of human life whereby Humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that Beliefs should be formed on the basis of Science and Logic and should not be influenced 
Bertrand Russell was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft (now Cleddon Hall), Trellech, Monmouthshire, Wales, into an aristocratic family. Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year for the village in Carmarthenshire, see Trelech Trellech (occasionally spelt Trelech, Treleck or Trelleck Ancient county See also Monmouthshire (historic The ancient county of Monmouthshire was formed from the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations 
His paternal grandfather, John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, was the second son of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford, and had twice been asked by Queen Victoria to form a government, serving her as Prime Minister in the 1840s and 1860s. John Russell Viscount Amberley ( 10 December 1842 – 9 January 1876) was the eldest son of John Russell 1st Earl Russell. John Russell 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 &ndash 28 May 1878 known as Lord John Russell before 1861 was an English John Russell 6th Duke of Bedford KG PC LLD FSA ( 6 July 1766 &ndash 20 October 1839) was a younger Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. 
The Russells had been prominent in Britain for several centuries before this, coming to power and the peerage with the rise of the Tudor dynasty. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period They established themselves as one of Britain's leading Whig (Liberal) families, and participated in every great political event from the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536-40 to the Glorious Revolution in 1688-89 to the Great Reform Act in 1832. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the formal process between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system 
Russell's mother Katherine Louisa (1844 - 1874) was the daughter of Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley, and was the sister of Rosalind Howard, Countess of Carlisle. Edward John Stanley 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley ( 13 November 1802 &ndash 16 June 1869) entered the House of Commons as Whig Rosalind Frances Howard Countess of Carlisle ( 20 February 1845 &ndash 12 August 1921) sometimes known as The Radical Countess 
Russell's parents were quite radical for their times—Russell's father, Viscount Amberley, was an atheist and consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding. John Russell Viscount Amberley ( 10 December 1842 – 9 January 1876) was the eldest son of John Russell 1st Earl Russell. Atheism Douglas Alexander Spalding (1841 – 1877 was an English biologist. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous. Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent 
John Stuart Mill, the Utilitarian philosopher, stood as Russell's godfather. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a child's Baptism. Mill died the following year, but his writings had a great effect upon Russell's life.
Russell had two siblings: Frank (nearly seven years older than Bertrand), and Rachel (four years older). John Francis Stanley Russell 2nd Earl Russell known as Frank Russell, ( 12 August 1865 &ndash 3 March 1931) was the elder surviving In June 1874 Russell's mother died of diphtheria, followed shortly by Rachel, and in January 1876 his father also died of bronchitis following a long period of depression. Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore Bronchitis is an Inflammation of the Bronchi. More specifically it may refer to Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge in Richmond Park. Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837 - 1901 in particular and to the moral climate Pembroke Lodge is a magnificent Georgian mansion in Richmond Park, London Richmond Park is a 955 hectare (2360 acre urban park near central London UK John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, his grandfather, died in 1878, and was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. John Russell 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 &ndash 28 May 1878 known as Lord John Russell before 1861 was an English As a result, his widow, the Countess Russell (née Lady Frances Elliot), was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russell's childhood and youth. 
The countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, and successfully petitioned a British court to set aside a provision in Amberley's will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its In Common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the Testator) regulates the rights of others over his or her Property Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas (accepting Darwinism and supporting Irish Home Rule), and her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life — her favourite Bible verse, 'Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil' (Exodus 23:2), became his mantra. Darwinism is a term used for various different movements or concepts related to a greater or lesser extent to Charles Darwin 's work on Evolution. Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, refers to the concept of a Society in which Justice is achieved in every aspect of society rather than Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. However, the atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression and formality; Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings.
Russell's adolescence was thus very lonely, and he often contemplated suicide. He remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in sex, religion and mathematics, and that only the wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide.  He was educated at home by a series of tutors, and he spent countless hours in his grandfather's library.
His brother Frank introduced him to the work of Euclid, which transformed Russell's life. Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry 
Russell won a scholarship to read for the Mathematics Tripos at Trinity College, Cambridge, and commenced his studies there in 1890. The Mathematical Tripos is the taught mathematics course at the University of Cambridge. Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. He became acquainted with the younger G.E. Moore and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead, who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles. "GE Moore" redirects here For the cofounder of Intel see Gordon Moore. Alfred North Whitehead, OM ( February 15 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England &ndash December 30 1947, The Cambridge Apostles, also known as the Cambridge Conversazione Society, is an elite intellectual Secret society at the University of Cambridge founded He quickly distinguished himself in mathematics and philosophy, graduating with a B. A. in the former subject in 1893 and adding a fellowship in the latter in 1895. 
Russell first met the American Quaker Alys Pearsall Smith when he was seventeen years old. Alys Whitall Pearsall Smith (1867 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - January 22, 1951) was the first wife of Bertrand Russell. He became a friend of the Pearsall Smith family—they knew him primarily as 'Lord John's grandson' and enjoyed showing him off—and travelled with them to the continent; it was in their company that Russell visited the Paris Exhibition of 1889 and was able to climb the Eiffel Tower soon after it was completed. The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a World's Fair held in Paris, France from May 6, to October 31, 1889. The Eiffel Tower (Tour Eiffel /tuʀ ɛfɛl/ is an Iron Tower built 
He soon fell in love with the puritanical, high-minded Alys, who was a graduate of Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia, and, contrary to his grandmother's wishes, he married her on 13 December 1894. Bryn Mawr College ( brin-mar is a highly selective women's liberal arts college located in Bryn Mawr, a community in Lower Merion Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Their marriage began to fall apart in 1901 when it occurred to Russell, while he was out on his bicycle, that he no longer loved her. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** She asked him if he loved her and he replied that he didn't. Russell also disliked Alys's mother, finding her controlling and cruel. It was to be a hollow shell of a marriage and they finally divorced in 1921, after a lengthy period of separation.  During this period, Russell had passionate (and often simultaneous) affairs with a number of women, including Lady Ottoline Morrell and the actress Lady Constance Malleson. The Lady Ottoline Violet Anne Morrell ( June 16, 1873 – April 21, 1938) was an English Aristocrat and society hostess The Lady Constance Malleson (Colette O'Niel ( October 24, 1895 - October 5, 1975) was a British writer and actress (appearing as 
Russell began his published work in 1896 with German Social Democracy, a study in politics that was an early indication of a lifelong interest in political and social theory. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left In 1896, he taught German social democracy at the London School of Economics, where he also lectured on the science of power in the autumn of 1937. The London School of Economics and Political Science, more commonly referred to as The London School of Economics or LSE, is a specialist college of the  He was also a member of the Coefficients dining club of social reformers set up in 1902 by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb. The Coefficients was a Dining club founded in 1902 at a dinner given by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb. The Fabian Society is a British Intellectual Socialist movement whose purpose is to advance the principles of Social democracy via Gradualist Sidney James Webb 1st Baron Passfield PC ( 13 July, 1859 &ndash 13 October, 1947) was a British socialist economist and reformer This article is about the socialist politician For the children's author see Beatrix Potter. 
Russell became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1908. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660  The first of three volumes of Principia Mathematica, written with Whitehead, was published in 1910, which, along with the earlier The Principles of Mathematics, soon made Russell world famous in his field. The Principia Mathematica is a 3-volume work on the Foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell In 1911, he became acquainted with the Austrian engineering student Ludwig Wittgenstein, whom he viewed as a genius and a successor who would continue his work on logic. He spent hours dealing with Wittgenstein's various phobias and his frequent bouts of despair. The latter was often a drain on Russell's energy, but he continued to be fascinated by him and encouraged his academic development, including the publication of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in 1922. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by Austrian Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. 
During the First World War, Russell engaged in pacifist activities, and, in 1916, he was dismissed from Trinity College following his conviction under the Defence of the Realm Act. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War I was mainly opposed by Left-wing groups but there was also opposition by Christian Pacifist groups Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The Defence of the Realm Act ( DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom on 8 August 1914, during the early weeks of World War I. A later conviction resulted in six months' imprisonment in Brixton prison (see Activism below). HM Prison Brixton is a local Prison in Brixton, London, England. Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian  Russell was released from prison in September 1918.
In August 1920, Russell traveled to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government to investigate the effects of the Russian Revolution. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them  During the course of his visit, he met Lenin and had an hour-long conversation with him. (In his autobiography, he mentions that he found Lenin rather disappointing, and that he sensed an "impish cruelty" in him. ) He also cruised down the Volga on a steam-ship. Russell's lover Dora Black also visited Russia independently at the same time — she was enthusiastic about the revolution, but Russell's experiences destroyed his previous tentative support for it. Dora Black ( 3 April 1894 - 31 May 1986) was an author a Feminist and progressive campaigner and the second wife of the eminent
Russell subsequently lectured in Beijing on philosophy for one year, accompanied by Dora.  While in China, Russell became gravely ill with pneumonia, and incorrect reports of his death were published in the Japanese press. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal A premature Obituary is an obituary published whose subject is not actually deceased  When the couple visited Japan on their return journey, Dora notified the world that "Mr. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Bertrand Russell, having died according to the Japanese press, is unable to give interviews to Japanese journalists. " The press were not amused and did not appreciate the sarcasm. 
On the couple's return to England on 26 August 1921, Dora was six months pregnant, and Russell arranged a hasty divorce from Alys, marrying Dora six days after the divorce was finalised, on 27 September 1921. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Their children were John Conrad Russell, 4th Earl Russell, born on 16 November 1921 and Katharine Jane Russell (now Lady Katharine Tait) born on 29 December 1923. John Conrad Russell 4th Earl Russell ( November 16 1921 - December 16 1987) was the eldest son of the famous philosopher and mathematician Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Katharine Jane Tait (born 29 December[[ 923]] is the only daughter of Bertrand Russell. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Russell supported himself during this time by writing popular books explaining matters of physics, ethics, and education to the layman. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency The term " layman " originated from the use of the term Laity, but over the centuries changed definition to mean a person who is a non-expert in a given field of Some scholars have suggested that at this point he had an affair with Vivien Eliot, wife of T. S. Eliot. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. 
Upon the death of his elder brother Frank, in 1931, Russell became the 3rd Earl Russell. He once said that his title was primarily useful for securing hotel rooms. A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis
Russell's marriage to Dora grew increasingly tenuous, and it reached a breaking point over her having two children with an American journalist, Griffin Barry. A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends  They separated in 1932 and finally divorced. On 18 January 1936, Russell married his third wife, an Oxford undergraduate named Patricia ("Peter") Spence, who had been his children's governess since the summer of 1930. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the A governess is a female employee of a family who teaches children within their home Russell and Peter had one son, Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell, who became a prominent historian and one of the leading figures in the Liberal Democrat party. Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell 5th Earl Russell ( 15 April 1937 &ndash 14 October 2004) was a British historian The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the 
After the Second World War, Russell taught at the University of Chicago, later moving on to Los Angeles to lecture at the University of California, Los Angeles. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United He was appointed professor at the City College of New York in 1940, but after a public outcry, the appointment was annulled by a court judgement: his opinions (especially those relating to sexual morality, detailed in Marriage and Morals ten years earlier) made him "morally unfit" to teach at the college. The City College of The City University of New York (known more commonly as the City College of New York or simply City College, CCNY, or colloquially as Sexual ethics is a category of Ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of Human sexual behavior, Sexual intercourse in particular The protest was started by the mother of a student who would not have been eligible for his graduate-level course in mathematical logic. Many intellectuals, led by John Dewey, protested his treatment. John Dewey (October 20 1859 &ndash June 1 1952 was an American Philosopher, Psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have  Dewey and Horace M. Kallen edited a collection of articles on the CCNY affair in The Bertrand Russell Case. Horace Meyer Kallen ( August 11, 1882 - February 16 1974) was a Jewish-American philosopher The Bertrand Russell Case edited by John Dewey and Horace M Kallen is a collection of articles on Bertrand Russell 's court dismissal as Professor He soon joined the Barnes Foundation, lecturing to a varied audience on the history of philosophy; these lectures formed the basis of A History of Western Philosophy. The Barnes Foundation is an educational art institution in Lower Merion Township, a suburb of Philadelphia Pennsylvania in the United States. A History of Western Philosophy And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day ( 1945) by the philosopher His relationship with the eccentric Albert C. Barnes soon soured, and he returned to Britain in 1944 to rejoin the faculty of Trinity College. For the American theologian see Albert Barnes Albert Coombs Barnes ( January 2 1872 – July 24 1951 
During the 1940s and 1950s, Russell participated in many broadcasts over the BBC, particularly the Third Programme, on various topical and philosophical subjects. By this time in his life, Russell was world famous outside of academic circles, frequently the subject or author of magazine and newspaper articles, and was called upon to offer up opinions on a wide variety of subjects, even mundane ones. Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. En route to one of his lectures in Trondheim, Russell was one of 24 survivors (among a total of 43 passengers) in a plane crash in Hommelvik in October 1948. (Trondhjem is a city and municipality in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. The Bukken Bruse disaster was the crash of a Flying boat upon landing at Hommelvika in Malvik municipality nearby Trondheim, Trøndelag  A History of Western Philosophy (1945) became a best-seller, and provided Russell with a steady income for the remainder of his life. A History of Western Philosophy And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day ( 1945) by the philosopher
In the King's Birthday Honours of June 9, 1949, Russell was awarded the Order of Merit, and the following year he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. The Queen's Birthday Honours (or King's Birthday Honours when the monarch is male is a civic occasion on the celebration of the Queen's Official Birthday in which Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred  When he was given the Order of Merit, King George VI was affable but slightly embarrassed at decorating a former jailbird, saying that "You have sometimes behaved in a manner that would not do if otherwise adopted. Jail, or gaol (especially in Canada, Australia and NZ[http //www " Russell merely smiled, but afterwards claimed that the reply "That's right, just like your brother" immediately came to mind.
In 1952, Russell was divorced by Peter, with whom he had been very unhappy. Conrad, Russell's son by Peter, did not see his father between the time of the divorce and 1968 (at which time his decision to meet his father caused a permanent breach with his mother).
Russell married his fourth wife, Edith Finch, soon after the divorce, on December 15, 1952. Edith Finch (1900-1978 was Bertrand Russell 's fourth and last wife and by all accounts provided him with the Marriage that made him happiest Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They had known each other since 1925, and Edith had taught English at Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, sharing a house for twenty years with Russell's old friend Lucy Donnelly. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Bryn Mawr College ( brin-mar is a highly selective women's liberal arts college located in Bryn Mawr, a community in Lower Merion Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Edith remained with him until his death, and, by all accounts, their marriage was a happy, close, and loving one. Russell's eldest son, John, suffered from serious mental illness, which was the source of ongoing disputes between Russell and John's mother, Russell's former wife, Dora. Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as John's wife Susan was also mentally ill, and eventually Russell and Edith became the legal guardians of their three daughters (two of whom were later diagnosed with schizophrenia). Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn
Russell spent the 1950s and 1960s engaged in various political causes, primarily related to nuclear disarmament and opposing the Vietnam war (see also Russell Vietnam War Crimes Tribunal). The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Russell Tribunal, also known as the International War Crimes Tribunal or Russell-Sartre Tribunal, was a public body organized by British philosopher Bertrand The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was a document calling for nuclear disarmament and was signed by 11 of the prominent nuclear physicists and intellectuals of the time. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War.  He wrote a great many letters to world leaders during this period. He was in contact with Lionel Rogosin while the latter was filming his anti-war film Good Times, Wonderful Times in the 1960's. Lionel Rogosin ( January 22, 1924 - December 8, 2000) was a maverick American filmmaker who worked outside the Hollywood system in He also became a hero to many of the youthful members of the New Left. The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a During the 1960s, in particular, Russell became increasingly vocal about his disapproval of what he felt to be the American government's near-genocidal policies. In 1963 he became the inaugural recipient of the Jerusalem Prize, an award for writers concerned with the freedom of the individual in society. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society is a biennial Literary award given to Writers whose work has dealt with themes of human freedom society  In October 1965 he tore up his Labour Party card because he feared the party was going to send soldiers to support the Vietnam War. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the 
Russell published his three-volume autobiography in 1967, 1968, and 1969. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Although he became frail, he remained lucid and clear thinking up to the day of his death. On 23 November 1969 he wrote to the Times newspaper saying that the preparation for show trials in Czechoslovakia was "highly alarming". Events 800 - Charlemagne arrives at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Also during that month, he appealed to Secretary General U Thant of the United Nations to support an international war crimes commission to investigate alleged "torture and genocide" by the Americans in South Vietnam. U Thant (ဦးသန့် 22 January 1909 &ndash 25 November 1974) was a Burmese Diplomat and the third Secretary-General The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Then a month after that, he protested to Alexei Kosygin over the expulsion of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn from the Writers Union. Alexey Nikolayevich Kosygin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин Aleksej Nikolajevič Kosygin; February 20 1904 - December Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn ( Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын) (December 11 1918 – August 3 2008 was a Russian Novelist
On 31 January 1970 Russell issued a statement which condemned, what he saw as, the "Israeli aggression" in the Middle East and called for Israeli withdrawal from territory occupied in 1967. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The statement said that:
|“||The tragedy of the people of Palestine is that their country was "given" by a foreign power to another people for the creation of a new state. The result was that many hundreds of thousands of innocent people were made permanently homeless. With every new conflict their numbers increased. How much longer is the world willing to endure this spectacle of wanton cruelty? It is abundantly clear that the refugees have every right to the homeland from which they were driven, and the denial of this right is at the heart of the continuing conflict. No people anywhere in the world would accept being expelled en masse from their own country; how can anyone require the people of Palestine to accept a punishment which nobody else would tolerate? A permanent just settlement of the refugees in their homeland is an essential ingredient of any genuine settlement in the Middle East. We are frequently told that we must sympathise with Israel because of the suffering of the Jews in Europe at the hands of the Nazis. […] What Israel is doing today cannot be condoned, and to invoke the horrors of the past to justify those of the present is gross hypocrisy.||”|
This was Russell's final ever political statement or act. It was read out at the International Conference of Parliamentarians in Cairo on 3 February 1970, the day after Russell's death. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The next day, 1 February, he spent at his home, Plas Penrhyn, in Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, Wales quietly. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Penrhyndeudraeth ( peninsula with two beaches in Welsh) is a Village in Gwynedd, Wales. Merionethshire (Meirionnydd Sir Feirionnydd is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, and a former administrative county However, on the morning of 2 February Russell said he didn't feel well and remained in bed until just before noon. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor That evening, whilst reading, he suddenly fell ill. His wife and nurse, after calling his doctor, got him to bed and gave him oxygen, but it was to no avail. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Bertrand Russell died of influenza before the doctor arrived.
Upon his death, his peerages descended on his eldest son, John, Viscount Amberley, who thence became the fourth Earl. 
Russell was cremated at Colwyn Bay on 5 February 1970. Colwyn Bay (Bae Colwyn is a Town and Seaside resort in Conwy county borough on the north coast of Wales. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There was no religious ceremony, as Russell had dictated in his will. His ashes were scattered over the Welsh mountains later that year.
Russel is generally credited as being one of the founders of analytic philosophy but he also produced a body of work that covers logic, the philosophy of mathematics, metaphysics, ethics and epistemology. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of Philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century
Russell had a major influence on modern philosophy, especially in the English-speaking world. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States While others were also influential, notably Frege, Moore, and Wittgenstein, Russell made analysis the dominant methodology of professional philosophy. The various analytic movements throughout the last century all owe something to Russell's earlier works.
Russell's influence on individual philosophers is singular, perhaps most notably in the case of Ludwig Wittgenstein, who was his student between 1911 and 1914. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year 
Wittgenstein's own influence on Russell, for example, in leading him to conclude, much to his regret, that mathematical truths were purely tautological truths, is a matter of debate. In Propositional logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία is a Propositional formula that is true under any possible valuation What is certain is that in 1901 Russell's own reflections on the issues raised by the paradox that takes his name Russell's Paradox, formalised 30 years later by Kurt Gödel's 'Undecidability' Theorems, led him to doubt the certainty of mathematics. Part of the Foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox (also known as Russell's antinomy) discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901 showed that the This doubt was perhaps Russell's most important 'influence' on mathematics, and was spread throughout the European universities, even as Russell himself laboured (with Whitehead) in a futile attempt to find a solution to the Paradox.
Russell wrote (in Portraits from Memory, 1956) of his reaction to Gödel's 'Theorems of Undecidability':
"I wanted certainty in the kind of way in which people want religious faith. I thought that certainty is more likely to be found in mathematics than elsewhere. But iI discovered that many mathematical demonstrations, which my teachers wanted me to accept, were full of fallacies . . . I was continually reminded of the fable about the elephant and the tortoise. Having constructed an elephant upon which the mathematical world could rest, I found the elephant tottering, and proceeded to construct a tortoise to keep the elephant from falling. But the tortoise was no more secure than the elephant, and after some twenty years of arduous toil, I came to the conclusion that there was nothing more that I could do in the way of making mathematical knowledge indubitable. "
Evidence of Russell's influence on Wittgenstein can be seen throughout the Tractatus, which Russell was instrumental in having published. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is the only book-length work published by Austrian Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Russell also helped to secure Wittgenstein's doctorate and a faculty position at Cambridge, along with several fellowships along the way. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the  However, as previously stated, he came to disagree with Wittgenstein's later linguistic and analytic approach to philosophy dismissing it as "trivial," while Wittgenstein came to think of Russell as "superficial and glib," particularly in his popular writings. Russell's influence is also evident in the work of A. J. Ayer, Rudolf Carnap, Alonzo Church, Kurt Gödel, David Kaplan, Saul Kripke, Karl Popper, W. V. Quine, John R. Searle, and a number of other philosophers and logicians. Sir Alfred Jules ("Freddie" Ayer ( October 29, 1910 &ndash June 27, 1989) better known as A Rudolf Carnap ( May 18, 1891 &ndash September 14, 1970) was an influential German -born philosopher who was active in Alonzo Church ( June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American Mathematician and logician Kurt Gödel (kʊɐ̯t ˈgøːdl̩ (April 28 1906 – January 14 1978 was an Austrian American Logician, Mathematician and Philosopher David Benjamin Kaplan (born 1933 is an American Philosopher and Logician teaching at UCLA. Saul Aaron Kripke (born on November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore New York) is an American philosopher and Logician now Emeritus Sir Karl Raimund Popper ( July 28 1902  &ndash September 17 1994) was an Austrian and British Philosopher and a professor Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25 1908 Akron, Ohio &ndash December 25 2000 (known to intimates as "Van" John Rogers Searle (born July 31 1932 in Denver Colorado) is an American Philosopher and the Slusser Professor of Philosophy at the University
Some see Russell's influence as mostly negative, primarily those who have been critical of Russell's emphasis on science and logic. Russell often characterized his moral and political writings as lying outside the scope of philosophy, however Russell's admirers and detractors are often more acquainted with his pronouncements on social and political matters, or what some (e. g. , biographer Ray Monk) have called his "journalism," than they are with his technical, philosophical work. Ray Monk is Professor of Philosophy at The Centre for Post-Analytic Philosophy at the University of Southampton, where he has taught since 1992 Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people There is a marked tendency to conflate these matters, and to judge Russell the philosopher on what he himself would certainly consider to be his non-philosophical opinions. Russell often cautioned people to make this distinction.
Russell left a large assortment of writing. From his adolescent years, Russell wrote about 3,000 words a day, with relatively few corrections; his first draft nearly always was his last draft, even on the most complex, technical matters. His previously unpublished work is an immense treasure trove, and scholars are continuing to gain new insights into Russell's thought.
Political and social activism occupied much of Russell's time for most of his long life, which makes his prodigious and seminal writing on a wide range of technical and non-technical subjects all the more remarkable. Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change
Russell remained politically active to almost literally the end of his life, writing and exhorting world leaders and lending his name to various causes. Some maintain that during his last few years he gave his youthful followers too much license and that they used his name for some outlandish purposes that a more attentive Russell would not have approved. There is evidence to show that he became aware of this when he fired his private secretary, Ralph Schoenman, then a young firebrand of the radical left. Ralph Schoenman (born 1935 is an American left-wing activist who was a personal secretary to Bertrand Russell and became general secretary of the Bertrand Russell Peace
Despite the ready image still provided by popular culture, Russell was never a complete pacifist. He resisted specific wars, protesting against them in specific ways, on the grounds that they were contrary to the interests of civilization, and thus immoral. Indeed, in his 1915 article on "The Ethics of War", he defended wars of colonization on the same utilitarian grounds: he felt conquest was justified if the side with the more advanced civilization could put the land to better use. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year So, when it is said, rightly, that Russell opposed nearly all wars between modern nations, it must be understood in this sense.
Russell's activism against British participation in World War I led to fines, a loss of freedom of travel within Britain, and the non-renewal of his fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the He was attacked as a 'traitor' in the press, treated like a security risk by his own government, and many of his closest friends deserted him. He was eventually sentenced to prison in 1918 on the tenuous grounds that he had interfered in British Foreign Policy — he had argued that British workers should be wary of the United States Army, for it had experience in strike-breaking. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He was released after serving six months, but was still closely supervised until the end of the war. 
In 1943 Russell called his stance towards warfare "relative political pacifism"—he held that war was always a great evil, but in some particularly extreme circumstances (such as when Adolf Hitler threatened to take over Europe) it might be a lesser of multiple evils. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Evil, in many cultures is used to describe acts or thoughts which are contrary to some particular religion Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately In the years leading to World War II, he supported the policy of appeasement; but by 1940 he acknowledged that in order to preserve democracy, Hitler had to be defeated. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately This same reluctant value compromise was shared by his acquaintance A.A. Milne. Alan Alexander Milne (ˈmɪln (18 January 1882 &ndash 31 January 1956 was an English Author, best known for his Books about the Teddy bear 
Russell was fairly consistently opposed to the continued existence of nuclear weapons from the time of their first use. However, on November 20, 1948, in a public speech at Westminster School, addressing a gathering arranged by the New Commonwealth, Russell shocked some observers with comments that seemed to suggest a preemptive nuclear strike on the Soviet Union might be justified. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Royal College of St Peter in Westminster, almost always known as Westminster School, is one of Britain 's leading boys' Independent schools with In Nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Russell apparently argued that the threat of war between the United States and the Soviet Union would enable the United States to force the Soviet Union to accept the Baruch Plan for international atomic energy control. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Baruch Plan was a proposal by the United States government written largely by Bernard Baruch but based on the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, to the (Earlier in the year he had written in the same vein to Walter W. Marseille. When he published his political articles Dr Walter W Marseille was said to be a Berkeley California psychoanalyst ) Russell felt this plan "had very great merits and showed considerable generosity, when it is remembered that America still had an unbroken nuclear monopoly. " (Has Man a Future?, 1961). Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However Nicholas Griffin of McMaster University, in his book The Selected Letters of Bertrand Russell: The Public Years, 1914-1970, has claimed (after obtaining a transcript of the speech) that Russell's wording implies he didn't advocate the actual use of the atom bomb, but merely its diplomatic use as a massive source of leverage over the actions of the Soviets. Griffin's interpretation was disputed by Nigel Lawson, the former British Chancellor, who was present at the speech, claims it was quite clear that Russell was advocating an actual First Strike. Nigel Lawson Baron Lawson of Blaby, PC (born 11 March 1932 is a British Conservative Politician who was Chancellor of the Exchequer between Whichever interpretation is correct, Russell later relented, instead arguing for mutual disarmament by the nuclear powers, possibly linked to some form of world government. World government is the concept of a political body that would make interpret and enforce International law.
In 1955 Russell released the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, co-signed by Albert Einstein and nine other leading scientists and intellectuals, a document which led to the first of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in 1957. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is an International organization that brings together scholars and public figures to work toward reducing the danger Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) In 1958, Russell became the first president of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He resigned two years later when the CND would not support civil disobedience, and formed the Committee of 100. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Committee of 100 may refer to Committee of 100 (Delaware, a lobbying group in Delaware United States In September 1961 he was imprisoned for a week for inciting civil disobedience, when he took part in a huge ban-the-bomb demonstration at the Ministry of Defence but the sentence was quashed on account of his age. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Ministry of Defence ( MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters
During the Cuban Missile Crisis Russell sent telegrams to Kennedy, Khrushchev, the UN Secretary-General U Thant and British prime minister Macmillan, which may have helped to prevent further escalation and a possible nuclear war. The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba during the Cold War. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. U Thant (ဦးသန့် 22 January 1909 &ndash 25 November 1974) was a Burmese Diplomat and the third Secretary-General (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician Khrushchev replied with a long letter, published by the Russian news agency ITAR-TASS, which was mainly addressed to Kennedy and the Western world. The Information Telegraph Agency of Russia (Информационное телеграфное агентство России Informatsionnoye telegrafnoye agentstvo Rossii 
Increasingly concerned about the potential danger to humanity arising from nuclear weapons and other scientific discoveries, he also joined with Einstein, Oppenheimer, Rotblat and other eminent scientists of the day to establish the World Academy of Art and Science which was formally constituted in 1960. The World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS is an international non-governmental scientific organization an informal and non-official world network of individual fellows elected for distinguished Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation began work in 1963, in order to carry forward Russell's work for peace, human rights and social justice. The Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation was established in 1963 Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He began public opposition to U. S. policy in Vietnam with a letter to the New York Times dated March 28, 1963. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. By the autumn of 1966 he had completed the manuscript of "War Crimes in Vietnam". Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Then, using the American justifications for the Nuremberg Trials, Russell, along with Jean-Paul Sartre, organised what he called an international War Crimes Tribunal, a. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French k. a the Russell Tribunal. The Russell Tribunal, also known as the International War Crimes Tribunal or Russell-Sartre Tribunal, was a public body organized by British philosopher Bertrand
Russell was an early critic of the official story in the John F. Kennedy assassination; his "16 Questions on the Assassination" from 1964 is still considered a good summary of the apparent inconsistencies in that case. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar.
Russell made a cameo appearance playing himself in the anti-war Bollywood film "Aman" which was released in India in 1967. Bollywood (बॉलीवूड بالی وڈ is the informal term popularly used for the Mumbai -based Hindi-language Film industry in India Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. This was Russell's only appearance in a feature film.
Russell initially expressed great hope in "the Communist experiment". However, when he visited the Soviet Union and met Lenin in 1920, he was unimpressed with the system in place. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar On his return he wrote a critical tract, The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism. He was "infinitely unhappy in this atmosphere—stifled by its utilitarianism, its indifference to love and beauty and the life of impulse. " He believed Lenin to be similar to a religious zealot, cold and possessing "no love of liberty. "
In the United Kingdom general election, 1922 and UK general election, 1923 Russell stood as a Labour Party candidate in the Chelsea constituency, but only on the basis that he knew he was extremely unlikely to be elected in such a safe Conservative seat, and he was not on either occasion. The UK general election of 1922 was held on 15 November 1922 It was the first election held after most of the Irish counties left the United Kingdom to form the Irish The UK general election of 1923 was held on 6 December 1923 The Conservatives, led by Stanley Baldwin, won the most seats but Labour, led by Chelsea was a Borough constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Politically, Russell envisioned a kind of benevolent, libertarian socialism, similar in some ways to, yet possessing important differences from, the conception promoted by the Fabian Society. Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent The Fabian Society is a British Intellectual Socialist movement whose purpose is to advance the principles of Social democracy via Gradualist He was strongly critical of Stalin's regime, and of the practices of states proclaiming Marxism and Communism generally. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Russell was a consistent enthusiast for democracy and world government, and advocated the establishment of a democratic international government in some of the essays collected in In Praise of Idleness (1935), and also in Has Man a Future? (1961). World government is the concept of a political body that would make interpret and enforce International law. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
|“||One who believes as I do, that free intellect is the chief engine of human progress, cannot but be fundamentally opposed to Bolshevism as much as to the Church of Rome. The hopes which inspire communism are, in the main, as admirable as those instilled by the Sermon on the Mount, but they are held as fanatically and are as likely to do as much harm.||”|
|“||For my part, while I am as convinced a Socialist as the most ardent Marxian, I do not regard Socialism as a gospel of proletarian revenge, nor even, primarily, as a means of securing economic justice. I regard it primarily as an adjustment to machine production demanded by considerations of common sense, and calculated to increase the happiness, not only of proletarians, but of all except a tiny minority of the human race.||”|
|“||Modern methods of production have given us the possibility of ease and security for all; we have chosen, instead, to have overwork for some and starvation for the others. Hitherto we have continued to be as energetic as we were before there were machines; in this we have been foolish, but there is no reason to go on being foolish for ever.||”|
As a young man, Russell was a member of the Liberal Party and wrote in favor of free trade and women's suffrage. The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s and a third party Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions In his 1910 pamphlet, Anti-Suffragist Anxieties, Russell wrote that some men opposed suffrage because they "fear that their liberty to act in ways that are injurious to women will be curtailed". Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting In May 1907 Russell stood for Parliament as a Woman's suffrage candidate in Wimbledon, but was not elected. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Wimbledon is a Suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Merton and located south west of Charing Cross. 
Russell wrote against Victorian notions of morality. Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837 - 1901 in particular and to the moral climate Marriage and Morals (1929) expressed his opinion that sex between a man and woman who are not married to each other is not necessarily immoral if they truly love one another, and advocated "trial marriages" or "companionate marriage," formalised relationships whereby young people could legitimately have sexual intercourse without being expected to remain married in the long term or to have children (an idea first proposed by Judge Ben Lindsey). Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Benjamin Barr Lindsey ( November 25, 1869 - March 26, 1943) was an American Judge and Social reformer born in  This might not seem extreme by today's standards, but it was enough to raise vigorous protests and denunciations against him during his visit to the United States shortly after the book's publication. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russell was also ahead of his time in advocating open sex education and widespread access to contraception. Sex education is a broad term used to describe Education about human sexual anatomy, Sexual reproduction, Sexual intercourse, Reproductive Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent He also advocated easy divorce, but only if the marriage had produced no children — Russell's view was that parents should remain married but tolerant of each other's sexual infidelity, if they had children. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. This reflected his life at the time — his second wife Dora was openly having an affair, and would soon become pregnant by another man, but Russell was keen for their children John and Kate to have a "normal" family life. 
Russell was also active within the Homosexual Law Reform Society, being one of the signatories of Anthony Edward Dyson's letter calling for a change in the law regarding homosexual practices, which were legalised in 1967, when Russell was still alive. This article is about the Homosexual Law Reform Society in the UK Anthony Edward Dyson (November 28 1928 - July 30, 2002) was a British literary critic university lecturer and Gay rights campaigner Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. 
As with his views on religion, which developed considerably throughout his long life, Russell's views on the matter of race did not remain fixed. By 1951, Russell was a vocal advocate of racial equality and intermarriage; he penned a chapter on "Racial Antagonism" in New Hopes for a Changing World (1951), which read:
|“||It is sometimes maintained that racial mixture is biologically undesirable. Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January There is no evidence whatever for this view. Nor is there, apparently, any reason to think that Negroes are congenitally less intelligent than white people, but as to that it will be difficult to judge until they have equal scope and equally good social conditions.||”|
Passages in some of his early writings support birth control. Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent On 16 November 1922, for instance, he gave a lecture to the General Meeting of Dr. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Marie Stopes's Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress on "Birth Control and International Relations," in which he described the importance of extending Western birth control worldwide; his remarks anticipated the population control movement of the 1960s and the role of the United Nations. Marie Stopes ( October 15, 1880 – October 2, 1958) was a Scottish author Eugenicist, campaigner for Women's rights
|“||This policy may last some time, but in the end under it we shall have to give way--we are only putting off the evil day; the one real remedy is birth control, that is getting the people of the world to limit themselves to those numbers which they can keep upon their own soil… I do not see how we can hope permanently to be strong enough to keep the coloured races out; sooner or later they are bound to overflow, so the best we can do is to hope that those nations will see the wisdom of Birth Control…. We need a strong international authority.||”|
Another passage from early editions of his book Marriage and Morals (1929), which Russell later clarified as referring only to the situation as resulting from environmental conditioning, and which he had removed from later editions, reads:
|“||In extreme cases there can be little doubt of the superiority of one race to another…. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There is no sound reason to regard negroes as on the average inferior to white men, although for work in the tropics they are indispensable, so that their extermination (apart from questions of humanity) would be highly undesirable.||”|
Russell later criticized eugenic programs for their vulnerability to corruption, and, in 1932, he condemned the "unwarranted assumption" that "Negroes are congenitally inferior to white men" (Education and the Social Order, Chap. Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. 3).
Responding in 1964 to a correspondent's enquiry, "do you still consider the Negroes an inferior race, as you did when you wrote Marriage and Morals?", Russell replied:
|“||I never held Negroes to be inherently inferior. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The statement in Marriage and Morals refers to environmental conditioning. I have had it withdrawn from subsequent editions because it is clearly ambiguous.||”|
This is a selected bibliography of Russell's books in English sorted by year of first publication.
Note: This is a mere sampling, for Russell also wrote many pamphlets, introductions, articles and letters to the editor. His works also can be found in any number of anthologies and collections, perhaps most notably The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, which McMaster University began publishing in 1983. McMaster redirects here for others see McMaster (disambiguation. This collection of his shorter and previously unpublished works is now up to 16 volumes, and many more are forthcoming. An additional three volumes catalogue just his bibliography. The Russell Archives at McMaster University also have more than 30,000 letters that he wrote. McMaster redirects here for others see McMaster (disambiguation.
B. Secondary references:
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|NAME||Russel, Bertrand Arthur William, 3rd Earl Russell|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||philosopher, logician, and mathematician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||18 May 1872|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Trellech, Monmouthshire, United Kingdom|
|DATE OF DEATH||2 February 1970|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales, United Kingdom|