Benjamin Fondane (November 14, 1898, Iaşi – October 2 or 3 1944, Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a Romanian and French poet, playwright, literary critic (noted for his works on Lev Shestov's vision and on that of Søren Kierkegaard), film director, and translator. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Iaşi (pronunciation in Romanian: /jaʃʲ/ or Jassy, is a city and municipality in north-eastern Romania. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "Auschwitz" redirects here For the town see Oświęcim Auschwitz-Birkenau () was the largest of Nazi Germany Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Lev Isaakovich Shestov (Лев Исаакович Шестов born Yehuda Leyb Schwarzmann (Иегуда Лейб Шварцман was a Ukrainian/Russian - Jewish Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (ˈsœːɐn ˈkʰiɐ̯kəˌɡ̊ɒˀ in Danish Anglicized as;) A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a " translation
Born as Benjamin Wechsler or Wexler to a family of Jewish heritage, he published poetry after 1912 under the pen name of B. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity Fundoianu or Barbu Fundoianu (he is still known by them in Romania) in such magazines as Rampa and Hatikvah. Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally In 1918, he authored the drama Tăgăduinţa lui Petru. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance.
After unfinished law studies at the University of Iaşi, he left for Bucharest in 1919, and became the center of an avant-garde group which also included Marcel Iancu, M. H. Maxy, Iosif Ross, Saşa Pană, Ion Vinea, Ştefan Roll and Ilarie Voronca. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The University of Iaşi (in full Alexander John Cuza University Iaşi; Romanian: Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" Iaşi) is a Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Marcel Janco ( May 24, 1895 &ndash April 21, 1984) was a Romanian born Israeli painter and architect and one of the founders M H Maxy (born Maximilian Herman Maxy) (1895-1971 was a Romanian Cubist painter Saşa Pană ( Pen name of Alexandru Binder; August 8 1902 &mdash August 22 1981) was a Romanian Avant-garde Ilarie Voronca ( Pen name of Eduard Marcus; December 31 1903, Brăila &mdash April 8 1946, Paris He published frequently in major periodicals such as Contimporanul, Adevărul literar şi artistic, and Sburătorul, and formed a short-lived (1921-1923) theatrical company named Insula ("The Island"), influenced by the views of Jacques Copeau. Contimporanul (antiquated spelling of the Romanian word for "the Contemporary" singular masculine form was a Romanian (initially a weekly and Sburătorul was a Romanian modernist Literary magazine and Literary society, established in Bucharest in April 1919 Jacques Copeau ( February 4 1879 &ndash October 20 1949) was an influential French theatre director producer actor and Dramatist
After moving to Paris in 1923, Fondane wrote his first French language poem, Exercice de français, in 1925. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people He met Tristan Tzara in 1927, interviewing him for the Integral magazine (for which he was the French-section editor), and affiliated himself with Surrealism, publishing notable poems, such as A Madame Sonia Delaunay, part of his unfinished Projet Ulysse 1927. Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Sonia Delaunay (née Terk (1885 &ndash 1979 was a Jewish - French artist who with her husband Robert Delaunay and others cofounded the Orphism He then adhered to the subgroup around Arthur Adamov and his Discontinuité paper. Arthur Adamov ( 23 August 1908 – 15 March 1970) was a Playwright, one of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd Fondane became close to such figures as Shestov, Martin Buber, Constantin Brancusi, and Victoria Ocampo (whom he visited in Argentina in 1929). Martin Buber ( 8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian Israeli Jewish Philosopher, translator Constantin Brâncuşi, ( February 19, 1876 &ndash March 16, 1957) konstanˈtin brɨnˈkuʃʲ was an internationally renowned Romanian Victoria Ocampo ( Buenos Aires, April 7, 1890 - Buenos Aires January 27, 1979) was an Argentine intellectual described For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
In 1933, he worked with Dimitri Kirsanoff on the experimental film Rapt, a free screen adaptation of La séparation des races, the novel by Charles Ferdinand Ramuz. Events British Film Institute founded March 2 - King Kong premieres in New York City. Dimitri Kirsanoff (Димитрий Кирсанов (6 March 1899 – 11 February 1957 was an early filmmaker, considered part of the French Impressionist This article is on the variety of film For information on the They Might Be Giants song see " Experimental Film (song " Charles Ferdinand Ramuz ( September 24, 1878 &ndash May 23, 1947) was a French -speaking Swiss writer He wrote and directed the Argentinian film Tararira in 1936. The year 1936 in film involved some significant events Events Nov 6 - first Porky Pig animated cartoon
In 1940, Fondane was drafted upon Nazi Germany's invasion of France. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Taken prisoner, managing to escape, and recaptured, he was hospitalized at the Val de Grâce for an appendicectomy. The Val-de-Grâce ( Hôpital d'instruction des armées du Val-de-Grâce or HIA Val-de-Grâce) is a Military hospital located in the 5th arrondissement An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the Vermiform appendix. After regaining his house, Fondane started work on Projet Ulysse and several essays. An essay is usually a short piece of writing It is often written from an author's personal point of view.
In March 1944, he was arrested by Vichy France policemen and held in the Drancy camp, until being deported to Auschwitz on May 30. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 Drancy deportation campof Paris, France used to hold Jews who were later deported to the Extermination camps. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following He was killed in the infamous gas chamber. A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing consisting of a sealed chamber into which a Poisonous or Asphyxiant gas is introduced